ITGS_Current_Event_Project_2012 by wulinqing


									ITGS Current Event Project                                                                           revised 8/8/11

   1.   Sign up for a quarter topic in class.
   2.   Find an appropriate* current event article to analyze from our quarter theme.
   3.   Paste the article at the bottom of this worksheet.
   4.   Highlight the individual words in the article that match each “strand”:
        YELLOW = Theme/Topic; GREEN = IT System; BLUE = Social/Ethical Issues; PINK = Stakeholders
   5. List the new ITGS vocabulary words from the article and use google to define them.
   6. Save often. Keep a copy in the cloud, on the AW server, or on a flash that goes to school.
   7. Type your answers on this worksheet in black, size 12, and only submit your own
       original work. Do not leave any spaces blank.
   8. Save the completed project as a PDF file.
   9. Drop it into the ITGS Current Event AngelWeb Drop Box as soon as you are finished.
   10. Complete the “” summary assignment online and embed your summary
       on our class wiki:

Your Name           Gabrielle Holt
Class Period        5th Period
Today’s Date        8/26/2011
Date of Article     Unknown
Article Title       The State of Online Political Advertising
Article Author      Kate Kaye, Senior Editor, ClickZ News
Word Count          1,780 words
ITGS Scenario/Theme Political Processes
ITGS Topic          Political Fundraising and Advertising
SUMMARY             The main idea of the article is explaining how political candidates are
                    taking advantage of the online advertisement boom. It talks about
                    their budgeting and the way other forms of gaining support through
                    fundraisers and ads are becoming less popular, and with Facebook
                    becoming exponentially more of an asset to a candidate, along with
                    Google, and YouTube taking over to gain a greater following and
                    network as extra digital media tools.

                              FINDING AN ARTICLE
       Use the 3 tables below to help yourself find a qualified current event story online.
       The article must have at least 500 words, be dated within a year from today and
        include all 4 required ITGS components.
       Save those that do not match the assigned quarter theme, but can be used for a
        different ITGS theme at a later date.
       You must claim your topic/story by recording it on the sign-up sheet in class.
        First come, first serve, no repeat topics.
       You may use your textbooks, and the internet to complete this INDIVIDUAL

                                                PART 1:
                  REFLECT ON THE “STRANDS”
You will have 5 minutes at the beginning of the IB ITGS Paper 2 exam to read an IT article.
You are advised to take the next 15 minutes to reflect on the following 4 “strands” before
formulating your 4 responses. Assignment 1 will teach you how to reflect at this deep level.

Scan the tables to help you highlight your article and decide if it can be used for this project.
Using an article which does not involve a computer chip, will earn a zero. Your IT article must
also mention all 4 strands. Highlight only the words that match a strand, not entire sentences or
paragraphs. Check with the teacher, if you are not sure you have an appropriate article. Copy and
paste your highlighted news story to the end of this document.

               ITGS EXAMS.
               EACH TIME YOU DO THIS.


   Quarter 1 Juniors

               Scenario                     Theme                            Topic
     Politics and                 Political Processes             online campaigning
                                                                  fund-raising and
                                  Government Information          For example: travel
                                  Sites                           warnings, tourist
                                                                  information and
                                                                  warnings, government
                                                                  policies, city government
                                  Access to and updating of       collection, storage and
                                  Personal Information            updating of personal
                                  held on Government              data- for example: driving
                                  Databases                       license, TV license, tax
                                                                  returns, passport
                                                                  applications and
                                                                  renewals, medical
                                                                  records, military service
                                                                  records, social security
                                                                  information, online police
                                  Government Control and          censorship
                                  Use of Information
                                                                  data matching across
                                               biometric data
                                               national identity cards
                    Law and Order              police surveillance
                                               terrorist monitoring
                                               DNA data
                    Military                   cyber warfare
                                               smart weapons
                                               battlefield technology

Quarter 2 Juniors

        Scenario               Theme                       Topic
 The Environment    Modeling and Simulations     Climate change

                                                 Forecasting natural events or
                                                 demographic changes

                    Data Logging                 Sensors
                                                 Real-time data collection

                    Satellite Communication      Remote sensing devices

                                                 Satellite imagery
                    Mapping, Virtual Globes      Geographic information
                                                 systems (GIS)

                                                 Global positioning systems

                                                 Cell/mobile phone tracking

                                                 Online journey planning

                                                 Online maps
                    E-waste                      Disposal and recycling of IT

                                                 Monitoring organizations
                                                 (such as the Basel Action

                    Resource Depletion           Use of nonrenewable
                                                 resources for manufacturing
                                                     Electrical consumption of IT

Quarter 3 Juniors

      Scenario               Theme                           Topic
 Home and Leisure   Homes and Home            IT management of home
                    Networks                  systems: for example:
                                              lighting, security and
                                              entertainment centers.
                    Digital Entertainment     films
                                              online and digital games
                                              virtual worlds
                    Social Networking
                                              chat rooms
                                              file sharing
                    Published and Broadcast
                                              digital radio and TV
                    Digital Policing          monitoring organizations
                                              such as the Recording
                                              Industry Association of
                                              America (RIAA) and the
                                              Motion Picture Association of
                                              America (MPAA).

                    Hardware, Software and    portable digital devices and
                    Networks                  their ability to remotely
                                              control other devices
                                              IT-enabled appliances

Quarter 4 Juniors

      Scenario                Theme                           Topic
Business &           Traditional Businesses       Banks
                                                  EFT (electronic funds
                                                   Travel Agencies
                    Online Businesses              Teleworking
                                                   Web Stores
                    Transportation                 Airline Reservations
                                                   Luggage Tracking
                                                   Package Tracking
                                                   Traffic Control Systems
                                                   IT Systems in Cars

Quarter 1 Seniors

      Scenario                Theme                           Topic
Health              Diagnostic and Therapeutic     Surgery
                                                   Prosthetic devices

                                                   Diagnostic technology


                                                   Patient monitoring

                                                   Individualized IT
                                                   solutions for disabled
                    Medical Information, Medical   Medical advice
                    Marketing and Medical Sales

                                                   Electronic health records

                                                   International health
                    Medical Research               Global collaboration

                                                   Database for the Human
                                                   Genome Project
                                                   Improving patient
                    Psychological and Physical     Internet addiction
                                                    Repetitive strain injury

Quarter 2 Seniors

      Scenario                Theme                             Topic

 Education and      Distance learning over large   Hospitals
 Training           areas


                    Use of IT in Teaching and      Educational software
                                                   Online research and forums

                                                   Virtual learning environments

                                                   Web 2.0/ Web 3.0

                                                   Educational networks

                                                   Use of mobile devices

                                                   Game-based learning

                                                   Fully immersive environments

                                                   Filtering and monitoring of
                                                   students’ internet use


                    Hardware and Network           Laptop computers
                    Technologies in the
                                                   Handheld devices
                                                   Interactive whiteboards

                    Provision for Special Needs    Inclusive software
                                                   Braille keyboards
                    School Administration          Record-keeping of staff and
                                                                           Student Records
                                                                           EDI (electronic data

    Quarter 3 & Quarter 4 Seniors


    2. IT SYSTEM
Identify the IT system(s) in your current event article. The story MUST involve at least one
system that uses a computer chip. If you can’t find any- pick a new article!

