•Member of the lily family.
•240 species of Aloe.
•Aloe Vera, Aloe Barbadensis.
•Succulent, perennial, evergreen.
•Native to Africa, but is now widespread.
•It is a bitter herb with a wide range of
•It contains over 75 compounds, many of
which are biologically active.
• Known as the “lily of the desert”.
• Considered the “plant of
immortality” by many native
• Very long history of medical
• 2200 B.C.- Mentioned on Sumerian
• 1550 B.C.- The Ebers Papyrus states
12 recipes for mixing Aloe with other
agents to treat human disorders.
– Usually the whole leaf was ground
and mixed with another medicinal
– Used by Cleopatra and Nerfertiti.
• 400 B.C.- Extensively traded in the Near East
• 333 B.C.- The Island of Socotra was captured by Alexander
the Great because of its Aloe supplies.
• 68 A.D.- Dioscorides wrote a detailed description of Aloe
vera and all of its uses.
• 200 A.D.- Aloe vera was an important part of Roman
medicine and became extremely popular in Europe in
the centuries to come.
• 1500 A.D.- Introduced to the New World by the Conquistadors
• First modern medical paper published in
– Described how the whole leaf was
used to treat radiation dermatitis.
• Many papers published in the 20th century
describing a wide range of medicinal
• Reports have mainly focused on the
antidiabetic, anticancer, and antimicrobial
properties of the whole leaf, gel, or juice
of the plant.
• Many species of Aloe have been studied.
10 Main Component Groups of Aloe
• Vitamins • Lignins
– Vitamin D, A, C, E and B12 – Inert except when in
• Enzymes topical treatments
– Lipases, proteases, • Saponins
kinases – 3% of Aloe Vera gel
• Minerals • Fatty Acids
– Ca, Na, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, – Cholesterol,
Cr, and Se Campesterol, Sisosterol,
• Sugars and Lupeol
– Mono and poly • Salicyclic acid
saccharides, gluco- – Aspirin-like
mannans • Amino Acids
• Anthraquinones – 20 amino acids
– Most important: Aloin, and
Aloe and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
• Normal: digestive tract
absorbs nutrients into blood
– bacteria helps
• IBS: unabsorbed food coats
the bowel preventing normal
constipation, diarrhea, and
• Colonic Irrigation: loosed
and wash out residues
Aloe and Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Two main types of arthritis
– Osteoarthritis: wear and
tear of life
• Symptoms: stiff, red,
• Traditional treatment: anti-
inflammatory drugs with
• Aloe helps repair damage
– Mode of Action: stimulate
– Varying results
Aloe and Cosmetics
• Added because of known
• Mode of Action:
– Polysaccachrides act as
– Stimulates the fibroblasts to
– Smoothes skin because sticks
epidermal cells together which
– Interferes with melanin deposit
production which lead to “liver
Aloe and Diabetes
• Characterized by hyperglycaemia and alterations of
glucose and lipid metabolism
– Lead to cell damage and elevation of reactive
• Must control blood glucose and lipid levels
• Aloe shown to reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats
Aloe and Diabetes
Control (mg/dL) Diabetic (mg/dL)
Control + 300mg/kg Aloe vera +600microgram/kg Glibenclamide
Chlosterol 92.6±5.7 228.3±15.1 98.3±8.5 106.2±7.0
Triglycerides 735±5.2 229.3±16.1 79.2±5.2 83.4±5.8
Phospholipids 80.5±5.7 163.8±11.1 85.7±5.8 88.8±6.7
Free fatty acids 58.3±3.6 145.2±10.5 64.7±4.1 66.1±4.6
LDLs 45.1±2.9 139.2±10.3 48.5±3.1 53.4±3.4
HDLs 26.5±1.7 21.3±1.6 23.4±1.5 22.03±1.42
Blood Glucose (mg/dL) Plasma Insulin
Control 85.81 ±5.20 15.86±1.38
Control 332.27 ±20.80 5.12±0.68
+300 mg/kg Aloe vera 96.8±5.30 14.12±1.48
+600microgram/kg Glibenclamide 118.46±6.56 12.52±0.69
Aloe and Diabetes
• Decrease in blood glucose
due to stimulation of insulin
• Decrease in cholesterol,
and free fatty acids from
increased clearance and
• 50% gel leaf solution, complete inhibition of Staphylococcus
• Due to phenolics
• Efficacy of gel or leaf?
