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					Flushing High School                                                                          Science Department
Ms. Shannon                                                                                         Earth Science

I.        The Shape of Earth

              1. Due to its daily rotation, Earth bulges about 70 km at the equator, making it an oblate
                 spheroid. Slightly flattened at the poles, bulging in the middle

              2. Earth Scientists support a spherical model of Earth based on the following evidence:

             Sailing ships disappear over the horizon, and appear mast first when approaching
             During a lunar eclipse, a curved shadow from earth is cast on the surface of the moon.
             As ships sailed North or South, the altitude of Polaris changed in regular fashion – inconsistent
              with a flat surface
           Photographs from Outer Space
           3. Today we use modern technology to obtain Earth’s exact measurements.
                Circumference at Equator 40,076 km
                Circumference at Poles 40,008 km
    II.     Earth Interior (ESRT – 10)
    III.   The Structure of Earth
1. A model of Earth’s interior structure consists of:
          Inner core- the center, solid nickel &iron
          Outer core- surrounds the inner core, liquid iron & nickel
          Mantle – Plastic-like” layer made of material rich in iron, magnesium
           and silicon.
          Crust – surface layer, solid rock material

Q. What would you find if you dug a hole down deeper and deeper into the earth
until you reached its center?
The deeper into Earth’s depth you go, you will find:
         First: the chemical make-up of the material changes
         Second: The materials increase in density
         Third: Temperature and pressure increases with depth, but at different rates

Chemical Properties of the layers:
Core: primarily made of iron and nickel
        Inner- solid           Outer- liquid
Mantle: composed mostly of silicate material containing iron and magnesium
Crust: composed mostly of silicate material containing iron and magnesium + aluminum,

  Crust: made of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere
        5-40km thick, is mostly hard and cool
        Oxygen and Silicon are the two most common elements in Earth’s crust - (ESRT-cover)
Llithosphere is the rigid shell of rock that includes the crust and solid mantle “floats” on top of the
asthenosphere. (liquid mantle)
        Continental crust is thicker, lies under the contents, and is less dense than oceanic crust
        Oceanic crust is thinner, lies under the oceans and is made of more dense rocks
        About 100 km thick




Asthenosphere
           The soft, plastic-like material of the upper mantle
           The matter moves in convection currents
              A circular flow where hot material rises and cool material sinks.

The outer portion of Earth is generally classified into three major parts:
        Lithosphere (solid)
        Hydrosphere (water)
        Atmosphere (gas)

The Hydrosphere:
        Consists of Earth’s liquid water
                                                                                                              1
Flushing High School                                                                         Science Department
Ms. Shannon                                                                                        Earth Science

          Covers about 75% of Earth’s surface
          Mostly Hydrogen and oxygen
         The Atmosphere:                                        Structure of the Atmosphere (ESRT -14)
                 Is the shell of gasses that surrounds         1. The lowest layer is the troposphere:
                   Earth                                                  Extends up 12 km
                 Divided into layers based on vertical                   Temperatures decrease
                   temperature changes                                    Is the densest layer and contains
                 Decreases in pressure with altitude                        the most mass
                                                                          Contains most of the water
                                                                             vapor
                                                                          All weather happens here
                                                                          Stops at the “tropopause”
        2. The Stratosphere:                                    3. The Mesosphere:
                        The 2nd layer                                    3rd layer
                        Temperatures increase                            Temperatures decrease
                        Contains the ozone layer                         Stops at the “mesopause”
                        Stops at the “stratopause”
        4. The Thermosphere:                                    5. All layers are separated by a boundary
                  Top layer, extends indefinitely              known as “pauses”.
                  Temperatures increase
Locating Positions on Earth

1. To fix the location of a position any two-dimensional surface of Earth, 2 numbers, called coordinates, are
needed.
         -called a coordinate system

2. To locate positions on Earth:
                 - Latitude and Longitude
                 - Measured in Degrees (°) and Minutes (΄)
                 - 60 minutes (΄) in each degree



                           Latitude
                                                                        Longitude




    1. What is Latitude?
           Latitude is the angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator.

                   o        Is measured by imaginary lines that circle the world from east to west.
                   o        Equator, 0° , marks the middle location on Earth’s Surface
                   o        north pole 90°N
                   o        south pole 90°S
     “The Altitude of Polaris is Equal to the Latitude of the Observer” (**must remember!)
          The altitude of an object in the sky is its angle above the horizon
          The latitude of a point on Earth’s surface is its angle North or South of the Equator
2. What is Longitude?
Longitude is the degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian.
     Are imaginary lines that run North and South on the world.
     measured °E or °W
     Prime meridian is the starting line – passes thru Greenwich, England. 0°
     Longitude lines have no set distance between them. They are farther apart at equator, closer at poles.
Time
1. Solar time is time by the sun.
                  a. Solar noon would be when the sun is at its highest position in the sky.
                  b. solar time is different at every location
2. There are 24 standard time zones, each 15° of longitude wide.
                  a. based on the rate at which the sun moves across the sky
                  b. all areas within the zone keep the same time
3. The starting point for time zones is the Prime Meridian, in England.
                  a. scientists often use (Greenwich Mean Time ) GMT, as a standard time
4. On land time zones are shifted east or west to meet the needs of the people living along the true boundary.



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