    Identify the IT                   Type of Technology?                     Which Social/Ethical
   System(s) in your                                                       Concerns are there for this IT
        Article.                                                                     System?
 Highlight all those that        Highlight all those found in your          Highlight all those that match
    match in green.                      article in green.                      your article in green.
Hardware                          o   PDAs                                    o   health issues
Look for articles dealing with    o   laptops                                 o   ergonomics (physical comfort)
a computer system consisting      o   desktops                                    related to the use of hardware
of input devices, output          o   netbooks                                o   increase in teleworking and
devices, a central processing     o   tablets                                     the virtual office
unit and storage. The             o   MAC address                             o   password protection, security,
increasing tendency to            o   motherboards                                biometrics and authorized
develop hardware in modular       o   CPUs, microprocessors                       access
units raises a range of social    o   ports                                   o   the economic value of
impacts and ethical issues        o   keyboards, mice, touch pads                 information
such as the use of non-           o   microphones                             o   proper disposal of old
renewable natural resources,      o   webcams, digital cameras, digital           hardware
the global transportation of          video cameras                           o   greater dependence of
manufactured components           o   sensors, probes, real-time data             organizations on IT
and their eventual disposal by        collection                              o   other:
individuals, organizations and    o   composite devices, such as game
governments. Possible                 controllers
solutions and their               o   touch sensitive devices
effectiveness are also            o   printers,
appropriate topics.               o   monitors,
                                  o   speakers,
                                  o   projectors
                                  o   CD-ROM, DVD readers and burners
                                  o   optical mark recognition (OMR),
                                      optical character recognition
                                      (OCR), magnetic ink character
                                      recognition (MICR)
                                  o   radio frequency identification
                                      (RFID), radio tags, bar code
                                      scanners, magnetic stripe readers
                                  o   smartcard readers
                                  o   clock speeds: megahertz(MHz),
                                      gigahertz (GHz), terahertz (THz)
                                  o   primary storage: read-only
                                      memory (ROM), random-access
                                      memory (RAM)
                                  o   secondary storage: optical, and
                                      magnetic; flash memory: USB
                                      (universal serial bus) flash drive
                                  o   Bit, byte, kilobyte (KB), megabyte
                                      (MB), gigabyte (GB), terabyte (B),
                                      petabyte (PB), exabyte (EB),
                                     zettabyte (ZB), yottabyte (YB)
                                 o   character encoding: ASCII
                                     (american standard code for
                                     information interchange) and
                                 o   analog and digital data
                                 o   data, information, and hardware.
                                 o   operating systems
                                 o   responsible computer use
                                 o   a responsible and systematic
                                     approach to implementing or
                                     upgrading IT systems

Software                         o   applications such as word             o   interfaces adapted for the
Look for articles about              processing, desktop publishing,           disabled
software associated with a           presentations, photo and video        o   bug-free software
particular computer system.          editing, music and sound              o   software piracy
The development of software          development, website development      o   globalization of software
can have social impacts such     o   system software, such as operating    o   use of password protection to
as increased access for              systems and utilities                     prevent unauthorized access
disabled people, and ethical     o   interfaces, such as graphical user    o   selecting a suitable operating
issues, such as only producing       interfaces (GUI), command line            system
packaging in a limited               interface (CLI), menu-driven          o   verifying that software is
number of languages,                 interface (MDI), and voice                legally installed, registered
effectively making English the   o   licensing: shareware, public              and has available tech support
global language. Articles that       domain, freeware, proprietary and     o   selecting protection from
examine the effects of these         open source software                      viruses and malicious software
developments on                  o   licensing authorities: Business       o   selecting a source to obtain
stakeholders are also                Software Alliance (BSA)                   software
appropriate.                     o   commercial and custom-built           o   balance in responsibility
                                     (bespoke) software                        between an individual and an
                                 o   registration, serial number,              organization for training
                                     warranty, copyright agreement         o   the need for IT companies to
                                 o   web-based software                        consider global and cultural
                                 o   user support: manuals, assistants,        diversity when preparing
                                     tutorials, help systems, “Read Me”        training and tutorial software
                                     files                                 o   the requirement of
                                 o   Macros, templates, wizards                organizations to provide
                                                                               training when implementing
                                 o   File formats, for example, RTF
                                     (rich text format), TXT (text), PDF
                                                                           o   other:
                                     (portable document format), XLS
                                     (Excel spreadsheet), SWF (small
                                     web format), ZIP (zipped file),
                                     JPG/JPEG (Joint Photographic
                                     Experts Group bitmap), PNG
                                     (portable network graphics
                                     bitmap), CSV (comma-separated
                                     values), HTM/HTML (hypertext
                                     markup language)
                                 o   Data transfer: ASCII (American
                                     Standard Code for Information
                                     Interchange), tab-delimited text
                                     file, zipped file
                                 o   software and shareware
                                 o   GUI, command-line interface, and
                                     voice recognition.
                                 o   defragmentation/optimization
                                     and disk utility software
                                 o   backup, file management, account
                                     and accessibility management
                                 o   monitor and keyboard settings,
                                     for example, international
                                     settings, disability settings
                                 o   virus scan, malware detectors
                                     and removers
                                 o   compression/decompression
                                     (lossless, lossy)
                                 o   color synchronization
                                 o   tutorial software, training software,
                                     wizards and assistants
                                 o   using wizards, assistants and online
                                     assistants and web sites

Networks                         o   e-commerce                              o   vulnerability of networks to
Look for articles focused on a   o   security measures                           intrusion
type of network, the             o   types of intrusion like viruses and     o   ability to filter incoming data,
development of acceptable-           hacking                                 o   need for interface standards
use policies, compatibility      o   encryption and SSL                      o   implications of network
protocols, effectiveness of      o   LAN and WAN                                 failures
networks, the impact of          o   client, host and server                 o   need for network use policy
ineffective management and       o   main frame, supercomputers              o   other:
network failure. Almost all      o   grid computing, distributed
businesses, institutions and         processing
organizations, and an            o   ethernet, peer-to-peer (P2P)
increasing number of             o   local area network (LAN), wide
households, are linked by            area network (WAN), virtual LAN
networks. The increasing use         (VLAN), wireless WAN (WLAN),
of networks raises a range of        and home networks
social impacts and ethical       o   internet, intranet, extranet, virtual
issues such as unauthorized          private network (VPN)
access, intrusive software       o   routers, switches, hubs
(viruses, worms and Trojan       o   connection types:
horses), spam, phishing,             optical fiber, cable, wireless
pharming, spoofing and               technologies such as wireless
identity theft. Students are         fidelity (WiFi), worldwide
expected to discuss possible         interoperability for microwave
solutions and evaluate their         access (WiMax), Bluetooth,
effectiveness.                       microwave
                                 o   network operating systems and
                                     utility software
                                 o   cloud computing
                                 o   storage technologies: such as SAN
                                     (storage area network), RAID
                                     (redundant array of inexpensive
                                 o   protocols for network functionality
                                 o   synchronous and asynchronous
                                 o   remote access
                                 o   bandwidth, broadband
                                 o   bit rates
                                 o   electronic security issues:
                                     authorized access, levels of access,
                                     biometrics, login, password,
                                     firewalls, proxy server, encryption,
                                     secure socket layer (SSL), audit
                                 o   licenses: single-user, multi-user,
                                     concurrent, network, site license
                                 o   physical security, such as locks
                                 o   monitoring, such as keystroke
                                     monitoring, system performance,
                                 o   network policies, such as: backup,
                                     archiving, disaster recovery, usage,
                                     redundancy, fallover
                                 o   codes of ethics and professional
                                     conduct: ACM (Association for
                                     Computer Machinery)
                                 o   data centers
                                  o   energy usage, uninterruptable
                                      power supply (UPS)

