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RD103 Outlining Summarizing Study Guide AK

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					                 RD103 Outlining & Summarizing Study Guide

                                      Formal Outlining
         Outlining is a way of organizing main ideas, and the major and minor details that support
them. An outline shows the relationship between ideas presented in writing. It uses both
numerals (Roman and Arabic) and letters (upper and lower case). There are two kinds of
outlines: formal and informal. Formal outlines may be written one of three ways: topical, infinitive
phrases or complete sentences. For this class, we will be writing formal outlines with complete
sentences. This requires paraphrasing from the original text since you cannot simply copy
sentences from the source. Outlines are double-spaced.

Outline symbols – the guide below indicates the order and symbols used in formal outlines.

        I. ________________________________________________________________

                A. _________________________________________________

                         1. ____________________________________

                         2. ____________________________________

                                 a. _________________________

                                 b. _________________________

                                         (1) ____________

                                         (2) ____________

                                                   (a) ___

                                                   (b) ___



Paragraph Outline – the guide below indicates the order and content of an outline for a
paragraph.

        I. Main Idea (implied or stated) also known as the topic sentence, written as a complete

sentence.

                A. First Major Supporting Detail

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                         2. Minor supporting detail

                B. Second Major Supporting Detail

                         1. Minor supporting detail
                 C. Third Major Supporting Detail

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                         2. Minor supporting detail

All of the major supporting details support the main idea. The minor details explain or give
examples to make the major details clearer. While the sample above stops at “C,” the third major
supporting detail. You will encounter many paragraphs that have less than or many more than
three major supporting details.

Long Passage Outline - Basically the outline follows the same format as a paragraph, but is
longer and usually more detailed.

Thesis Statement (implied or stated main idea) is always written as a complete sentence.

I. First Main Idea – a complete sentence that supports the thesis

                 A. First Major Supporting Detail for first main idea

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                         2. Minor supporting detail

                                  a. an example of supporting detail

                 B. Second Major Supporting Detail for first main idea

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                         2. Minor supporting detail

                         3. Minor supporting detail

II. Second Main Idea – a complete sentence that supports the thesis

                 A. First Major Supporting Detail for second main idea

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                 B. Second Major Supporting Detail for second main idea

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                 C. Third Major Supporting Detail for second main idea

                         1. Minor supporting detail

III. Third Main Idea -- supports the thesis

                 A. First Major Supporting Detail for third main idea

                         1. Minor supporting detail

                                  a. an example of supporting detail
                                        b. an example of supporting detail

                                        c. an example of supporting detail

                            2. Minor supporting detail

                     B. Second Major Supporting Detail for third main idea

                            1. Minor supporting detail

Each of the main ideas of the paragraphs supports the thesis. All the major supporting details
support the main idea of the paragraph. And each of the minor details adds explanation or
information to a major detail.

                                                                                          Simon/Teuben-Rowe 01/03
*For our purposes, we will use the following Microsoft Word menu function for outlining:

Format > Bullets & Numbering > Outline Numbering > Choose the first option

Part I: Outlining

As you discuss outlining, circle the response that best completes the statements below.

    1. Outlining is a way of ___________________ ideas that helps else tell the difference between
       major and minor details.

    A. understanding                    B. organizing            C. paraphrasing                D. discussing


    2. An outline shows the ________________________ between ideas presented in writing.

    A. understanding                    B. contrast              C. relationship                D. transformation

    3. There are two types of outlines including ____________ and ________________ .

    A.academic & casual                 B. formal & informal     C. similar & different         D. informed &
    uninformed

    4. For this class, we will be writing outlines using _______________________________.

    A. infinitives          B. topics            C. phrases               D. complete sentences

                                                 END OF PART I
Part II: Key Terms

Define the terms below using the “Formal Outlining” handout and your Reading for Thinking text.

                               Term                                                     Meaning

     1. Outlining                                              Way of organizing ideas that shows relationships

     2. Thesis Statement                                       Includes the main ideas of a longer reading

     3. Main Ideas                                             The purpose of the text and the message

     4. Supporting Details                                     Further explain main ideas

     5. Major Supporting Details                               Further explain main ideas

     6. Minor Supporting Details                               Further explain major supporting ideas

     7. Paraphrasing                                           Restating in your words to demonstrate understanding

Part III: Outline an article

As a class, begin outlining an article together. For homework, complete the article outline.



                                           Summarizing
What is a summary?
Summarizing means that you briefly restate, in your own words, the most essential information in a
paragraph or longer passage. A summary usually focuses only on the main ideas and some of the most
important major supporting details—only those details important for clarifying or proving the main idea.
The controlling idea should be clear in the summary. As a result, a summary is usually much shorter than
the original. A paragraph can usually be summarized in a sentence or two, and a typical textbook chapter
can be summarized in a page or two.

