Sea Turtles_TEACHER PACKET

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					                                 Sea Turtles


                                Background:

Grade Level: 3-8
                                Of the 257 turtle species in the world, seven are sea
Class Size: 30-40
                                turtles: Loggerhead, Green, Kemp’s Ridley, Leatherback,
Class Length: 30min-1hr
                                Flatback, Hawksbill, and Olive Ridley.

Class Summary:
                                Turtles have roamed the earth, on every continent except
Students will understand the
                                Antartica, before the dinosaurs with little or no change.
importance of sea turtles and
                                Sea turtles are thought to have appeared approximately
their relationship with the
                                100 million years ago in large populations too numerous to
environment.
                                count.

Objectives:
                                Within the last 100 years, however, their numbers have
Students will
                                declined sharply. All seven species of sea turtle are
    Identify sea turtle
                                currently listed as either endangered or critically
     species
                                endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN).
    Observe adaptations
    Compare/contrast
                                Sea turtles feed on a variety of different things including
     aquatic and terrestrial
                                sea grasses and corals. They keep the animal and plant
     turtles
                                populations on the reef under control. Without sea
    Understand
                                turtles, the populations could grow too much causing other
     environmental/human
                                plants and animals to die.
     affects on turtles

                                Some cultures of people also use sea turtles as a main
Concepts:
                                food source. Without them, what would the people do for
    Adaptations
                                food?
    Habitat
    Conservation Methods
                                Scientists learn new things from and about sea turtles
                                everyday. What would the world be like without sea
                                turtles?


                                   The WAVE Foundation is an independent, educational foundation at the
                                   Newport Aquarium created to further the Newport Aquarium’s efforts in
                                        educating communities and students about marine life and the
                                   conservation of natural resources and habitats. The WAVE Foundation is
                                         designated as a 501(c)(3) organization and encompasses and
                                             embraces conservation, education, and volunteerism.
                     Sea Turtles
              PRE-LESSON ASSESSMENT
1. A sea turtle cannot feel when something touches their backs.
       True          False

2. How many different sea turtle species live in the world’s oceans?
       a Twelve      b. Six        c. Ten        d. Seven

3. Sea turtles can breathe underwater.
       True          False

4. The largest species of sea turtle is the _____________________________.

5. The smallest species of sea turtle is the _____________________________.

6. How many years can sea turtles live in the wild.
       a. 40-60      b. 75-100     c. 100-150    d. over 150 years

7. The temperature inside the nest determines whether sea turtle egg hatches as
   a male or a female.
       True          False

8. Sea turtle hatchlings remember the scent and location of their nesting beach so
   that they can return when they are adults.
       True          False

9. All sea turtles are in danger of becoming extinct because of poaching, pollution,
   fishing equipment and habitat loss.
       True          False

10. One thing I already know about sea turtles is



11. One thing I want to learn about sea turtles is
                               Sea Turtles
                              VOCABULARY
Adaptation – A characteristic or trait that an animal has or can do that helps them
survive.

Beak - Consisting of a horny sheath, covering the jaws. The form varies according
to the food and habits of the turtle.

Carapace - A hard, bony or chitinous top part of the shell of a turtle or tortoise.

Clutch - The complete set of eggs produced or incubated at one time.

Countershading – A form of camouflage with a contrasting coloration patterns in
animals.

Ectothermic - An organism that regulates its body temperature by exchanging
heat with its surroundings; cold-blooded.

Endangered - To threaten with extinction.

Extinct - No longer in existence.

Habitat - The area or environment where an organism or group of organisms lives or
occurs.

Herbivore - An animal that feeds only on plants.

Imprint - To fix permanently into memory.

Plastron - The bottom part of the shell of a turtle or tortoise.

Poaching - To take fish or game in a forbidden area.

Scute – A chitinous, or bony, external plate or scale.

Streamlined – Designed to offer the least resistance while swimming in water.

