Question 1 of 25 1.0 Points
Who is the sociologist given credit for coining the concept of the McDonaldization of Society?
A. Jeffrey Reiman
B. Douglas Massey
C. Howard Winet
D. George Ritzer
Question 2 of 25 1.0 Points
Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical, has a division of labor, written rules, communications
and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these
characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in a[n] ________.
A. non-profit organization
B. voluntary association
Question 3 of 25 1.0 Points
The Ku Klux Klan, March of Dimes, and Boy Scouts of America all have specific objectives that guide
their operation. Even though their respective activities and membership rosters have significant
differences, all three would share the classification of being
B. social institutions
C. formal organizations
D. ideal types
Question 4 of 25 1.0 Points
The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced
capitalism was ________.
A. Karl Marx
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Max Weber
D. Emile Durkheim
Question 5 of 25 1.0 Points
Hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results. Frank
lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. Which society is more
likely to be industrialized?
A. The society based on customs and relationships.
B. Both societies will have the same degree of industrialization.
C. The society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results.
D. Neither society will be industrialized.
Question 6 of 25 1.0 Points
In which two societies would someone find relationships based on history, being diffuse, and long-
A. agricultural and industrial societies
B. horticultural and agricultural societies
C. horticultural and post industrial societies
D. industrial and postindustrial societies
Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station he has taped pictures up of
his wife and granddaughter and a few others of last year's Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see
these pictures as an attempt by Tom to:
A. resist alienation.
B. bond with his supervisor who is also a grandparent
C. promote his "all-American" status to his colleagues
D. simply decorate his office.
Question 8 of 25 1.0 Points
As voluntary organizations, what do the College Young Democrats, Kiwanis Club, Uptown Stamp
Collectors' Club, and National Rifle Association all have in common?
A. They are all primary groups.
B. They offer people an identity.
C. They bring people into the political mainstream
D. They generate social change.
Question 9 of 25 1.0 Points
The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________.
A. the Thomas Theorem
B. The Protestant Ethic
C. the Iron Law of Oligarchy
D. the Spirit of Capitalism
Question 10 of 25 1.0 Points
According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, why do "hidden values" exist in an organization?
A. To assist women and minorities in gaining promotions
B. To help the organization be successful
C. As a means to promote teamwork
D. As self-fulfilling stereotypes to direct the organization
Question 11 of 25 1.0 Points
It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to
manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the
C. symbolic interactionist
Question 12 of 25 1.0 Points
It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as a
fringe benefit for their employees. What has evaluative research found regarding
the costs and benefits of these facilities?
A.Daycare facilities are ineffective because they are used by only a few
B. Because of the large number of employees using them, daycare facilities
are too expensive to operate.
C. Operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves
production, and increases staff morale.
D. The results of the research are inconclusive.
Question 13 of 25 1.0 Points
Violation of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
Question 14 of 25 1.0 Points
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?
A. It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
B. The nature of one's behavior is the most important aspect in determining deviance.
C. Deviance is most related to functionalism because it creates a dysfunction for
D. Deviance is analogous to mental illness
Question 15 of 25 1.0 Points
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
A. structural functionalism
B. symbolic interactionism
C. the conflict perspective
D. the neo-conflict perspective
Question 16 of 25 1.0 Points
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked
in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of
A. nonconforming behavior
B. the need for social sanctions
C. the cultural relativity of deviance
D. the need for absolute standards in defining deviance
Question 17 of 25 1.0 Points
What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called
A. social solidarity
B. the social imperative
C. social control
D. social bond
Question 18 of 25 1.0 Points
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of
the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
D. degradation ceremonies
Question 19 of 25 1.0 Points
The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner
controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.
A. Travis Hirschi
B. Jackson Toby
C. Walter Reckless
D. F. Ivan Nye
Question 20 of 25 1.0 Points
Which of the following theories least follows the principles of symbolic interactionism?
A. differential association theory
B. control theory
C. labeling theory
D. strain theory
Question 21 of 25 1.0 Points
Cloward and Ohlin addressed the street hustler as a role model for youth and the methods used to earn
easy money through a life of crime. What did they call this career path of delinquency?
A. containment theory
B. social bond theory
C. the theory of differential association
D. illegitimate opportunity structure
Question 22 of 25 1.0 Points
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of
normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
B. latent dysfunction
C. mass hysteria
Question 23 of 25 1.0 Points
Which of the following acts does not qualify as a white collar crime?
A. robbing the first national bank
B. a police officer taking $100 not to write a speeding ticket
C. an executive writing off the corporation's million dollar fine as investment
D. classifying parking tickets as job hunting expenses on an income tax return
Question 24 of 25 1.0 Points
What are the two most significant "anchoring devices" that insulate a person from a life of crime and
A. a good lawyer and big expense account
B. neighborhood and income
C. race and ethnicity
D. marriage and education
Question 25 of 25 1.0 Points
How a society treats its deviants is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of
prisons and mental hospitals in the United States suggest regarding this standard?
A. The United States is the most humane society in the world
B. Prisons are a last resort in dealing with deviants
C. U.S. prisons emphasize prisoner rehabilitation and mental hospitals cure the
D. They are both used as warehouse for the unwanted