Internet                          o   e-mail                                 o   ethical considerations relating
Look for articles about the       o   viruses                                    to the use of encryption and, to
technology that enables           o   global databases                           workplace monitoring
access to the internet, as well   o   encryption methods                     o   social impact of global viruses
as the tools and applications     o   features of a web page                     and dependence on the
that contribute to the creation   o   the limiting effect of bandwidth           Internet
of web-based resources. The       o   means for blocking access to           o   reliability of the information
use of the internet for               information                            o   etiquette rules for appropriate
activities such as e-             o   WWW (World Wide Web), URL                  behavior when using the
commerce, academic research           (uniform resource locator),                Internet
and social networking can             internet, intranet, extranet           o   ethical considerations relating
raise ethical issues and have     o   internet protocols: for example,           to workplace monitoring
positive or negative social           HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol),    o   internet security: for example,
impacts. These may include            HTTPS (hypertext transfer protocol         firewall, proxy server, SSL
exposure to undesirable               secure), FTP (file transfer                (secure sockets layer),
materials, cyber-bullying, e-         protocol), TCP/IP (transmission            encryption, public and private
fraud, improved                       control protocol/internet protocol)        keys, digital signatures
communication between             o   IP address                             o   internet threats: for example,
individuals and groups,           o   modem, browser, internet service           global viruses, hackers, spam,
intellectual property theft,          provider (ISP), bandwidth,                 phishing, pharming, spyware,
plagiarism, spamming and the          download, upload, streaming                adware
global dissemination of ideas.        audio/video, compression,              o   other:
Possible solutions to a               decompression, cache
specified problem and an          o   domain names, domain name
evaluation of their                   system (DNS)
effectiveness are also            o   features of a website: for example,
appropriate.                          hyperlinks, navigation, metatags,
                                      tags, forms
                                  o   features of a browser: for example,
                                      bookmarks, visited links, tabs
                                  o   Web-based languages: for example,
                                      hypertext markup language
                                      (HTML), JavaScript
                                  o   adding functionality to a browser
                                      (for example, plug-ins)
                                  o   data-driven websites: for example,
                                      active server page extended
                                      (ASPX), personal home page (PHP)
                                  o   site management: for example, web
                                      hosting, uploading
                                  o   other site use: for example, bounce
                                      rate, click-through rate (CTR),
                                      avatar, profile
                                  o   search engines, web
                                      crawler/spider, search directories,
                                      search techniques, filtering,
                                      keyword density,
                                  o   keyword prominence, ranking of
                                  o   social networking: for example,
                                      newsgroups, message boards, chat
                                      rooms, forums, instant messaging
                                  o   email, email server, list server
                                  o   Web 2.0, Web 3.0 and beyond,
                                      collaborative online tools: for
                                      example, wikis, blogs, micro-blogs,
                                      RDF (resource description
                                      framework) site summary feeds,
                                      RSS (really simple syndication)
                                      feeds, mashups, forums, social
                                      bookmarking, online collaborative
                                      applications, podcasts, photocasts,
                                      vidcasts, social networking sites,
                                      templates, tagging, viral marketing,
                                       webcasts, widgets, virtual worlds
                                       and learning environments
                                   o   web databases, encyclopedias
                                   o   online advertising and marketing
                                       technologies: for example, banners,
                                       pop-ups, cookies
                                   o   push–pull technologies: for
                                       example, email newsletters
                                   o   content management systems: for
                                       example, Moodle, Blackboard
                                   o   E-commerce technology: for
                                       example, business-to-business
                                       (B2B), business-to-consumer
                                   o   consumer-to-consumer (C2C),
                                       payment services, secure
                                   o   The World Wide Web Consortium

Personal & Public                  o   face-to-face communication versus      o   social effects of telecommuting
                                       via technology                         o   effect on the environment of
Communications                     o   mobile phones and associated               personal communication
Look for articles that discuss         services and uses                          devices
the wealth of information          o   personal mobile devices such as        o   social effects of widespread
available to society that can          laptops and PDA                            use of teleconferencing and
be accessed on demand and          o   undetected intrusions into IT              video conferencing
has changed the way in which           systems                                o   other:
people behave. The social
                                   o   personal digital assistants (PDAs)
impacts and ethical issues
                                       and handheld digital devices
related to a plethora of
                                   o   global positioning systems (GPS),
devises and means of
communication may include              navigation systems and
the health implications of             geotagging
mobile devices, unauthorized       o   cell/mobile phones
access to wireless networks,       o   digital radio and TV
interception of                    o   embedded systems
communications, storage of         o   videoconferencing
personal communications for        o   remote access: for example,
security purposes, and                 teleworking, distance learning
tracking of people. How these      o   telephony: voice over internet
devices work independently             protocol (VOIP)
and as part of a network           o   accessing, sharing and
should also include weighing           distributing text, photos, video,
their benefits and drawbacks.          audio and television via IT
Future developments of these           devices
converging technologies and        o   synchronization of information
their compatibility can be
                                       between portable systems,
                                       desktop systems, servers and
                                       web-based services

Multimedia & Digital               o   design and creation concepts such      o   copyright issues
                                       as data integrity and storage          o   intellectual property rights
Media                              o   design guidelines for creating         o   licensing
Look for articles involving the                                               o   biased information
                                       multimedia/digital media
use and integration of media                                                  o   reliability of data
                                   o   design methods: for example, site
(for example, text, images and                                                o   surveillance and privacy
graphic elements, animation,           map, storyboard
                                   o   primary and secondary data             o   selecting a commercial
sound and music, and video)                                                       provider
to create digital products that    o   multimedia file formats: for
                                       example, text formats, audio           o   social impacts of speech-
are available online or offline.                                                  enabled input / output
These technologies make                formats, video formats,
                                                                              o   economic effects of DTP on
information accessible                 presentation formats,
through different media and            image/graphics formats
                                                                              o   the effects of word processing
online services. It is             o   policies, copyright, citing sources,       and DTP on the workplace like
important to be aware of the           Creative Commons, licensing and            job loss
actual uses of                         watermarking
multimedia/digital media and     o   digital rights management (DRM)       o   other:
the practical work in this       o   storage, processing and access
topic. Evaluation of their           concepts such as file formats,
effectiveness in various             loading time, and portability
scenarios is also appropriate.   o   folder and file management:
Multimedia/digital media             importance of file and folder
raises questions about a             naming, appropriate folder
range of impacts, issues and         structures
solutions that must be           o   tutorials: for example, help pages,
investigated, including              online manuals
copyright, intellectual
                                 o   templates and wizards, online
property, and current
                                     and provided with software
practices and policies used to
                                 o   importing and exporting data
grant permission for use.
                                 o   integrating software applications
                                     and online tools: for example,
                                     embedded videos, web-based
                                 o   text-processing software
                                 o   formatting: for example, page
                                     layout, fonts, headers and footers
                                 o   text file formats: for example,
                                     PDF, RTF, TXT
                                 o   typography
                                 o   Software types: for example,
                                     albums, animated, 3D, bitmapped,
                                     vector, photo editing, photo
                                     casting, simulation
                                 o   bit depth, color depth (grayscale,
                                     shades of gray, millions of colors)
                                 o   layers, grouping, divisions,
                                 o   resolution, pixels, dots per inch
                                 o   image file formats: for example,
                                     JPG, GIF, TIF
                                 o   computer-generated imagery
                                 o   audio-editing software, podcasts
                                 o   digital audio: for example, MIDI
                                     (musical instrument digital
                                     interface), MP3 (MPEG-1 audio
                                     layer 3), MP4(MPEG-4 part 14),
                                     WAV (waveform audio format)
                                 o   audio file formats: for example,
                                     MP3, MP4, WAV
                                 o   video-editing software, vidcasts
                                     and special effects (for example,
                                     morphing, transitions)
                                 o   digital video: for example, AVI
                                     (audio video interleave), MPEG
                                     (Moving Picture Experts Group),
                                     video CODECs (coder-decoders)
                                 o   video file formats: for example,
                                     AVI, MOV, MP4,etc.
                                 o   software types to house and
                                     display the multimedia
                                     components: for example, word
                                     processing, desktop publishing,
                                     presentations, web pages
                                 o   differences in files (for example,
                                     graphics, images, audio, video)
                                     for print and online versions
                                 o   inserting and manipulating
                                     objects (graphics, sound or video
                                  o   tables: cell merge, borders, cell
                                      padding, cell spacing, nested
                                  o   layers
                                  o   links: relative and absolute,
                                      internal and external, for
                                      example, anchors, pop-ups
                                  o   word processing and desktop
                                      publishing (DTP)
                                  o   referencing and reviewing: for
                                      example, spellchecker, thesaurus,
                                      outliners, word count
                                  o   word processing versus page
                                  o   appropriate use of templates
                                  o   effective use of word processing
                                  o   appropriate use of fonts, white
                                      space and line spacing to create
                                      output which communicates
                                  o   inline and floating graphics
                                  o   interactive multimedia,
                                      slideshows and websites
                                  o   applications and online tools used
                                      for creating and making available
                                      interactive multimedia, games,
                                      presentations, slideshows and
                                  o   use of scripting in creating web
                                      pages (for example, HTML,
                                      JavaScript, URL links to online
                                  o   integration of online tools