Threatened - At risk of becoming endangered.
                     Sea Turtles
              POST-LESSON ASSESSMENT
1. A sea turtle cannot feel when something touches their backs.
       True           False

2. How many different sea turtle species live in the world’s oceans?
       a Twelve       b. Six        c. Ten       d. Seven

3. Sea turtles can breathe underwater.
       True           False

4. The largest species of sea turtle is the _____________________________.

5. The smallest species of sea turtle is the _____________________________.

6. How many years can sea turtles live in the wild.
       a. 40-60       b. 75-100     c. 100-150   d. over 150 years

7. The temperature inside the nest determines whether sea turtle egg hatches as
   a male or a female.
       True           False

8. Sea turtle hatchlings remember the scent and location of their nesting beach so
   that they can return when they are adults.
       True           False

9. All sea turtles are in danger of becoming extinct because of poaching,
   pollution, fishing equipment and habitat loss.
       True           False

10. Today, I learned that sea turtles…



11. The thing I like best about sea turtles is
                   Sea Turtles
            POST-LESSON ASSESSMENT
                  ANSWER KEY
1. A sea turtle cannot feel when something touches their backs.       False


2. How many different sea turtle species live in the world’s oceans? Seven

3. Sea turtles can breathe underwater.    False-Sea turtles breathe air.


4. The largest species of sea turtle is the Leatherback.

5. The smallest species of sea turtle is the Kemp’s Ridley.

6. How many years can sea turtles live in the wild. a. 40-60 years

7. The temperature inside the nest determines whether sea turtle egg hatches as
    a male or a female.    True

8. Sea turtle hatchlings remember the scent and location of their nesting beach so
   that they can return when they are adults.  True

9. All sea turtles are in danger of becoming extinct because of poaching,
   pollution, fishing equipment and habitat loss. True
             Classroom Extension Activities
             (Use/adapt to suit your classroom and age of students)


                              Sea Turtle Species


Objective: Students will identify sea turtle species, habitats and food sources
using sea turtle identification cards.

Materials:
For each student: Sea Turtles Identification Cards

The Seven Species of Sea Turtles:

There are currently believed to be seven species of sea turtles inhabiting the
oceans and seas of the world. Though they share many common characteristics,
the seven types of sea turtles are each unique and have adapted specific strategies
for survival. Migratory routes; nesting habits and locations; feeding techniques and
diet; and physical traits all help to distinguish between the different species.

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is the one of the more recognized
sea turtles and is listed as endangered. This turtle frequents
estuaries, coastal plains and bays for feeding. Adults tend to
be close to mainland shores, but may transit an ocean following
migratory paths thousands of years old. They do this by using
the earth’s magnetic polls as their compass. The loggerhead
acquired its name from the size of its head, which houses a large
set of powerful jaw muscles used for cracking hard shell prey.
The carapace has a reddish-brown color. This coloration is also found on the top
side of its flippers and head, while the loggerhead’s underside is pale yellow to dull
brown in color. The loggerhead is listed as endangered.

The Leatherback Sea Turtle is the largest living sea turtle and
is the only sea turtle without a hard shell. Instead of a shell, it
has a tough, rubbery skin. The black carapace, reinforced by
thousands of tiny bone plates, has seven ridges marked with
white spots running lengthwise. The plastron can be white to
blackish in coloration. The head houses a fine knife-like beak,
which the leatherback uses to pursue its favorite meal, jellyfish.
Food items such as crab and mussels would damage the delicate jaw. Leatherbacks
can tolerate cold water and are the most widespread of the sea turtles. These
turtles are usually found in the open ocean coming to shore only to lay eggs. The
leatherback holds several sea turtle records: the largest, up to 10 feet in length;
deepest diver, up to 3,000 feet; and the heaviest, weighing in at up to 2,000
pounds. This animal is listed as endangered.

The Flatback Sea Turtle is somewhat of a mystery as its
restricted range is prohibitive for extensive research. Flatback
sea turtles have only been located off of the northern Australian
coast. The name “flatback” refers to its compressed body. This
turtle only has four lateral scutes. Each scute is an olive color
with a brown to yellowish outer margin. The flippers are cream
in coloration and have a single claw. Though information about
this turtle is limited, it seems to prefer coastal waters, coral reefs and grass beds.
Diet consists of softer animals such as jellyfish, sea cucumbers, prawns and
seaweed. Conservation data is speculative; however, due to estimated numbers, this
turtle is considered endangered.

The Green Sea Turtle does not get its name from the color of its
shell, which is usually black, brown or gray, but from the color of
its fat. The adult green sea turtle is a strict herbivore, eating only
sea grass and seaweed, which gives the fat its green color. Young
green sea turtles will eat crustaceans and worms as well as grass
and seaweed, but they stop this omnivore behavior as an adult.
Green sea turtles have serrated beaks, which aid in tearing plants
and algae. Usually found near mainland coastlines or islands, they are indigenous to
all temperate and tropical waters. They are the second largest sea turtle,
averaging sizes over three feet and well over 300 pounds. Some populations of
green turtles in the eastern Pacific are known as black turtles, due to their darker
pigmentation.

The Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle received its name from a researcher
who was studying it, Richard Kemp. Ridley comes from the word
“riddle”, as their nesting behavior is so unusual that their nesting
beach remained a mystery until 1947 when it was finally discovered
to be a single beach at Rancho Nuevo, in the state of Tamaulipas,
Mexico. The Kemp’s Ridley is the most endangered and the smallest
of the sea turtle species, reaching an average length of two feet and a maximum
weight of about 100 pounds. The carapace is an olive green color with its plastron
being a yellowish color. The Kemp’s is a carnivore, eating crabs, clams, mussels,
jellyfish, urchins and shrimp. This turtle has a limited range in the Gulf of Mexico.
However, young can be found along the eastern U.S. Atlantic coast. The Kemp’s and
Olive Ridley sea turtles nest annually and will lay approximately 2 clutches of about
100 eggs each. Both species participate in mass, synchronized nesting called
arribadas. However, the Kemp’s nests during the daytime; all other sea turtles
usually nest at night.

The Olive Ridley Sea Turtle, named for the olive tone of its
carapace, is very similar to the Kemp’s except it travels in the open
ocean waters of the tropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
Olive Ridleys are more abundant than the Kemp’s, but are still on the endangered
species list because only a few nesting sites remain worldwide where they can
congregate for the arribada.

The Hawksbill Sea Turtle is so named because the shape of its head
and beak resemble a hawk. They are usually found around rocky
bottom areas and coastal reefs as well as in estuaries and lagoons in
the tropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.
Hawksbill sea turtles are endangered. They have been hunted for
their shells to make jewelry and other personal items such as combs,
brushes and eyeglass frames. The hawksbill is slightly smaller
than the loggerhead, with an average length of 36 inches and weight of 150 pounds.
        Waiter, I didn’t order the jellyfish
Objectives: Students will
    list the three main food sources for sea turtles
    explain how a sea turtles beak is adapted to each food source.

Materials:
   Nutcrackers, enough for 1/3 the class
   Scissors, enough for 1/3 the class
   Tweezers / forceps, enough for 1/3 the class
   Nuts or small plastic eggs or other item that can be broken open
      like a nut
   Pieces of thread / yarn approx. 6 inches long
   3X5 index cards or pieces of scrap paper

Background: Sea turtles use their beaks to obtain food. Their beaks
are specialized and specific to the foods they eat. There is some
overlapping in diets, but in general their jaws and beaks are designed for
one type of food.

Loggerhead Sea Turtles have very strong jaws and their beaks are designed for
crushing their food: crabs, clams and mussels.

Green Sea Turtles have moderately strong jaws and serrated, sharp beaks that are
designed for cutting sea grasses and seaweed.

Leatherback Sea Turtles have very delicate jaws and beaks designed for very soft
jellyfish.

Directions:
Loggerhead Sea Turtles: The nutcracker represents the beak and jaw. The nut
represents their food. Students must crack open the nuts to get to the food, just
as a loggerhead would crack open a crab.

Green Sea Turtles: The scissors represent the beak and the cards/paper their
food. Students must cut the cards, just as a green sea turtle would grass or sea
weed before eating.

Leatherback Sea Turtles: The tweezers represent the jaw and beak and the
thread/yarn represents the tentacles of a jellyfish.
Procedure:
   1. Have students sit in a circle with plenty of elbow room.
   2. Give each student a beak.
   3. Explain how each of the beaks is used to get food.
   4. Place the “food” items in the middle of the circle.
   5. Have the students use only their beaks (not their hands) to eat.
             Could the sea turtles eat each type of food?
             Which sea turtles were able to eat the nuts?...the yarn?...the paper?
   6. Place only one “food” item in the middle of the circle.
   7. Have the students “eat.”
             Which sea turtles were able to eat?
             Why? Explain that just because there is food, doesn’t mean they will
             be able to eat it.

Activity Extension:
   8. After each round, you may add obstacles such as pollution, habitat alteration,
       etc. by adjusting the boundaries, limiting/expanding, etc. the feeding area.
               How does each affect the food supply and/or turtle populations?

