Docstoc

LAN_ WAN_ client_ server_ Ethernet_ access_ access permissions

Document Sample
LAN_ WAN_ client_ server_ Ethernet_ access_ access permissions Powered By Docstoc
					LAN, WAN, client, server, Ethernet, access, access permissions,
login, password, firewall, sysadmin, UPS, EDI

LAN:

It is a computer network covering a local area, like a home, office, or
group of buildings. Current LANs are most likely to be based on
switched IEEE 802.3 Ethernet running at 10, 100 or 1,000 Mbit/s or on
Wi-Fi technology. The defining characteristics of LANs in contrast to
WANs (wide area networks) are: their much higher data rates; smaller
geographic range; and they do not require leased telecommunication
lines. Thus, some of the issues with LAN are that they have a small
geographic range, and as there are numerous systems connected to
one, there are more chances of getting them infected my viruses and
hackers etc.

WAN:

A Wide Area Network is a computer network covering a broad
geographical area. Contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local
area networks (LANs) or metropolitan area networks (MANs) that are
usually limited to a room, building or campus respectively. The largest
and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. WANs are
used to connect local area networks (LANs) together, so that users and
computers in one location can communicate with users and computers
in other locations. Many WANs are built for one particular organization
and are private. The different types of WAN‘s are Leased Line, Circuit
switching, Packet switching, and Cell relay. These different types of
WAN‘s have problems like call setup, expenses, fixed amount of the
transfer of data etc.

Client:

A client is a computer system that accesses a (remote) service on
another computer by some kind of network. The term was first applied
to devices that were not capable of running their own stand-alone
programs, but could interact with remote computers via a network.
These dumb terminals were clients of the time-sharing mainframe
computer.

The client-server model is still used today on the Internet, where a
user may connect to a service operating on a remote system through
the internet protocol suite. Web browsers are clients that connect to
web servers and retrieve web pages for display. Most people use e-


                                                              Page 1 of 79
mail clients to retrieve their e-mail from their internet service
provider's mail storage servers. There are basically three types of
clients, the Fat Client, the Thin Client and the hybrid Client. Thus, the
fat client gives a high performance and support but have low
manageability and flexibility. The thin clients give high manageability
and flexibility but don‘t have a high performance and support.

The hybrid clients have all the above features of the fat and the thin
clients.


Server

In information technology, a server is a computer system that provides
services to other computing systems—called clients—over a network.
The term server can refer to hardware (such as a Sun computer
system) or software (such as an RDBMS server). Although servers can
be built from commodity computer components—particularly for low-
load and/or non-critical applications—dedicated, high-load, mission-
critical servers use specialized hardware that is optimized for the
needs of servers. For example, servers may incorporate ―industrial-
strength‖ mechanical components such as disk drives and fans that
provide very high reliability and performance at a correspondingly high
price.

Ethernet

Ethernet is a large and diverse family of frame-based computer
networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name
comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of
wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, two means of
network access at the Media Access Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer,
and a common addressing format. Despite the huge changes in
Ethernet from a thick coaxial cable bus running at 10 Mbit/s to point-
to-point links running at 1 Gbit/s and beyond, all generations of
Ethernet (excluding very early experimental versions) share the same
frame formats (and hence the same interface for higher layers) and
can be readily (and in most cases cheaply) interconnected. Due to the
ubiquity of Ethernet, the ever-decreasing cost of the hardware needed
to support it and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pair
Ethernet, most manufacturers now build the functionality of an
Ethernet card directly into PC motherboards, removing the need for
installation of a separate network card.



                                                                  Page 2 of 79
Login & Password

A login is the process of receiving access to a computer system by
identification of the user in order to obtain credentials to permit
access. It is an integral part of computer security procedure. A
username is used in preference to the full name of the user this is a
shorter sequence of characters which still uniquely identifies the
person. A password is another sequence of characters which provides
the user with a key to the system and is kept secret from others. The
issues with logins and passwords are that there is a chance of other
people trying to get the login and passwords and misuse it. Thus,
people usually keep the passwords complicated or personal due to
which they are hard to remember and which is why people have a
chance of loosing them.

Types of Intrusion

Different types of intrusions are like Viruses, hacking etc. A computer
virus is a self-replicating computer program written to alter the way a
computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user.
Though the term is commonly used to refer to a range of malware, a
true virus must replicate itself, and must execute itself. The latter
criteria are often met by a virus which replaces existing executable
files with a virus-infected copy. While viruses can be intentionally
destructive—destroying data, for example—some viruses are benign or
merely annoying. A hacker is someone who creates and modifies
computer software and computer hardware, including computer
programming, administration, and security-related items. The term
usually bears strong connotations, but may be either favorable or
denigrating depending on cultural context.