Databases                         o   table                                   o   privacy of information in
Look for articles showing how     o   field, data types, key field/primary        different cultures
databases are used in schools,        key, secondary key                      o   rights of individuals with
retail stores, online shopping,   o   record                                      respect to the storage of
reservations, etc.). Databases    o   flat-file database, relational              personal data,
lie at the heart of most IT           database, normalization                 o   ethical issues related to the
systems whether in                o   database management system                  collection and use of personal
businesses, organizations or      o   specialized databases: for example,         data
other institutions.                   web databases, online                   o   ethical issues related to the
Databases enable                      encyclopedias                               selling of data stored in
organizations to maintain         o   design and creation concepts like           databases.
accurate and comprehensive            updating data                           o   database security
records. In order to              o   data validation: data types, range      o   other:
appreciate the                        check, check digit, field size, input
role that databases play, there       mask, drop-down list
must be an understanding of       o   data integrity, reliability,
how they work, which can              redundancy
only be gained from the           o   queries: for example, searching,
design and creation of basic          sorting, filtering, use of Boolean
relational databases as well          operators (AND, NOT, OR)
as by examining how               o   data entry form
databases are used in the         o   report generation
specified topics listed under     o   macros
each of the 6 ITGS scenarios:     o   transfer of data between databases
business & employment,                and other applications
education & training, the         o   storage and access concepts such as
environment, health fields,           data mining and data matching
home & leisure, and politics &   o   presentation concepts such as
government (2012 ITGS                special purpose databases in
Guide: pgs. 23-25).                  libraries or encyclopedia systems
The increasing use of            o   design and creation concepts like
databases raises a range of          updating data
social impacts and ethical       o   storage and access concepts such as
issues such as the rights of         data mining and data matching
individuals with respect to      o   presentation concepts such as
the storage and potential sale       special purpose databases in
of their personal data or the        libraries or encyclopedia systems
ease of data mining              o   design and creation concepts like
and data matching. Discussing        cell, cell format
these issues and evaluating
possible solutions is useful.

Spreadsheets &                   o   storage and access concepts such as     o   privacy of information in
                                     data transfer between a data base           different cultures
Modeling and                         and a spreadsheet.                      o   rights of individuals with
Simulations                      o   presentation concepts like select           respect to the storage of
Look for “what-if” articles          print, use of appropriate graph or          personal data,
with statistics, data, graphs        chart and special purpose               o   ethical issues related to the
or financial details used to         spreadsheets                                collection and use of personal
discuss real-world what-if       o   cell types, such as text, number,           data
scenarios. The increasing            date, currency, hyperlinks. Etc.        o   ethical issues related to the
capabilities of computers        o   formulas, such as relative and              selling of data stored in
have allowed individuals             absolute cell references                    spreadsheets.
and organizations to             o   sorting, filtering, and replicating     o   reliability of predictions based
develop software that can            data                                        on computer models like in
                                 o   types of charts                             global warming
be used to test “what-if”
                                 o   formatting and presentation, such       o   security issues involved in
scenarios and create
                                     as test/fonts, background,                  military simulations
simulations and models of            paragraphs, and pages                   o   social impact of reliance on
real-world events.               o   data validation, verification and           simulations to examine issues
Spreadsheets, through the            testing                                     of public policy
use of worksheets and            o   functions, such as math, text, logic,   o   other:
graphs, can be used to               date, etc.
manage, predict using a          o   protection for sheets and
series of “what-if” scenarios,       workbooks
and display financial details    o   cell locking
of businesses.                   o   advanced functions, such as lookup,
Modeling and simulations             pivot tables, macros, etc.
can be used to recreate or       o   worksheet modeling: “what-if”
predict the conditions that          analysis (scenarios, goal seek tool)
may result from an event,        o   models
for example, the areas that      o   simulations
will be affected by coastal      o   different types of models and
flooding as a result of              simulations
                                 o   virtual reality, augmented reality,
different levels of global
                                     gaming, such as MMORPG
warming. It is important to
                                     (massively multiplayer online
be aware of the benefits of          roleplaying game)
creating accurate                o   graphics and animations (2D, 3D)
spreadsheets, models and         o   visualization of data
simulations, as well as, the     o   feedback loop
social impacts that could        o   the validity of a model
result from simulations          o   the verification of the results of a
being unable to replicate the        simulation
real world, and the ethical      o   reproducibility of results
issues that may arise during     o   relationship of a model to reality
the development of the           o   relationship between a model and a
model.                               simulation
                                 o   faulty or hidden assumptions
                                 o   processing power needed to create
                                     complex models
                                 o   visualization of information
                                 o   correspondence of the model with

Project Management                     o    stakeholders: client, end-user(s),    o   other:
Look for articles focused on                developer
the creation of a product. All         o    the need for project management
IT development requires a              o    data collectiontechniques for
management method.                          content and product design
Knowledge and                          o    citing of sources
understanding of the product           o    role of testing
development life cycle (PDLC)          o    processes used
is often used as a framework           o    technical manuals
to develop IT solutions.               o    end-user documentation
                                       o    end-user training

                                   Product development life cycle (PDLC) has
                                   these 11 steps:

                                       o     investigation of existing systems
                                       o     feasibility study
                                       o     requirements specifications
                                       o     project schedule
                                       o     appropriate design techniques
                                       o     product design
                                       o     product development
                                       o     data capture
                                       o     product testing and debugging
                                       o     technical documentation
                                       o     client and end-user evaluation

