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					Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing
        CIM
Computer Integrated
  Manufacturing
Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing
 Computer-Aided Design and
    Manufacturing
   Numerically Controlled Machines
   Industrial Robots
   Automated Materials Handling
   Flexible Manufacturing Systems
Definition of CIM by the Computer and Automation
Systems Association of the Society of
manufacturing Engineers (CASA/SME):

  “CIM is the integration of the
  total manufacturing enterprise
  through the use of integrated
  systems and data
  communications coupled with
  new managerial philosophies
  that improve organizational and
  personnel efficiency.”
CIM
           What is CIM?

   CIM is the integration of all enterprise
operations and activities around a common
corporate data repository.

   It is the use of integrated systems and
data communications coupled with new
managerial philosophies.
          What is CIM?

  CIM is not a product that can be
purchased and installed.

   It is a way of thinking and solving
problems.
      POTANTIAL BENEFITS OF CIM
   Improved customer service
   Improved quality
   Shorter time to market with new products
   Shorter flow time
   Shorter vendor lead time
   Reduced inventory levels
   Improved schedule performance
   Greater flexibility and responsiveness
   Improved competitiveness
   Lower total cost
   Shorter customer lead time
   Increase in manufacturing productivity
   Decrease in work-in process inventory
     The Role of Computer in
         Manufacturing

   The computer has had a substantial
impact on almost all activities of a factory.
   Often, the introduction of the computer
changed the organizational structure of a
department and made necessary adoption
of new management structures.
         The Role of Computer in
             Manufacturing
       The operation of a CIM system gives
    the user substantial benefits:
•   Reduction of design costs by 15-30%;
•   Reduction of the in-shop time of a part by
    30-60%;
•   Increase of productivity by 40-70%;
•   Better product quality, reduction of scrap
    20-50%.
     AGILE MANUFACTURING
   Globalization of markets has put
    tremendous pressure on
    manufacturing enterprises to be
    competitive.

   To cope with competitive pressures,
    a new paradigm in manufacturing
    known as AGILE MANUFACTURING is
    emerging.
     AGILE MANUFACTURING

The objective of agile
manufacturing is to enable
manufacturing enterprises to be
competitive by dynamically
reconfiguring software, equipment
and organization structures.
     AGILE MANUFACTURING

Agility is the ability to grow and
succeed in an environment of
constant and unpredictable changes.

In recent years, the manufacturing
paradigm has been changing from
mass production to agile
manufacturing.
          AGILE MANUFACTURING

    The reasons of this trend change are:
•   The strength of global competition is
    increasing;
•   Mass markets are fragmenting to niche
    markets;
•   Customers expect low volume, high
    quality;
•   Short product life-cycles, development
      CHARACTERISTICS OF AGILE
          MANUFACTURING:
   Greater product customization
   Rapid introduction of new or modified
    product
   Advanced interenterpise networking
    technology
   Upgradable products
   Increased emphasis on knowledgeable,
    highly trained workers
   Interactive customer relationship
       CHARACTERISTICS OF AGILE
           MANUFACTURING:
   Dynamic reconfiguration of production
    processes
   Greater use of flexible production
    technologies
   Rapid prototyping
   An open systems information environment
   Innovative and flexible management
    structures
   Product pricing based on value to the
    customer
   Commitment to the bening operations and
    product designs
    Communication Networks

   A communication network is the backbone of
an enterprise integration. Networks help to unify
a company by linking together all the
computerized devices irrespective of their
physical location.

   Through networks the whole enterprise can be
integrated, including suppliers and customers.
    Communication Networks

  For example, sales and marketing can send
customer requirements for new products to
design engineering.

   A CAD generated bill of materials can then be
transferred to “material requirements
planning(MRP)” systems.

   Product design information can be transmitted
to manufacturing for use in process planning.
     Types of Communication
            Networks

    There 2 main types of
  communication networks:

1) Telecommunication Networks;

2) Computer communication Networks.
    Types of Communication
           Networks

Telecommunication network is mainly used
for voice communication.

Computer communication network is a
system of interconnected computers and
other devices capable exchanging
information.
     Highlights in the History of
        Telecommunications
1844 Morse sends the first public telegraph
     message
1876 Telephone patent issued to Alexander
     Graham Bell
1877 First telephone in private home
1881 First long-distance line, from Boston, MA, to
     Providence,RI
1890 Undersea telephone cable, England to France
1915 First transcontinental telephones call in U.S.
1929 Coaxial cable invented; Herbert Hoover
     becomes the first President with a phone
     on his desk.
1947 Transistor invented
1951 Direct long-distance dialing
1960 First test of electronic switch
1963 Touch-tone service introduced
1970 Laser invented
1976 First digital electronic switch installed
1980 Divestiture of AT&T (Ma Bell and the baby
     bells)
1988 First transatlantic optical fiber cable
1989 First fiber-optic cable to the home field trial,
     Cerritos, CA
1990 Demonstration of 2000-km links using optical
  amplifiers without repeaters.
     Types of Communication
            Networks
Network Architectures & Protocols

A communication network consists of a number
components such as hardware, software and
media.

