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					ALOE VERA




            Cas Bridge
            Sam Korbe
            Lisa Vasicek
General Information


        •Member of the lily family.
        •240 species of Aloe.
        •Aloe Vera, Aloe Barbadensis.
        •Succulent, perennial, evergreen.
        •Very hardy.
        •Native to Africa, but is now widespread.
        •It is a bitter herb with a wide range of
        medicinal properties.
        •It contains over 75 compounds, many of
        which are biologically active.
                              History
• Known as the “lily of the desert”.
• Considered the “plant of
  immortality” by many native
  peoples.
• Very long history of medical
  usage…
• 2200 B.C.- Mentioned on Sumerian
  clay tablets.
• 1550 B.C.- The Ebers Papyrus states
  12 recipes for mixing Aloe with other
  agents to treat human disorders.
   – Usually the whole leaf was ground
      and mixed with another medicinal
      agent.
   – Used by Cleopatra and Nerfertiti.
        History Continued


• 400 B.C.- Extensively traded in the Near East
  and Asia.
• 333 B.C.- The Island of Socotra was captured by Alexander
  the Great because of its Aloe supplies.
• 68 A.D.- Dioscorides wrote a detailed description of Aloe
  vera and all of its uses.
• 200 A.D.- Aloe vera was an important part of Roman
  medicine and became extremely popular in Europe in
  the centuries to come.
• 1500 A.D.- Introduced to the New World by the Conquistadors
                     Modern History


• First modern medical paper published in
  1934.
   – Described how the whole leaf was
      used to treat radiation dermatitis.
• Many papers published in the 20th century
  describing a wide range of medicinal
  properties.
• Reports have mainly focused on the
  antidiabetic, anticancer, and antimicrobial
  properties of the whole leaf, gel, or juice
  of the plant.
• Many species of Aloe have been studied.
      10 Main Component Groups of Aloe

• Vitamins                       • Lignins
  – Vitamin D, A, C, E and B12      – Inert except when in
• Enzymes                             topical treatments
  – Lipases, proteases,          • Saponins
    kinases                         – 3% of Aloe Vera gel
• Minerals                       • Fatty Acids
  – Ca, Na, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn,      – Cholesterol,
    Cr, and Se                        Campesterol, Sisosterol,
• Sugars                              and Lupeol
  – Mono and poly                • Salicyclic acid
    saccharides, gluco-             – Aspirin-like
    mannans                      • Amino Acids
• Anthraquinones                    – 20 amino acids
  – Most important: Aloin, and
    Emodin
   Aloe and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

• Normal: digestive tract
  absorbs nutrients into blood
   – bacteria helps
     breakdown food
• IBS: unabsorbed food coats
  the bowel preventing normal
  absorption
• Symptoms:Exhaustion,
  constipation, diarrhea, and
  indigestion
• Colonic Irrigation: loosed
  and wash out residues
Aloe and Rheumatoid Arthritis

             • Two main types of arthritis
                – Osteoarthritis: wear and
                   tear of life
                – Rheumatoid:
                   autoimmune disease
             • Symptoms: stiff, red,
               swollen joints
             • Traditional treatment: anti-
               inflammatory drugs with
               steroids
             • Aloe helps repair damage
                – Mode of Action: stimulate
                   the Cytokines
                – Varying results
                 Aloe and Cosmetics

• Added because of known
  rejuvenating action
• Mode of Action:
   – Polysaccachrides act as
      moisturizers
   – Stimulates the fibroblasts to
      replicate faster
   – Smoothes skin because sticks
      epidermal cells together which
      normally flake
   – Interferes with melanin deposit
      production which lead to “liver
      spots”
                Aloe and Diabetes

• Characterized by hyperglycaemia and alterations of
  glucose and lipid metabolism
   – Lead to cell damage and elevation of reactive
     oxygen species
• Must control blood glucose and lipid levels
• Aloe shown to reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats
                                     Aloe and Diabetes

                   Control (mg/dL)                            Diabetic   (mg/dL)
                                     Control      + 300mg/kg Aloe vera    +600microgram/kg Glibenclamide
Chlosterol         92.6±5.7          228.3±15.1   98.3±8.5                106.2±7.0
Triglycerides      735±5.2           229.3±16.1   79.2±5.2                83.4±5.8
Phospholipids      80.5±5.7          163.8±11.1   85.7±5.8                88.8±6.7
Free fatty acids   58.3±3.6          145.2±10.5   64.7±4.1                66.1±4.6
LDLs               45.1±2.9          139.2±10.3   48.5±3.1                53.4±3.4
HDLs               26.5±1.7          21.3±1.6     23.4±1.5                22.03±1.42



                                              Blood Glucose (mg/dL) Plasma Insulin
                  Control                     85.81 ±5.20           15.86±1.38
                 Diabetic
                  Control            332.27 ±20.80                        5.12±0.68
          +300 mg/kg Aloe vera       96.8±5.30                            14.12±1.48
      +600microgram/kg Glibenclamide 118.46±6.56                          12.52±0.69
                Aloe and Diabetes



• Decrease in blood glucose
  due to stimulation of insulin
  secretion
• Decrease in cholesterol,
  triglycerides, phospholipids,
  and free fatty acids from
  increased clearance and
  decreased transporters
                  Anti-Microbial/-Bacterial

• 50% gel leaf solution, complete inhibition of Staphylococcus
  aureus
• Due to phenolics
• Efficacy of gel or leaf?
• S. aureus inhibited by both
• Other bacteria inhibited by
  just leaf or gel
        Aloe, Antimicrobials, and Wounds



• When aloe is combined
  with other anti-microbials,
  a wound heals faster than
  with the anti-microbial
  alone.
• Possibly due to its
  moisturizing capability as
  well.
Immune Booster?