IT Systems in                          o    development methodologies: agile      o   the need for IT systems in
                                            development and waterfall                 organizations
Organizations                               development                           o   the role of IT systems in
Look for articles about Most           o    project management                        organizations
organizations, at some stage                methodologies: PRINCE2 (projects      o   organizational IT policies
of their development, require               in controlled environments 2);        o   IT personnel and
the introduction of a new IT                SSADM (structured systems                 organizational structure, such
system, as well as, the                     analysis and design method);              as Information System (IS)
maintenance and eventual                    PMBoK (project management body            managers, support staff,
retirement of their current                 of knowledge); CMMI (capability           network manager, database
systems. Their ability to                   maturity model integration)               administrator
manage this change can                 o    iteration                             o   development personnel:
determine the future viability         o    time constraints, tasks, resources,       manager, programmer,
of their organization. Look for             and milestones                            analyst, project manager, etc.
articles about this situation or       o    Gantt and Pert charts                 o   incident management and
about real IT professionals            o    modeling systems: entities, entity        escalation
who maintain legacy systems                 relationship diagrams (ERD), data     o   other:
or develop new systems.                     flow diagrams, etc.
                                       o    maintenance of legacy systems
                                       o    system support: internal support,
                                            maintenance contracts, etc.

                                   System development life cycle (SDLC)
                                   includes these steps:

                                       1.   analysis of current situation
                                       2.   organizational requirements
                                       3.   methods of data collection:
                                            questionnaires, interviews.
                                            observation, literature searches
                                       4.   feasibility study
                                       5.   identification of possible IT
6.    requirements specification
7.    justification of preferred IT
8.    project plan (who, why, what, when
      and how part of the project)
9.    project goals, scope and
      constraints, such as financial, time,
      technical, human-resource-related,
10.   communication, procurement,
11.   project initiation document
12.   design considerations
13.   inputs, data structure, processes,
      outputs, user interface
14.   prototyping
15.   development of the IT solution
16.   initial testing, alpha testing
17.   quality assurance and quality
18.   implementation
19.   training and support of staff,
      documentation to support the new
      IT system
20.   changeover methods: direct,
      phased and parallel running
21.   beta testing
22.   maintenance
23.   phase out
Robotics, Artificial                o   why robots don't have android           o   social and economic effects of
                                        human-like forms                            replacing people with robots
Intelligence & Expert               o   processing power in relation to the         in the work place
Systems                                 capabilities and limitations of         o   ethical decisions regarding the
Look for articles highlighting          robots                                      use of robots in situations that
products that can imitate           o   the capabilities and limitations of         endanger human beings
human behavior. The                     robots with respect to vision, touch,   o   social impact of human
increasing capability of IT             sound and movement                          interaction with robots
systems has allowed                 o   Input devices: for example, camera,     o   reliability of robotic devices
developers to implement                 sensors, microphones                    o   handing over decision-making
systems that attempt to             o   O utput devices: for example, claws,        to a computer
understand and imitate                  wheels, motors, relays, speakers        o   social impact and ethical
human behavior. These               o   robot, android, cyborg                      considerations regarding the
systems have already had            o   sensors: for example, heat,                 use of robotics in medicine and
profound effects on society,            proximity, magnetism, light,                surge
although their effectiveness is         humidity, pH                            o   robot rights
largely determined by the           o   artificial intelligence                 o   robots as smart weapons
accuracy of the algorithms          o   artificial intelligence versus          o   reliability of AI systems
that underpin them.                     computational intelligence              o   costs of AI, robotics, and
The increasing use of               o   man or machine: Turing test,                expert systems
robotics, artificial intelligence       CAPTCHA (completely automated           o   implications of creative
(AI) and expert systems                 public Turing test to tell computers        production by computers
raises a range of ethical           o   and humans apart)                           using AI
issues. For example, at which       o   capabilities and limitations: for       o   responsibility for the
point should humans hand                example, learning to identify               performance of an expert
over key decision-making to a           human emotions, evaluation of               system
computer? Should robots                 living                                  o   social impact of using smart
have the same rights as             o   things and machines (intuition,             machines in everyday life
humans? What social impacts             prior knowledge, judgment)              o   responsibility for the
might arise with the                o   AI techniques: searching, pattern           performance of an expert
replacement of human                    recognition, heuristics, machine            system
workers or the creation of              learning                                o   other:
smart weapons?                      o   fuzzy logic, set theory
                                    o   machine learning: can machines
                                        become independent?
                                    o   natural language communication
                                        and translators
                                    o   neural networks: similarity to
                                        biological systems
                                    o   pattern recognition: OCR (optical
                                        character recognition), image
                                        analysis, speech recognition,
                                    o   synthesizers
                                    o   processing and storage
                                        requirements for AI
                                    o   processing requirements for AI
                                    o   collection / creation of a
                                        knowledge base
                                    o   storage requirements for
                                        common-sense knowledge
                                    o   identifying domains that are
                                        suitable for expert systems
                                    o   Collection, creation and
                                        maintenance of knowledge base
                                    o   creation of inference engine,
                                        inference rule (“if–then” rules),
                                        chaining, suitable domains for
                                        expert systems
                                    o   expert systems, knowledge base,
                                        knowledge engineer, expert system
                                        shells, inference engine, domain,
                                        common-sense knowledge
                                    o   purpose of an algorithm within
                                        expert systems: for example, fault
                                        finding, product development
                            o   embedded systems: for example,
                                cell/mobile phones, GPS, washing
                            o   internet search engines
                            o   smart systems: for example, used at
                                home or in warfare, medicine, cars
                            o   use of artificial intelligence (AI): for
                                example, language translation,
                                chess, voice recognition, modeling,
                                games, predictive text, business
                                intelligence systems
                            o   use of expert systems: for example,
                                medical diagnosis, fault diagnosis,
                                flight simulators, fraud detection
                            o   use of robots: for example, in
                                industry, health, warfare, airlines,
                                space, underwater exploration

These are the people, groups, and organizations mentioned in your article. Find them in
your story by answering the questions below, and then highlight the PRIMARY
stakeholder in pink. Can’t find any stakeholders? Then pick a new article!