Types of intrusion, for example, viruses, hacking, phreaking
and security measures

What is computer security? Computer security is the process of
preventing and detecting the unauthorized use of one‘s computer. To
stop unauthorized users (known as ―intruders‖) from having access to
any part of one‘s computer system, there are prevention measures
one can use. Also, detection helps to determine whether or not
someone attempted to break into one‘s system, and if they were
successful, what they may have done.

In recent years, many households use computers for everything from
banking and investing to shopping and communications with others


                                                              Page 3 of 79
through e-mails and chat programs. Although many people might not
consider their communications ―top secret‖, no one would want
‗intruders‘, from reading their e-mail, using their computer to attack
other systems, sending forged e-mails from their computers nor
personal information stored in their computer (such as financial
statements) examined.

Intruders (also known as hackers, attackers or crackers) may not care
about a person‘s identity. Whenever they are bored (also maybe if
their life has no bright side to it), they would hack into a computer to
gain control of one‘s computer so they can use it to launch attacks on
other computer systems. By doing so, they avoid being traced directly
to their computer system at they break into high-profile computer
systems such as government or financial systems. Even if the
computer in the particular household is used to play the latest games
or to send e-mail to friends and family, that computer maybe targeted.
Intruders may be able to watch all the actions of that household
computer or cause damages to it by reformatting the hard drive or
changing data.

Unfortunately, intruders are always discovering new vulnerabilities
(informally called ―holes‖) to exploit in computer software. Software
complexity makes it increasingly difficult to thoroughly test the
security of computer systems. When holes are discovered, it is up to
the user of the computer to obtain and install the patches to address
the problem or correctly configure the software to operate more
securely. If system administrators and users kept their computers
updated with patches and security fixes, most of the incident reports
of computer break-ins could have been prevented. Also, some
software applications have default setting that allow other users to
access the computer unless the user changes the settings to be more
secure. An example includes chat programs that let outsiders execute
commands on one‘s computer or web browsers that could allow
someone to place harmful programs on your computer that run when
you click on them.

A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access
control policy between two networks. A firewall typically takes one of
two forms in the context of home networks. One is in the form of
software firewall which is a specialized software running on an
individual computer. The other is a network firewall which is a
dedicated device designed to protect one or more computers. Many of
both types of firewalls allow the user to define access policies for
inbound connections to the computers they are protecting and also


                                                               Page 4 of 79
provides the ability to control what services (also known as ports) the
protected computers are able to access on the Internet (outbound
access).

A variety of antivirus software packages that operate in many different
ways, depending on how the vendor chose to implement their
software. But they all look for patterns in the files or memory of your
computer that indicate the possible presence of a known virus.
Antivirus packages know what to look for through the use of virus
profiles (sometimes called ―signatures‖) provided by the vendor. Since
new viruses are discovered daily the effectiveness of antivirus software
is dependent on having the latest virus profiles installed on the
computer so that it can look for recently discovered viruses. It is
important to keep these profiles updated.

Network types, for example, Intranet, Internet, VPN by Oliver
Chan

Internet:

The internet is the type of network that‘s most commonly known. The
internet is a worldwide network that is constantly growing, sometimes
described as a ―network of networks.‖ The internet uses a common
protocol (an agreed method of communication) known as Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or more commonly know as its
abbreviation: TCP/IP. The internet is an endless resource for
information, where the word endless does not really emphasize the
size of the network.

Intranet:

An intranet is the internal network of an organization, such as
company or school. An intranet uses the same network protocols and
technology of the internet, but the access is restricted to employees,
teachers, etc. It is sometimes described as the ―private version of the
internet.‖ An intranet is used to share information within an
organization, and generally features a web server providing such
information on the network.


Local Area Network (LAN):

Local Area Networks and intranets are quite similar in the fact that
they are restricted networks. Most Local Area Networks tend to use the


                                                                Page 5 of 79
TCP/IP protocols, and most of them are connected to the Internet,
commonly through a firewall. However the difference between an
Intranet and a Local Area Network is that they don‘t have a web server
providing resource to the network.


Extranet:

An extranet is two or more computers or a local area network
connected via the internet. It can be described as a private internet
over the internet. Extranets are sometimes used to extend the intranet
to other users.

Wide Area Network (WAN):

A WAN is a network of two computers (or local area networks) that are
connected over a large geographic distance through a dedicated
connection. WANs are generally more expensive as they require the
dedicated connection (not the internet), that is usually leased.