Discussion:
   1. What would happen if the sea turtles had the same beak? How would that
       change the food supply/variation? The sea turtles would eat the same food,
       but the food supply may not be enough for all of the sea turtles to survive.
       Also, overpopulation of the former food supplies would become an issue.

   2. Discuss a possible universal food source that all sea turtle species could eat.
                  Make a Loggerhead Turtle
 Objective: Students will make a model of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

 Materials:
 For each student: white paper plate, scissors, pencil, short piece of string
 For class: green and brown paint, black marker, stapler, ruler

 Procedure:
 1. Cut the rim off of the paper plate, keeping the rim in one piece.




2. Make a cut from the edge to the center of the plate. Overlap and staple the
   two edges together to make the shell.




3. Cut three 3 inch-long pieces and two 1 inch-long pieces from the rim.
4. Trim the 3 inch-long pieces to make two front flippers and the head. Trim the 1 inch-
   long pieces to make the back flippers. Using the markers, draw the scales, eyes and
   nose.




5. Staple the head and flippers to the edges of the shell.




6. Paint the shell a greenish-brown color and the flippers brown. Make a knot in one end of the
   string. Thread it through the center of the shell from underneath and tie a small loop in the
   top end.




                   Adaptation of an activity from Envirokids: Vol. 26 (3).
                         Sea Turtles
                      SCAVENGER HUNT
   Use the Sea Turtle Identification Cards to answer some of the questions!

1. Which turtle lives in the Mississippi River? (World Rivers Gallery)
   ____________________________________________________________

2. Name an example from the Newport Aquarium:
      a A turtles that lives on land ___________________________________

      b. A turtle that lives in saltwater _______________________________

      c. A turtle that lives in freshwater ______________________________

      d. A turtle that lives in brackish water ___________________________

3. A nest of sea turtle eggs is called a ________________________________.

4. Using your Sea Turtle Identification cards, name the sea turtle that can be
   found around coral reefs.
   ____________________________________________________________

5. Sea Turtles are reptiles. Name three other reptiles (not turtles) that make
   their homes at Newport Aquarium.
   ____________________________________________________________

   ____________________________________________________________

   ____________________________________________________________

6. All Turtles must breathe air in order to survive. How long can the Alligator
   Snapping Turtle hold its breath? __________________________________

7. Using your Sea Turtle Identification cards, name the sea turtle that prefers
   jellyfish as its favorite food.
   ____________________________________________________________

8. What species of sea turtle is Denver? (Surrounded By Sharks)
   ____________________________________________________________
                            Sea Turtles
                         SCAVENGER HUNT
                                   (Answer Key)

Some questions may have more than one answer. Below are some answers, however,
        the students may discover other animals that fit each question!

1. Stinkpot Turtle

2.    a.    Yellow-Footed Tortoise
      b.    Loggerhead Sea Turtle
      c.    Aliigator Snapping Turtle
      d.    Diamondback Terrapin

3. Clutch

4. Hawksbill

5. American Alligator, Burmese Python, Gila Monster

6.

7. Leatherback

8. Loggerhead
                            Sea Turtles
                           ADAPTATIONS
Objective: Students will identify and label parts of the body of sea turtles

Materials:
For each student: “No Bones About It” worksheets

Background:
The Body
       Shell: Most notably, sea turtles have shells. The shell protects the soft,
inner body parts. The head, flippers and tail protrude from the shell. The shell has
two parts: the top, carapace, and the bottom, plastron. They are connected to
each other on the sides by the bridge. The bony plates that form the bottom layer
of the carapace are connected with the vertebrae and ribs of the turtle. This
means that the turtle cannot leave its shell.

The bony plates that make up the top of the carapace are covered with a protective
outer layer of keratin, much like our fingernails. This keratinous outer covering is
called a scute. The sea turtle’s shell may seem like unbreakable armor, but it is
actually quite sensitive. Beneath the thin keratin, scutes are living tissues with
sensitive nerve endings.

        Flippers and Tail: The sea turtle’s appendages are paddle-like flippers (two
large front flippers and two smaller rear flippers) and a tail. Sea turtles use their
tails as rudders to help them maneuver while swimming. In adult sea turtles, the
tail length can be used to determine gender. Male sea turtles typically have a
longer tail and larger claws on the front flippers, which are used to grasp the
female during mating.

