#1-- Milk Mystery:
a) Why did the cap come off the bottle?
Simple, someway or somehow, the milk must have expanded and the forces exerted on the cap
must have been so strong that it pushed the bottle cap off the bottle
b) Did the cold temperature have any effect on the milk?
Yes, I personally think that the cold temperature, the loss of heat from the milk would have
caused the milk to freeze, causing an expansion of the milk within the bottle.
c) How does this relate to the mystery material?
First and foremost, milk is a liquid, containing water as the highest percentage of material in
milk, so perhaps water is the mystery material.
#2—Mystery of the sports water bottle:
a) Does this follow the normal rules of expansion and contraction?
This definitely does not follow the normal rules of expansion and contraction. Usually, an object
expands due to the intake of heat, causing the molecules to vibrate more vigorously, thus
increasing intermolecular spaces. While contraction is caused when the object loses heat,
causing the molecules to lose kinetic energy, decreasing the intermolecular spaces. But in this
case, it is the direct opposite. When the bottle was put in fridge, the contents of the bottle
expanded, while when the bottle gained heat under the sun, it contracted.
b) How does the water ‘sweating’ and the pool of the water fit in?
The water ‘sweating’ are actually beads of water which was a resultant of condensation running
down the bottle. The air contains water vapour, when the bottle is exposed to the surroundings,
the air closest to the bottle loses the most heat energy, thus losing more and more kinetic
energy until the bonds formed between the molecules are strong enough to constantly stay
together without being pulled apart by the kinetic energy of the water molecules, thus changing
from vapour to droplets of water. The water would trickle down the bottle and down to the
floor, gradually creating a pool of water.
c) Does freezing actually ‘create’ more ice than there is water?
No. Since water does not increase in mass, as the cap has always been sealed, only the volume
has increased. This means that freezing actually causes water to expand, not to create more ice.
How would the earth be different if water was NOT an exception to the expansion and contraction
rule? What if water contracted as it froze and became less dense and not less dense?
I can only think of three consequences.
Firstly, since water becomes less dense as it becomes colder and until to freezes, this means that the
colder area of water would automatically rise to the top. Thus, water that rose to the top would
automatically freeze first, insulating the water below, thus preserving the heat and allowing marine life
to carry on even in the most frigid of environments. Without the exception, marine life would cease to
exist as the creatures would be stuck in a giant popsicle, where the water would freeze at the bottom.
Secondly, since as mentioned previously, ice floats. If it sank, there would be a major decrease in the
water level, since water would contract. Now we see global warming as a threat that could easily
swallow Singapore. If the opposite were to happen, we would be stuck with massive areas of near to
useless land by salination of the land.
Lastly, since colder waters rise to the surface, and the colder waters are found at the bottom of the
ocean or lake where least sunlight penetrates, this creates a cycle that allows nutrients to flow with the
water, thus bringing nutrient colonization to greater depths.