• S. aureus inhibited by both
• Other bacteria inhibited by
just leaf or gel
Aloe, Antimicrobials, and Wounds
• When aloe is combined
with other anti-microbials,
a wound heals faster than
with the anti-microbial
• Possibly due to its
moisturizing capability as
• Asian practice of ingesting
herbs to support the immune
• May have a direct inhibitory
effect on microbes
• Also, selectively modulates
cells of the immune system
• Dry Socket (Wisdom teeth extraction)
• Acemannan Hydrogel (from clear inner gel of aloe vera)
• Normal treatment 7.6% develop AO
• With Acemannan 1.1% develop AO
Normal Dry socket, clot does not
• Shows increased healing effects on 2nd degree burns
• Anti-inflammation and wound healing promotion
• Vessels return to normal size quicker than with
Aloe and Cancer
• Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis
in T24 human bladder cancer
• Inhibits cell viability, induces
• Mechanism- p53, p21, caspase
• Treat Radiation Symptoms?
• Inhibits neuroectodermal tumors in mice.
• Few toxic effects, does not inhibit normal fibroblasts.
• Induces apoptosis and is specific to a tumor energy-
dependent pathway of drug incorporation
Cancer U-373 Glioma Cells
• Aloe emodin
• Regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein
kinase C (PKC)
• Inhibits S phase
• Suppresses PKC activity
Gastric and Colorectal Cancers
• Aloe vera and Aloe
arborescens did not
suppress tumor growth
• Life prolongation up to 32%
• Dose dependent
• Gel and latex.
• Gel- leaf pulp or mucilage
obtained from the parenchymal
• Latex- bitter, yellow substance
obtained from pericyclic tubules
just beneath the outer skin of the
leaves. (otherwise called „Aloe
• These terms are often confused
• Using a freshly cut leaf is
thought to be the most effective
1. Dental Health and Hygiene
2. Provides Rapid Soothing
3. Aids in Healthy Digestion
4. Immune Support and Function
5. Regulates Weight and Energy Levels
6. Collagen and Elastin Repair
7. Daily Dose of Minerals
8. Daily Dose of Vitamins
9. Anti-inflammatory Properties
10. Essential Amino Acids
• Agarry, O.O., M.T. Olaleye, and C.O. Bella-Michael. 2005. Comparative antimicrobial activities of Aloe vera gel
and leaf. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4 (12):1413-1414.
• Aloe vera and Digestion, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Arthritis.
http://www.positivehealth.com/Permit/Articles/Aloe%20Vera/aloinf20.htm 11 April 2006.
• Aloe vera: Myth or Medicine? http://www.positivehealth.com/Permit/Articles/Aloe%20Vera/atherton.htm 11 April
• Joeng, H.Y., J.H. Kim, S.J. Hwang, and D.K. Rhee. 1994. Anticancer effects of Aloe on sarcoma 180 in ICR
mouse and on human cancer cell lines. Coll. Pharmacology, Vol. 38 (3):311-321.
• Kuo, P.L., T.C. Lin, and C.C. Lin. 2002. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53- dependent and
p21- dependent apoptopic pathway in hepatoma cell lines. Journal of Life Sciences, Vol. 71 (16):1879-1892.
• Pecere, T., M. Vittoria Gazzalo, C. Mucignat, C. Parolin, F. Dalla Vecchia, and A. Cavaggioni. 2000. Aloe-emodin
is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors. American Association for
Cancer Research, Vol. 60:2800-2804.
• Rajasekaran, Subbiah, Kasiappan Ravi, Karuran Sivagnanam, and Sorimuthu Subramanian. 2006. Beneficial
Effects of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Extract on Lipid Profile Status in Rats with Streptozotocin Diabetes. Clinical and
Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, Vol. 33:232-237.
• Roberts, D.B., and E.L. Travis. 1995. Acemannan- containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induces skin
reactions in C3H mice. Int. Journal Oncol. Biol. Phys., Vol. 32 (4):1047-1052.
• Tan B.H.K., and J. Vanitha. 2004. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese
medicinal herbs: A review. Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 11 (11):1423-1430.
• Visuthikosal, V., B. Chowchuen, Y. Sukwanarat, S. Sriurairatana, and V. Boonpucknavig. 1995. Effect of Aloe vera
gel to healing of burn wounds: A clinical and histologic study. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Vol.
78 (8): 403-409.