The Head
       Skull: The sea turtle’s skull is solid and does not contain teeth. Turtles
have horny beaks. Sea turtle beaks are species specific and so is their diet. A
loggerhead sea turtle’s beak is very strong with powerful jaw muscles that enable it
to crush crabs and other shellfish. Leatherbacks have serrated and delicate beaks
that are suitable for a diet of jellyfish. Green sea turtles have a very finely
serrated beak that enables them to cut sea grasses and seaweed for food.

       Tongue: The turtle’s tongue is a large broad muscle anchored securely in
the turtle’s mouth and cannot be extended. The turtle swallows food whole or in
large chunks without chewing. They will also use their beaks to test and explore
new objects.
       Nose: Food is located by means of an acute sense of smell. Sea turtles
detect scents in the water by opening their mouths slightly and drawing in water
through the nostrils, called nares. The water is not swallowed but is immediately
expelled through the mouth. A sea turtle’s sense of smell is so acute that it can be
used to locate the beach where it hatched.

       Eyes and Ears: Sea turtles do not have externally visible ears, but they can
hear low frequency sounds and vibrations underwater. Sea turtle eyes are well
developed to see underwater, but they only provide nearsighted vision in the air.
Large eyelids protect a sea turtle’s eyes from predators.
Threats to Sea Turtles

Sea turtles have been around for approximately 100 million years, in numbers too
large to count. However, within the last 100 years their numbers have dramatically
declined. Now all seven species are on the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red
List of Threatened Species List. Each year, the World Conservation Union reviews
the conservation status of thousands of plants and animals and lists those in danger
of extinction on the Red List. All sea turtles are listed as either endangered or
critically endangered.

In the wild, sea turtles can live up to 40 or 60 years, but they face many dangers
throughout their long life. An estimated one in thousands will survive to adulthood
and reproduce. Some of these dangers are natural threats such as disease,
sickness, weather and predators. Sea turtle hatchlings make a tasty treat for
many predators including crabs, sea birds, raccoons, reptiles, ants and fish. The
threat of predators declines to an occasional shark attack when sea turtles attain
their adult size.

Sea turtles have been enduring these natural threats for as long as they have been
in the oceans. The actions of humans are to blame for the turtles' endangerment.

Poaching
Even with laws to protect the endangered turtles, the poaching of sea turtles and
their eggs is a large problem with little or no enforcement of these laws. Sea
turtles like the hawksbill have also been hunted and killed for their shells for use in
jewelry and personal products like combs and eyeglass frames. As long as there is a
market and demand for these products, turtles will continue to be killed to provide
the materials.

Commercial Fishing
Sea Turtles become entangled or ensnared in fishing gear and drown. Currently,
trawl fisherman are required to use a Turtle Excluder Device (TED) to help keep
turtles out of their nets. However, not all fishermen use these devices and turtles
are still being killed.

Boating
A sea turtle’s shell is not as hard as it seems. When sea turtles surface to
breathe, they can be hit with passing boat propellers that can slice through the
shell or skull. Boaters moving at fast speeds in the water usually do not see the
surfacing turtles.
Pollution
Trash, debris, sewage and chemicals are being dumped into our oceans and
waterways in alarming quantities. This pollution kills aquatic life. Chemical pollution
may be the cause of diseases that are killing the turtles. Solid waste pollution,
mistaken for food, can be eaten and block the turtle’s intestinal tract. Turtles can
also become entangled in debris and die.

Habitat Degradation
The destruction of turtle habitats is limiting the ability of turtles to reproduce and
repopulate. Turtles return to the same coast on which they hatched in order to
mate and lay their eggs. If the beach or habitat has changed or is perceived as
dangerous, the turtle will not return to lay eggs.

Erosion of beaches is a natural process, however beaches are perceived as valuable
real estate where walls, jetties and other types of structures are built. These
structures often inhibit the turtle from reaching the beach and nesting.
Communities will replace eroded sand with new sand and/or compact the beach to
make it more erosion proof. This practice can also inhibit turtle nesting and will
affect the biological factors that determine a healthy and successful nest.