Who initiated and         Facebook serves as an IT group because it is used as a social network
controls this IT          to gain a political following. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, but
system?                   the politicians control their own pages during their campaigns.
Who is responsible        The teams behind each running candidate. For Barrack Obama, he
(decided to do the        has the OFA (Obama for America) group heading his page and
work) for this IT         monitoring the following they receive.
Who is accountable        The advertising team is responsible for setting ads on the site and
(gets financial and       arranging that with facebook to get it placed properly (?)
legal consequences) for
this IT system?
Who can benefit           Any candidate who wants a mass way to reach a wide a audience of
from this IT system?      potential voters.
Who can lose              The only way you could lose would be by not implementing as a tool
from this IT system?      to use in your campaign while your opponents already are.
What are the economic     Economically, Facebook is a much less expensive method to
(money) advantages        broadcast the messages politicians wish to send: “online ads allow
and/or disadvantages      candidates and advocacy groups to capture supporters early at a
of the IT system on the   relatively low cost compared to TV, direct mail and other media”
What are the political    The use of social networking is primarily advantageous because once
advantages and/or         the user has logged onto their page they can draw them in to convince
disadvantages of the IT   them to sign petitions geared to important political topics/issues such
system on the             as the economic deficit, gay marriage equality, etc.
What are the cultural     Websites like Facebook shows one way that politicians are
advantages and/or         modernizing their methods to advertise their campaigns. They’re
disadvantages of the IT   taking use of the internet and the public is responding in return.
system on the
What are the legal      “Legislators are proposing bills that could restrict online tracking and
advantages and/or       behavioral ad targeting, but the irony is that many lawmakers
disadvantages of the IT themselves use online tracking, behavioral ads and other forms of ad
system on the           targeting to help them get elected.” There is a hypocritical standpoint
stakeholders?           on the legal side of this topic, but because it is a promotional tool,
                        everyone seems to want to use it.
What are the            By using more and more multimedia tools, there becomes less of a
environmental           need to utilize paper ads and flyers and brochures and posters.
advantages and/or       Anyone can access these same materials in a digital format as soon as
disadvantages of the IT the click on the internet. Saving paper saves the environment in small
system on the           but effective ways.
What are the            The ergonomics of a personal computer are all dependent on the users
ergonomic (physical     experience of handling one, but assuming that they’re accustomed,
comfort) advantages     the simplicity of a site like Facebook becomes a basic site to learn to
and/or disadvantages    navigate. The downside however, is that an older citizen may not be
of the IT system on the as comfortable with knowing how to work the website as younger
stakeholders?           users would. Thus, people over 70 may have a harder time, and that a
                        demographic of the audience may be lost.
What are the health     The public health is not affected by the use of social networking as a
advantages and/or       political tool as stated anywhere in the article.
disadvantages of the IT
system on the
What are the            The psychological advantages would be that a stakeholder can
psychological           manipulate their information to say whatever they please on their
advantages and/or       election pages. But at the same time, those who are permitted to
disadvantages of the IT comment on their posts and updates can in turn type messages that
system on the           oppose the stakeholders views, thus possibly affecting/swaying the
stakeholders?           opinions of others and crippling their views.
Describe a feasible     The ergonomics would be easy to fix if more communities would
solution to overcome    implement computer classes in nursing homes and rec centers and
one of the              libraries for those who struggle with using them and then introduce
disadvantages           the world of social networking to them.
mentioned above.
State briefly how each of these issues relates to your article’s topic, the IT system and/or
stakeholders. If it’s not stated directly in the article, use your ITGS knowledge to make a
connection. Check theses terms and memorize their definitions from the ITGS Guide 2012,
pages 21-22. Highlight the PRIMARY concern in blue.

reliability & integrity    When it comes to any form of broadcast therein holds the question of
                           integrity. It’s a matter of following up with your word and not
                           stretching the truth.
security                   “ If privacy concerns can be assuaged, campaigns could target
                           specific voters in close proximity to a candidate's speaking
                           appearance, for instance.”
privacy & anonymity        When a person donates to a particle fund they have to sign-on with
                           their e-mails and then the campaign can go back to them and ask for
                           support again and again. So you are known to them as a resource, not
                           an anonymous voter.
intellectual property      The candidates each have “Expert online” marketers and
                           advertisement tams and whatever they create is what comes up
                           throughout the election. They own the names, slogans, etc. as
authenticity               This is a challenge because whether or not a candidate is being honest
                           with their motives is hard to gauge. Advertisement, like propaganda,
                           can be manipulated.
the digital divide &       This IT system is perfect for access. Everyone who doesn’t have a
equality of access         computer has free access to their local libraries or mobile devices to
                           get into the elections.
surveillance               Online tracking in regards to advertising for elections
globalization and          The internet is considered a world wide web so that whatever
cultural diversity         President Obama messages online here in America can be seen by
                           people in Japan or Israel just as equally.
policies, rules, or laws   “Legislators are proposing bills that could restrict online tracking and
                           behavioral ad targeting”
standards & protocols      The standard is wide for online advertisement and fundraising
                           because there are so many ways to go about that just ONE isn’t
                           necessarily right or wrong. However the protocols, or instructions or
                           tools are in fact the standard as the “rules” to run an ad and the tools
                           you use to do it tend to stay the same (computers and ad
people and machines        Online advertising allows people to use their computers (machines) to
                           make personal decisions in regards to their votes and get direct
                           information on all of the candidates and stay current throughout the
Describe one major         The method of sign-ons could pose an issue because someone who
problem emerging           decides to donate once to a campaign will forever be in their system
from one of the impact     as a donor through their e-mail addresses, and will continue to be
areas above.               contacted for support.
Describe two               One would be just like the Haiti relief efforts to text-to-donate. The
alternative ethical        message would be sent to the cause and the money would come out
decisions or feasible      of their monthly phone bills without keeping their personal
solutions to that          information. Also a tele-thon works because you can call in this way.
What is a possible         These methods are primarily used to raise money for charitable
consequence of each of     causes, not political campaigns, so the candidates could risk quite a
these two decisions or     bit of slander by non-profit organizations for using these fund-raisers
solutions?                 simply for personal gain in an election.
Evaluate why one is        The text to donate is much better because generally a text message is
better than the other.     much more convenient and easier for more of people to contribute to,
                           rather than to place a phone call or watch an infomercial for

              PART 2: THE 4 EXAM QUESTIONS
                            Straight from the exam you will take.

Time yourself to see how long it takes you to complete all 4 sections:

                         Start Time:      0:00
                         End Time:        5:15

Your goal is to write the 4 most complete responses in 1 hour. Keeping time will help you
get a feel for how much you can do in 60 minutes, so that you can pace yourself and avoid
feeling nervous or rushed during the actual Paper 2 exam.

You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.
                                 Make reference to relevant social/ethical concerns and
Criterion A
Identify (name) an ITGS        Political online advertising is costing campaigns a lot of money
social or ethical issue in to sponsor themselves through this form of internet media primarily
the article. *Choose your Facebook. With the harsh economy, they may only use a small
specific issue             portion of their spending to allocate to website pages/
thoughtfully, since you    advertisements. The major distinction between them is the amount
will have to use it again  of money they attain/ manage to spend in an effort to brand
in criterion B to show     themselves during elections.
how it relates to the IT
Describe (= use details)       The typical budget is 5% or less that is allocated to just the
the social/ethical issue   portion of online advertising. McCain’s team spent $4 milion
identified above.          compared to nearly $20 million by the Obama team. Facebook drew
                           in a small profit of $1 million compared to Google’s $7.5 million
                           profit for ads. However more of the public has joined Facebook
                           since last year to gain the networking edge.

Identify (name) the             The Democratic National Committee plans to spend more on
relationship between one    online advertisements than any other campaign has in the
primary stakeholder to      Republican party. Especially with Facebook gaining more members
the IT system in the        of the “voting public” throughout its “explosive growth”.
article.                    Therefore more ads on that site translate to a larger audience.
Describe the relationship    The DNC is going to branch out to meet more forms of social
between this primary      media than ever before, instead of using up so much of Google’s
stakeholder and the IT    ads.
system identified above.
Write approximately 100
words total, and          TOTAL WORD COUNT = 199
highlight each individual
ITGS key term.

Score Your Criterion A Answer Using the        4
IB Paper 2 Rubric Above:
Explain how your original answer matches       All of the relationships were
the score description.                         explained accordingly between the
*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
                                               stakeholders and the IT system.
and fix the original answer with red text
until it matches the highest possible score.