   • Asian practice of ingesting
     herbs to support the immune
     system
   • May have a direct inhibitory
     effect on microbes
   • Also, selectively modulates
     cells of the immune system
                 Alveolar Osteitis

       • Dry Socket (Wisdom teeth extraction)
• Acemannan Hydrogel (from clear inner gel of aloe vera)
        • Normal treatment 7.6% develop AO
        • With Acemannan 1.1% develop AO




                Normal     Dry socket, clot does not
                                form properly
                 Burn Treatment

• Shows increased healing effects on 2nd degree burns
• Anti-inflammation and wound healing promotion
• Vessels return to normal size quicker than with
  untreated burns
               Aloe and Cancer


• Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis
  in T24 human bladder cancer
  cells
• Inhibits cell viability, induces
  G2/M arrest
• Mechanism- p53, p21, caspase
  activation
• Treat Radiation Symptoms?
              Neuroectodermal Cancer

     • Inhibits neuroectodermal tumors in mice.
• Few toxic effects, does not inhibit normal fibroblasts.
• Induces apoptosis and is specific to a tumor energy-
       dependent pathway of drug incorporation
            Cancer U-373 Glioma Cells

• Aloe emodin
• Regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein
  kinase C (PKC)
• Inhibits S phase
• Suppresses PKC activity
        Gastric and Colorectal Cancers


• Aloe vera and Aloe
  arborescens did not
  suppress tumor growth
• Life prolongation up to 32%
  in mice
• Dose dependent
                           Products

• Gel and latex.
• Gel- leaf pulp or mucilage
  obtained from the parenchymal
  tissue.
• Latex- bitter, yellow substance
  obtained from pericyclic tubules
  just beneath the outer skin of the
  leaves. (otherwise called „Aloe
  juice‟)
• These terms are often confused
  by consumers.
• Using a freshly cut leaf is
  thought to be the most effective
  treatment.
              Summary

      1. Dental Health and Hygiene
       2. Provides Rapid Soothing
      3. Aids in Healthy Digestion
   4. Immune Support and Function
5. Regulates Weight and Energy Levels
     6. Collagen and Elastin Repair
        7. Daily Dose of Minerals
        8. Daily Dose of Vitamins
    9. Anti-inflammatory Properties
        10. Essential Amino Acids
                                                    References

•   Agarry, O.O., M.T. Olaleye, and C.O. Bella-Michael. 2005. Comparative antimicrobial activities of Aloe vera gel
    and leaf. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4 (12):1413-1414.
•   Aloe vera and Digestion, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Arthritis.
    http://www.positivehealth.com/Permit/Articles/Aloe%20Vera/aloinf20.htm 11 April 2006.
•   Aloe vera: Myth or Medicine? http://www.positivehealth.com/Permit/Articles/Aloe%20Vera/atherton.htm 11 April
    2006.
•   Joeng, H.Y., J.H. Kim, S.J. Hwang, and D.K. Rhee. 1994. Anticancer effects of Aloe on sarcoma 180 in ICR
    mouse and on human cancer cell lines. Coll. Pharmacology, Vol. 38 (3):311-321.
•   Kuo, P.L., T.C. Lin, and C.C. Lin. 2002. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53- dependent and
    p21- dependent apoptopic pathway in hepatoma cell lines. Journal of Life Sciences, Vol. 71 (16):1879-1892.
•   Pecere, T., M. Vittoria Gazzalo, C. Mucignat, C. Parolin, F. Dalla Vecchia, and A. Cavaggioni. 2000. Aloe-emodin
    is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors. American Association for
    Cancer Research, Vol. 60:2800-2804.
•   Rajasekaran, Subbiah, Kasiappan Ravi, Karuran Sivagnanam, and Sorimuthu Subramanian. 2006. Beneficial
    Effects of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Extract on Lipid Profile Status in Rats with Streptozotocin Diabetes. Clinical and
    Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, Vol. 33:232-237.
•   Roberts, D.B., and E.L. Travis. 1995. Acemannan- containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induces skin
    reactions in C3H mice. Int. Journal Oncol. Biol. Phys., Vol. 32 (4):1047-1052.
•   Tan B.H.K., and J. Vanitha. 2004. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese
    medicinal herbs: A review. Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 11 (11):1423-1430.
•   Visuthikosal, V., B. Chowchuen, Y. Sukwanarat, S. Sriurairatana, and V. Boonpucknavig. 1995. Effect of Aloe vera
    gel to healing of burn wounds: A clinical and histologic study. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Vol.
    78 (8): 403-409.
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posted:12/21/2011
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