Virtual Private Network (VPN):

A virtual private network is two or more computers connected to each
other via the internet. What separates the VPN from the other
networks is its encryption. VPN generally involve high encryption in
their data transfer as their medium for transmission is via the internet.
Virtual Private Networks are generally favored over Wide Area
Networks for their cost, as leasing a dedicated connection is more
expensive than simply using the internet.

Encryption and SSL

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a cryptographic protocol and applies
cryptographic methods for such services like web email, web browsing,
Internet faxing, etc. It provides authentication and privacy over the
Internet using cryptography. SSL runs under protocols like HTTP, FTP,
SMTP, etc. It also runs under various other applications, which form
the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Encryption is the process of obscuring or hiding information so it is not
read without any special knowledge. An example can be emails, and
how passwords can be considered as special knowledge.

SSL was developed by Netscape and was released in 1996. Therefore,


                                                                Page 6 of 79
Netscape takes all responsibility for releasing it and developing it. And
later, it served as a basis for TLS (Transport Layer security), later to
be used by financial institutions like Visa, Master Card, etc. SSL had a
big impact on the Internet. People started encrypting web pages,
thereby making web pages hard to 'attack' and take over, as
compared to earlier days, where there was no encryption and only
normal encrypting methods were used.

It affected financial institutions the most, as they started using SSL on
their home pages where people would log in and view their bank
accounts on line. This was a big boom, and it provided safety for the
company's website too. Also, before, companies would get attacked
and they couldn't go anything about it. But now, their web pages were
protected, and were secure. It had an effect on everybody, even on
normal people who aspired to open websites and have SSL on them.

Some early weak points of SSL were that SSL could use only 40 Bit
keys, because of legal restrictions. This was made so that they could
read encrypted traffic. The US government explicitly imposed a 40-bit
key space small enough to be broken by law enforcement agencies-
wishing to read the encrypted traffic, while sting ll presenting
obstacles to less-well-funded attackers.

There was also a time when the government wanted to encrypt emails
and other forms of communication with their own encryption method.
This was called (clipper?). This encrypted all emails, so that only the
intended user can see them. But the government claims that it would
have the encryption/decryption keys. This would result in our loss of
privacy, and the government reading our stuff.

As SSL was introduced, people started using it incorrectly. Some
websites only used SSL on the form submission page, but not securing
the login page. This is hazardous, and SSL is not being used correctly,
and also it is exposed to other people and can result in tampering and
loss of information.

Basically, SSL is directly related to privacy. Companies used SSL to
respect privacy and to ensure privacy. Now that web pages were more
secure, users felt more secure, and started using the Internet more, as
it became a safer zone.
And another form of insecure SSL is when it is not fully used.
Sometimes, a website used SSL and other media and scripts along
with it. This can also result in illegal results and furthermore, lower the
safety of the website. The website is exposed more and can be


                                                                  Page 7 of 79
attacked.

The advantages of SSL are that it secures the web page. It is also easy
to use. It provides security more than any other protocol and it is used
widely. Also, it cannot be broken easily, and prevents many attacks,
including -man in the middle- attacks and so on. Also the data which is
put in is processed with a different hash each time.

Along with advantages, are disadvantages. SSL can be broken into, it
is not full proof. Also, many websites who use SSL tend to include
other media and tamper with it, thereby making it insecure. Another
disadvantage is that the certificates can expire, resulting in the same
situation as without the SSL. Also, it is server dependent. This means
that if a person gets into the server, then the SSL has no meaning.
Another one is that it is used for only ONE page/email. This has
limitations.

The advantage for Netscape is that it gets widespread publicity. SSL is
used widely and they are also getting paid for it. This helps them and
provides a cause. Also, another advantage can be that they are getting
recognized. But also, SSL is like a open-source project now.

People have made many different forms of SSL using their source
code, and added their name onto it. As we can see on the Internet,
there are many free open source SSL projects out there. This is a
disadvantage to Netscape, as their project is being literally 'plagiarized'
by other people, or little companies.

Also, another point concerning encryption is a cipher. A cipher is
basically an algorithm which encrypts. The cipher depends on a key. A
key must be selected to encrypt a packet. Some types of ciphers
include classical ciphers, poly-alphabetic substitution ciphers, etc.
Modern encryptions methods include symmetric key algorithms and
asymmetric key algorithms.


Points to consider:
- Although SSL is encrypting information, it is creating a major
gateway bottleneck. As secure sessions become more common, the
gateway architecture is becoming less suitable for the servers.