You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.
                               Make reference to relevant stakeholders, information
Criterion B
                                          technologies, data and processes.
Identify (name) ALL of        Candidates use Facebook as a way to leverage themselves in
the major components of their election. Having a Facebook contact connection and an expert
the IT system using      on network marketing are important components for it to run. It can
appropriate technical IT illuminate publicity of the election and connect with supporters of
terminology.             voting age, which is why it is a popular method.
Write a detailed
description of the step-             1. Create an account.
by-step process of how               2. Decide your form of privacy/personal control
the IT system works,                      options .
which goes beyond                      3. Gather 25 fans. Establish a personalized web address
what’s written in the                     known as a Vanity URL. (i.e.
article. Show that you           )
have a clear                           4. Upload images/direct link of your websites that a
understanding of this                     visitor would be directed to.
process.                               5. Payment options: pay-per-click or pay-per-view
                                          which determines how much you owe Facebook
                                          each time someone sees it.

Explain (by including             Social networking and multimedia ads shouldn’t be the only
reasons or causes) the      channel for government spending. Facebook’s method of payment
relationship between the    is simple and you can set payments accordingly, but that investment
IT system in the article    could stretch beyond the budget of a candidate in the running,
and the social/ethical      making other areas of his campaign harder to compensate. They
concern you identified in   then start asking for more support and it gets to the point where we
Criterion A above. Be       ask where the money is going, and so much of its only in their
sure to use ITGS            advertising.
Write approximately 150
words total, and            TOTAL WORD COUNT = 192
highlight each individual
ITGS key term.
Score Your Criterion B Answer Using the           6
IB Paper 2 Rubric Above:
Explain how your original answer matches          All the questions were answered with
the score description.                            a clear recycled sentence and facts to
*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
                                                  support it. The step-by-step process is
and fix the original answer with red text
until it matches the highest possible score.      stated correctly along with the rest of
                                                  the exam.

You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.
                              Evaluate the impact of the social/ethical issues on relevant
Criterion C
Identify a social/ethical      The amount of spending in their attempts to reach people
problem for the relevant through social networking can make/break a politician’s campaign
stakeholders.             budget.
Write a detailed                The impact is a matter of genuity vs. marketing. If the person
description of the impact who wins is the one that spent the most on online advertising
of any social and/or      without a concrete plan, then the economy suffers, AND there’s no
ethical issues on the     legitimate plan to improve/fix anything. It’s not politically ethical
stakeholders. DO NOT      to spend so much for nothing.
Analyze the impact of          Stakeholders can come out to look “phony”. Obama’s
the social/ethical issues campaign promised “YES WE CAN”. His slogan took a lot of heat
on the stakeholders by    once he was in office; people weren’t happy with how his actions
breaking down the         weren’t immediately measuring up to his promises. A lot of money
relationship to show the  went into it with the ethical issue being the outcome of such
essential elements or its spending.
Evaluate the impact of          In politics it’s crucial to brand yourself in a way that conveys a
the social/ethical issues message that sets you apart from everyone else; “Far more spending
on the stakeholders by    on Facebook ads can be expected during the 2012 primaries and
weighing the strengths    general election in comparison to any other cycle yet.” The only
and limitations (pros and real positives are personal. The ethical issue stands as the negative
cons, or positives and    unless the candidate has an economic rebound plan to make up for
negatives). Refer back to the ad spending.
the info in the article
with explicit and well-
developed references.
Use ITGS terminology.
Write approximately 250
words total, and          TOTAL WORD COUNT = 200
highlight each individual
ITGS key term.
Score Your Criterion C Answer Using the         7
IB Paper 2 Rubric Above:
Explain how your original answer matches        The social and ethical issue was
the score description.                          addressed appropriately and
*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
                                                evaluated throughout the response.
and fix the original answer with red text
until it matches the highest possible score.

You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.
                           Evaluate one solution that addresses at least one problem identified
Criterion D
                                                      in Criterion C
Propose, and then write     A text-to-donate feature used to raise money for Haitian relief is
a detailed description of one way to do the same for campaigns. Government messages
ONE possible solution to could be sent through service providers sending lists of candidates
any problem(s) identified to choose from and text optional pre-votes. The cost would be
in criterion C. DO NOT    regular data/messaging charges that would be used as a donation for
COPY TEXT FROM            each text. This way the 5% of the ad budget would dwindle,
THE ARTICLE.              expanding the overall budget and carry over into more productive
                          areas of government funding.
Evaluate this solution by       Not everyone has a phone, so it may be difficult to get a
talking about both its    reading of where a candidate stands in an election just based on the
strengths and potential   pre-votes. Also the cost of a cell phone carrier to provide a mass ad
weaknesses. Make a        for elections may become controversial as to their own political
reference back to the     standing. However, it may be cheaper and easier for candidates to
info in the article.      reach citizens and really push the “Every Vote Counts” slogan
                          directly into their hands.
Identify areas for future       A link could also be mass-forwarded that would lead to
development. Make sure YouTube to allow pre-voters to watch a short segment video
you have used ITGS        message recorded by the candidate(s) as another form of ad.
Write approximately 250
words total, and          TOTAL WORD COUNT = 184
highlight each individual
ITGS key term.

Score Your Criterion D Answer Using the        7
IB Paper 2 Rubric Above:
Explain how your original answer matches       The solution is fully identified and
the score description.                         evaluated. There is proper
*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
                                               information to support the solution.
and fix the original answer with red text
until it matches the highest possible score.

Please Add all Four Word Counts                775
from Above =
(they must total between 725 and 775
words- if not, go back and adjust)
Did you remember to HIGHLIGHT                  Yes, the ITGS terms/phrases have
each ITGS flashcard word you used              been highlighted.
in all responses?


    YELLOW = Theme/Topic; GREEN = IT System; BLUE = Social/Ethical Issues; PINK = Stakeholders

                         *You may stop highlighting after 500 words, but include the entire article.

               New IT Vocabulary Term                                                           Definition
1 In-banner video ads                                                   Self run video advertisements in banner form for
2 Image-based ads                                                       Ads that are displayed mainly by the use of photos


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------
(paste highlighted article here)
                     The State of Online Political Advertising
                    By Kate Kaye, Senior Editor, ClickZ News
        Legislators are proposing bills that could restrict online tracking and behavioral
ad targeting, but the irony is that many lawmakers themselves use online tracking,
behavioral ads and other forms of ad targeting to help them get elected. The 2012
campaign season won’t kick into high gear until after this summer, but it seems it’s
never too early for political candidates to begin running ad campaigns online. The
reason is simple: online ads allow candidates and advocacy groups to capture
supporters early at a relatively low cost compared to TV, direct mail and other media.
From conservative groups like the College RNC to New York Senator Kirsten
Gillibrand’s reelection campaign, online ads from 2012 campaigns have already started.
Digital ads - like the sponsored links that show up at the top of Google and Bing
searches, the ads that dot our Facebook browsing experience, and image-based ads
alongside news articles - help advertisers drive people to their Facebook pages or

    From there, they can entice supporters to sign a petition focused on a key issue –
say the deficit or marriage equality- get them to register to volunteer with the campaign
down the road, and most important, DONATE. Those signups to support a petition or
get a campaign bumper sticker are all fundraising efforts in disguise. Once campaigns
have an email address they can go back to a supporter again and again to ask for

    While search ads and relatively inexpensive Facebook and ad network-targeted
display ads are now commonplace for many modern political campaigns, more premium
formats like expandable rich media ads, pre-roll video and inbanner video ads are
becoming more prevalent.

   Just like the Fords and Verizons of the world, political advertisers often simply
repurpose their television ads for the web. Smart campaigns extend the reach of those
TV ads by running in-stream or in-banner video ads targeting the same audience at the
same time.