A network architecture describes the components,
the functions performed, and the interfaces
between the components of a network.

It encompasses hardware, software, standards,
data link controls, topologies and protocols.
          Types of Communication
                 Networks
    Network Architectures & Protocols

    It defines the functions of, and interactions
    between, three types of components.

   Network hardware components
   Communication software modules
   Application programs that use the networks
      Types of Communication
             Networks
Network Architectures & Protocols

PROTOCOL:

Protocols in network architecture define the set of
rules of information exchange between two
devices(peers).

Protocols specify the message format and the
rules for interpreting and reacting to messages.
     Types of Communication
            Networks
Computer Network Reference Model
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)
Reference Model is an architecture that
enables different vendors’ systems, such
as DECNET, SNA, TCP/IP and SINEC, to
communicate by using a common set of
protocols.
          Types of Communication
                 Networks
     The reference model is based on:
•   The communication functions are divided into
    layers;
•   The services to be provided by each layer are
    specified;
•   Layer N+1, above layer N, uses the services of
    the latter to implement its functions;
•   Communication between the layer N and the
    participating terminals is specified by the ISO
    protocols.
Types of Communication
       Networks
 TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS

Local Area Networks (LANs)
Used to interconnect computers
within the same building or
organisation.

A LAN typically operates at speeds
ranging from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps,
connecting several hundred devices
over a distance of up to 5 to 10 km
Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) - MANs are large
LANs that cover a large city or suburb. Used to
interconnect LANs within a metropolitan area. A typical
MAN operates at a speed of 1,5 to 150 Mbps
Wide Area Networks (WANs)
Use common carrier facilities over
long distances and are used to
connect sites and facilities over the
countries.
Usually the speed between the cities
can vary from 1.5 Mbps to 2.4 Gbps.
In a WAN, the cost of transmission is
very high, and the network is usually
owned and operated by a public
network
Global Area Networks (GAN)
these are networks connections
between countries around the globe.
A GAN’s speed ranges from
1.5Mbps to 100Gbps and its reach is
several thousands of kilometres.
      COMMUNICATION HIERARCHY
   enterprise level
    Globally link various plants/sites and
    interconnect corporations through electronic
    data interchange

   plant level
    Connect departments inside plant

   cell level
    Connect cells inside departments

   equipment/device level
    connect individual devices such as computers,
    robots and NC machines
                MANUFACTURING

   Parallel with increasing needs for faster
    communications the needs of large data storage
    capacity and fast computers is increasing also.
   Now typical manufacturing environment, called
    also as CAD/CAM/CAE environment is composed
    of fast computers, centralized data storage units,
    CNC controlled machine centers, robots etc., all
    connected on the same network.
   On this networks either TCP/IP or specially
    designed manufacturing protocols like, MAP or
    TOP, are used.
          MANUFACTURING

MAP
An initiative by General Motors of The
United States has resulted in the selection
of a set of protocols, all based on ISO
standards, to achieve open system
interconnection within an automated
manufacturing plant.

The resulting protocols are knows as
manufacturing automation protocols
(MAPs).
MANUFACTURING
          MANUFACTURING

TOP

In a similar way, an initiative by the
Boeing Corporation (USA) has resulted in
the selection of a set of ISO standards to
achieve open system interconnection in a
technical and office environment.

The selected protocols are known as
technical and office protocols (TOPs).
MANUFACTURING
Flexible Manufacturing
Systems
                             Tool           Tool                     Tool
                           changer        changer                 changer                 AS/RS

                                                                             CNC 3




                                                                                                   Computer control
                                                              Indexing
                                                                tables
                       AGV 1




                                 CNC 1         CNC 2
                                                                            Out   In

                               Out   In       Out    In
Raw material storage
   (floor space)




                                                          AGV 2

                                                    L/U    L/U           Temporary storage areas
                       Raw material storage                                 (33 pallet spaces)
                         (roller conveyor)
                                              Load/unload stations
Industrial                         Elbow
                                   extension

Robots
    Shoulder                         Yaw
    swivel




               Arm sweep   Pitch               Roll

				
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posted:12/21/2011
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