Beach traffic, by vehicle or on foot, will also deter and destroy nest sites. Street,
business and residential lighting create false sun or moon light, and hatching turtles
will be drawn inland instead of to the sea. These turtles become dehydrated or are
killed by predators (including humans). A majority of sea turtle species nest at
night, but artificial lights can also confuse approaching females.
          Turtle Tracking in Your Classroom
Objective: Students will
    understand the importance of sea turtle tracking
    track a turtle in their classroom
    plot turtle positions on a map
    record findings in a log

Background: Satellite tags are anchored to the top of the turtles’ carapace by an
adhesive that will biodegrade with time and not harm the turtle. The tag will last
for approximately one to two years before the batteries wear out. The tag has a
switch that senses when the turtle is underwater or at the surface. When the
turtle surfaces, the tag sends a signal to a satellite that records the turtle’s
position. This data is then plotted on a map to show the turtle’s progress and
travels.

Materials: Large piece of paper (for map), markers, toy turtle or picture of a
turtle, logbook (paper or electronic)

Procedure:
1. Create a map of your classroom. At this time, you may introduce a coordinate
   system by dividing the room by latitude and longitude.
2. Introduce the students to the turtle.
3. Place the turtle at a “release” point. This is where the turtle will start it travels.
4. Plot the release point on the classroom map.
5. Hide the turtle in the classroom each day before the students arrive. The
   students must locate the turtle, determine its position within the room, report
   this information and record it in the log.
6. Track the turtle’s movements by plotting them on the map of the classroom.
   (The positions or coordinate points could make a shape or picture to be
   discovered at the end of the activity).
7. Throughout the process, discuss what the students think the turtle is doing at
    each position: eating, sleeping, playing, etc.
8. Students can then research that part of the turtle’s life: How long does a
    turtle sleep and where? What does that turtle eat and where? Etc.

Activity Extension:
1. Locate different turtle species and research different turtle habits.
2. Choose a different animal to track and research. Other animals that are
   periodically tracked include sharks, fish, marine mammals, birds, wolves and
   bears.
 Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking via the Web
Objectives: Students will
    understand the importance of sea turtle tracking
    research turtle positioning via satellite using www.seaturtle.org
    plot turtle positions on a map
    record findings in a log

Materials: Large piece of paper (for map), markers, computer with internet
access, logbook (paper or electronic)

Procedure:
1. After learning about tracking animals, specifically sea turtles, log on to
   www.seaturtle.org , locate a turtle to learn more about and record satellite
   positioning.
2. Select daily/weekly researchers to locate the sea turtle from the web site and
   retrieve the data.
3. The researchers will gather the data from the web site and plot the turtle’s
   location on the map. Latitude and longitude can be recorded into the logbook.
4. Encourage the students to expand their research to include current weather
   and ocean conditions, or additional information about what the turtle is doing.
5. At the end of the week, the researchers will report their findings to the rest
   of the class and update them on the current location of the class’ turtle.

Additional Suggestions:
1. Data from an earlier tracked turtle can give students practice in plotting the
   locations.
2. Additional research on turtle species including science, various art or reading
   projects can also be incorporated.
                            Sea Turtles
                         REFERENCE LIST
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin
Company

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University

< http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/species/turtles/olive.html 07/20/04>

<http://science.jrank.org/pages/7052/turtles>




                Sea Turtles
  National Science Standards (Grades 3-8)
              Below is a list of National Science Standards discussed
                        during the teaching of Sea Turtles.

Science as Inquiry K-4
Content Standard A: As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should
                    develop:
                            Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
                            Understanding of scientific inquiry
Life Science K-4
Content Standard C: As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should
                    develop an understanding of:
                            The characteristics of organisms
                            Life cycles of organisms
                            Organisms and environments
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives K-4
Content Standard F: As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should
                    develop an understanding of:
                            Personal Health
                            Characteristics and changes in populations
                            Types of resources
                            Changes in environments
                            Science and technology in local challenges

Science as Inquiry 5-8
Content Standard A: As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should
                    develop:
                            Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
                            Understanding of scientific inquiry

Life Science 5-8
Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 5-8, all students
                   should develop an understanding of:
                           Structure and Function in living systems
                           Reproduction and heredity
                           Regulation and behavior
                           Populations and ecosystems
                           Diversity and adaptations of organisms

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives 5-8
Content Standard F: As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should
                    develop an understanding of:
                            Personal Health
                            Populations, resources and environments
                            Natural hazards
                            Risks and benefits
                            Science and technology in society


               The NSES publication (ISBN 0-309-05326-9) can be viewed at
                    http://books.nap.edu/html/nses/html/index.html.

   A bound, paperback copy can be purchased from the National Academy Press, 2101
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