    Yet, rather than being used to generate signups or donations alone, these higher-
impact ads are used by political campaigns for name recognition and persuasion – just
like their TV spots.

The Money

   Things have changed, even since the 2008 presidential race. Though Obama for
America clearly had John McCain’s campaign beat in the online organizing arena, both
campaigns took a sophisticated approach to digital advertising and both had online ad
experts with corporate advertising backgrounds handling their search and display ad
buying and targeting.

   The major distinction was money. The Obama camp spent at least $16 million on
online advertising – possibly as much as $20 million. McCain’s team, on the other hand,
spent closer to $4 million. Google was the clear winner, grabbing at least $7.5 million in
ad dollars from OFA. Less than $1 million was spent on Facebook ads by Obama’s

    But the tides are shifting. Though Google is still a powerhouse when it comes to
political advertising online (the so called Google Surge* has become a common get-out-
the-vote tactic), Facebook is rapidly closing in on Google’s dominant position as a result
of its explosive growth among much of the voting public in the U.S.

   2010 was the first big election year for Facebook advertising. Because nearly every
campaign created a Facebook page, several took the next step of running Facebook
display ads to promote their pages in the hopes of garnering more “likes” - and by
extension a bigger audience for their political messages and fundraising appeals. Far
more spending on Facebook ads can be expected during the 2012 primaries and
general election in comparison to any other cycle yet.

   And once Twitter opens the self-serve ad platform it is currently testing to all
advertisers, the micro-blogging site could become another important paid ad
environment for politics. Suffice it to say candidate campaigns typically spend a minute
portion of their ad budgets on digital advertising.

     Though digital politicos have predicted increases in online ad budgets for years, the
standard is still around five percent of the overall ad budget – or less. TV and direct mail
still rule. Budget allocation is one thing. The fact is that this time around there will most
likely be more budgets in play online than during any other presidential election cycle.
Not only might the Obama 2012 campaign - in conjunction with the Democratic National
Committee - top what each did in ’08, GOP primary campaigns and the party’s eventual
nominee are poised to spend far more online than any other Republican presidential
campaigns ever have before. And don’t forget the Citizens United effect. In 2010, new
and old organizations took advantage of The U.S. Supreme Court's Citizens United
ruling and related rule changes that reduced restrictions on how they could raise money
and spend it. Groups on the right like the Chamber of Commerce, Club for Growth and
American Crossroads, and the left including The League of Conservation Voters and
Patriot Majority PAC funneled new cash to the Web through independent expenditures.

    These groups could have a significant impact online via ads, video, and smear sites
galore in 2012. So, was the 2008 election really a tipping point for online political
advertising? Well, the impact of the Obama campaign got the scale moving, but old-
school political media consultants were less than convinced that online ads
could do much more than help rake in donation dough to fuel more television buys. A
year later, Republican Scott Brown’s stunning Senate victory in the Democratic
stronghold of Massachusetts – driven in part by a sophisticated digital organizing and
advertising effort – suggested it just might work for Republicans too.

   Today, campaigns with money (think Michael Bloomberg’s or Rahm Emanuel’s
Mayoral campaigns or big advocacy groups) almost always include online advertising in
the mix, both early on to build a supporter list, and later for persuasion and GOTV
purposes. More and more small, bootstrapped campaigns - from city council to
statehouse - buy and target Google and Facebook ads or run simple display ads on
local news sites.

Ad Targeting Advances

    As legislators on the both sides of the aisle jump on the online data privacy/do-not-
track bandwagon, their online ad campaigns often tell a different story.

   "Wanted to let you know that over the weekend the RNC shared with AOL some
voter data so now you can target Republicans by precinct, gender, age and voting
habits (Hard-R to Soft-R) on the AOL network,” wrote Katie Harbath, the National
Republican Senatorial Committee's digital strategist, in an email sent to Senate
Republican campaigns about a week before the 2010 elections. Harbath was hired to
work in Facebook’s Washington, D.C. office in February to evangelize the use of the
social network to Capitol Hill staffers and political campaigners.

    What the RNC did in 2010 was nothing new. Both the Republican and Democratic
parties have used their massive national voter databases to target specific people
through Web ads. In 2007, the RNC sent its nationwide voter registration database to a
third party data company. That firm matched the RNC's database to the registration
databases of AOL, MSN, and Yahoo, the goal being to create a list of people to target
with ads on those sites.

   The parties involved have stressed that the end result was non personally-
identifiable data, essentially a set of audience segments, similar to the audience
segments used in behavioral ad targeting. (You know: the type of ad targeting the
Federal Trade Commission and several House and Senate Members worry infringes on
consumer privacy.)

    Even Obama for America used voter file matching to target online ads to Democrats
in 10 battleground states in ’08. But, the campaign aimed the ads only at Democrats
who were less likely to vote, determined by how regularly they voted in past elections.
After all, why spend ad dollars to reach people who reliably vote Democrat and always
vote? Some insiders predict the practice will have a more significant impact when it's
applied to mobile ad campaigns. If privacy concerns can be assuaged, campaigns could
target specific voters in close proximity to a candidate's speaking appearance, for

    Voter data matching is the bleeding edge, though. The online political ad targeting
reality is arguably less controversial and far less involved. Most political campaigns
target ads geographically, by zip code to reach likely supporters, or by state for
gubernatorial or senate races and during presidential primary season. They may
combine geo-targeting with other forms including behavioral targeting to reach likely
supporters or swing voters. On Facebook, they might target ads to people who “like”
like-minded organizations or candidates, or based on age or self-proclaimed interests
such as “The Daily Show” or NASCAR.

   Women were a key target of Republican Meg Whitman's California gubernatorial
effort. During the general election, display ads delivered to RSS feed readers and
placed on streaming music site Pandora were targeted to women in the golden state. A
display ad seen in the Parenting feed, for instance, stated, "Women
are a driving force in California." Other ads featuring messages about taxes or building
a new California were targeted to news and politics feed readers.

   Anti-Whitman group The California Labor Federation used online and offline data
modeling to target swing voters and residents of ultra-progressive districts with custom
messages. Around 40 different ad versions from the labor group featured targeted
messages in Spanish, Chinese, Korean, and English. In its own "Jerry Fails" attack ads
aimed at her opponent Jerry Brown, Whitman’s campaign ran a repurposed TV
spot on SFGate - the online home of the San Francisco Chronicle. The goal was to
appeal to undecided voters.

The Rise of Video

   Indeed, Whitman was one of several candidates and independent expenditure
groups that drove the rise of political video ads online in 2010 - Republican Senator Ron
Johnson of Wisconsin, and pro-Republican group Business Industry Political Action
Committee, to name a few.

    According to Google, campaigns in almost every battleground state were running in-
stream video spots on YouTube leading up to the election. Political advertisers use TV
ads to persuade voters, and they’re finding that those same spots – or video ads
created exclusively for the web – have the same effect. Now that campaigns can
combine the persuasive benefits of video with the refined targeting capabilities of digital
media, expect a video ad onslaught during the 2012 GOP primaries and beyond in the
general election race.

*Google surge: Use of a Google ad tactic known as the Google surge or blast originated
in 2008 and grew in popularity throughout 2009. Today it is quite prevalent among more
sophisticated campaigns. Typically employed for GOTV, the surge involves serving up
display ads on behalf of a single advertiser on most or all of the Google content
network pages generated within a brief period of time, targeting a specific geographic

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