How Do You Summarize?
To write a summary, you first identify the controlling idea and main idea(s) of the paragraph or passage.
Then you identify the most important major supporting details—only those essential to proving or clarifying
the main idea(s). From these, using your own words, you write a complete sentence or two for a paragraph
or a paragraph or two for longer passages (how much you write depends on how long the original text is and
how many main ideas there are). It is important to be accurate and only include the author’s ideas and none
of your own ideas, attitudes, or interpretations.

Why is Summarizing Important?
Summarizing is an important reading skill for three specific academic purposes. Writing summaries is a
useful tool for studying. Identifying the main ideas of a reading will help you understand and remember what
you have read. Second, summaries are one of the most common types of college writing assignments, and
“summarize” is a common direction given in written tests. Third, you will need to summarize source
information in order to incorporate it into written research projects—another common college assignment.

What Makes A Summary Incorrect?
        A summary goes wrong when it’s written in the first person (so when you are
         summarizing text you should not need to use the pronouns “I, me, myself, or
         mine), when it expresses your opinion about the original text (… in my personal
         opinion…), it contains too many minor details, it goes off topic, or it only
         partially summarizes the original text.

                               An Example of Summarizing
Original Text
        The invention of the process of printing from movable type, which occurred in
Germany about the middle of the fifteenth century, was destined to exercise a far-
reaching influence on all the vernacular languages of Europe. Introduced into England
about 1476 by William Caxton, who had learned the art on the continent, printing
made such rapid progress that a scant century later it was observed that manuscript
books were seldom to be met with and almost never used. Some idea of the rapidity
with which the new process swept forward may be had from the fact that in Europe
the number of books printed before the year 1500 reached the surprising figure of
35,000. The majority of these, it is true, were in Latin, whereas it is in the modern
languages that the effect of the printing press is chiefly felt. But in England over
20,000 titles in English had appeared by 1640, ranging all the way from mere
pamphlets to massive folios. The result was to bring books, which had formerly been
the expensive luxury of the few, within the reach of all. More important, however,
was the fact, so obvious today, that it was possible to reproduce a book in a thousand
copies or a hundred thousand, every one exactly like the other. A powerful force thus
existed for promoting a standard uniform language, and the means were now available
for spreading that language throughout the territory in which it was understood.
(Baugh, A History of the English Language)

Summary
        Printing, invented in Germany in the mid-fifteenth century, was introduced
into England in 1476 by William Caxton. A century later manuscript books had almost
disappeared. Before 1500, 35,000 books, most in Latin, were printed in Europe, but in
England over 20,000 books in English had appeared by 1640. Books, within reach of
poor and rich alike, promoted the spread of standardized English throughout the
English linguistic territory.

Simon/Teuben-Rowe 1/03

Part I: Summarizing

As you discuss summarizing, circle the response that best completes the statements below.

    5. When ________________, you briefly restate in your own words the most essential information in
       a passage.

    A. outlining          B. understanding          C. creating       D. summarizing


    6. A summary usually focuses on the ______________________ and some of the most important
       major supporting details.

    A. minor details               B. thesis statements      C. main ideas    D. transformations
    7. Summarizing is a good way to check your comprehension or ___________________ of a text.

    A. understanding      B. ability            C. relationship              D. meaning

    8. The controlling idea consists of the words that narrow or _____________ the main topic that the
       writer is conveying.

    A. initiate           B. generalize         C. expand                    D. limit

    9. To write a good summary, you should first identify the ________________ idea and the main ideas
       of the paragraph or passage.

    A. controlling                     B. identifying             C. general            D. best

    10. One or two _______________________ should be enough to summarize a paragraph.

    A. phrases            B. fragments          C. complete sentences                   D. details

    11. When you synthesize information that is related to the same topic, it is wise to make a
        ____________________ between related ideas.

    A. connection         B. correction         C. definition     D. comprehension

    12. When summarizing, it is important to use your own words; however, do not include your own
        ___________________.

    A. objections         B. opinion            C. translation    D. words

    13. When writing a summary, never write using the _______________ person including words like I,
        me, and in my opinion.

    A. first              B. second             C. third          D. indirect

    14. It is not a good idea to use a summary for review when a text is highly _________________
        including many facts, figures, and statistics.

    A. generalized        B. detailed           C. opinionated               D. complicated

                                                 END OF PART I
Part II: Key Terms

Define the terms below using the “Summarizing” handout and your class notes.

                  Term                                                          Meaning
    8. controlling idea                The idea that limits or makes specific the topic
    9. synthesizing                    Making a connection between related ideas

    10. summarizing                    Briefly restate the most essentials ideas in your own words

    11. transitions                    Signal words that tell the writer how ideas organized

Part III: Based upon the model created in class, summarize a one page article. Bring both a copy of the
article and your summary to class for peer evaluation.

				
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