- With encryption, there is a lot of server load since it encrypts each
packet of information.



                                                                  Page 8 of 79
- It has a lot of cost for the systems handling encryption.

- Legal restrictions apply, as a company or the government cannot
encrypt too much of a packet. A firm cannot encrypt more than a
certain bit of information.

- During encryption, there are a lot of system crashes. And systems do
not keep ‗backup keys‘. The data, therefore, cannot be recoverable.

E-commerce

What is E-commerce?

The ―E‖ in E-commerce refers to electronic and therefore the term ―E-
commerce‖ means the buying and selling of objects electronically. It
doesn‘t only refer to buying and selling but also any other transactions
over the internet for example electronic transfers of funds or money,
online marketing and advertising etc. So a simple definition for E-
commerce could be, ―any transaction that uses the Internet.‖

How did it develop?

It was first used in the 1970s when electronic funds transfer started to
occur. And then in the 1980s, ATMs started to pop-up all over the
streets and this caused an increase usage of the term ―e-commerce.‖
And when the Internet came, it included online shopping and any
payments made through credit cards. However, today it just doesn‘t
include online shopping and credit card payments, it also includes any
kind of banking (funds transfer) or any kind of business related things
taking place on the Internet.


Advantages:

1. Provides an easy and secure way for customers to purchase objects
from their home. People don‘t have to go to their nearest Wal-Mart
anymore to purchase their favorite cologne. Everything is available on
the Internet. You can make your purchase at any time of the day –
24/7! And as long as you have the Internet, you have access to all the
products (even the products on the other side of the world).

2. There is no menu or catalog on Internet. Well there is some sort of
index but unlike traditional menus, these indexes are updated hourly
with new prices and new content – making it much easier for


                                                                Page 9 of 79
customers to select the right product!

3. There are less marketing expenses to be paid on the Internet. Cost
of production is greatly reduced because there‘s less labor costs and
other processing (phone, fax) costs. Hence, that money can be spent
on improving the quality of the product etc.

4. Everything is sold directly to the customers. There is no ―salesman‖
anymore and that‘s another reduced cost. It also builds the consumer-
company relationship and solidifies it.

As stated before, e-commerce just doesn‘t include the transactions of
purchasing products online. It is basically any business related
transaction done over the Internet. Therefore, there are other
advantages that are not related to online shopping.

1. Employee can be trained on the web now. They don‘t have to come
to a specific place to be trained and that saves a lot of money.
Employee can go on the Internet and learn from the updated material
at their convenience.

2. E-mail has greatly reduced the costs of communicating between
businesses and customers. Therefore, the prices of products on the
Internet are cheaper than the prices in the real world because all these
costs have been reduced!

3. Business partners can collaborate and work on the same project
using many advanced programs available on the Internet and share
their ideas without having to attend a meeting in Shanghai.

4. Instant updating is one of the main features of E-commerce. As long
as you have the right device(s), instant updating of anything that has
happened at the store can be done. So for example, an Apple store in
Japan can update the recent purchase of a Macbook and the main
Apple store in USA would receive that update in less than an hour and
their accountants will be notified.

Everything has two sides. There are advantages and disadvantages for
everything and E-commerce is not different. However, it can be easily
deduced that there are a lot more advantages than drawbacks because
of the wide-spread popularity of E-commerce.




                                                              Page 10 of 79
Disadvantages:

1. Credit card transactions can be a problem for some (including my
dad). Some adults think that their credit card number will be
―misused‖ if they give it out to the Internet companies. They don‘t
understand how secure the system is but credit card frauds do happen
and therefore these adults will never purchase anything with their
credit card.

2. Some consumers consider shopping a ―social event‖ as in they are
used to shopping for hours with their friends and family and would
rather keep it that way instead of spending 20 minutes on the Internet
alone.

3. Some consumers want to experience and test the objects they
purchase. Therefore, an object like a deluxe bed would be less sold
than let‘s say a computer software.

4. Time for delivery of the products can be annoying for some people
especially if the shipping is done internationally! And it‘s not just the
time, there‘s also a bit of uncertainty involved. When you do normal
shopping, you walk out the store with your product in your hands but
through E-commerce, the product will take time to arrive and even if
the company sends it, there is not a 100% chance that it will arrive!

5. Returning goods can be a pain through E-commerce. You don't even
know where your product came from then how would you ever return
it?

6. Perishable goods cannot be bought over the Internet. Even though
the companies are working their way around this by introducing
advanced shipping methods, people still don‘t trust them.

Again, E-commerce just doesn‘t include online shopping and hence
there are disadvantages including the other aspects of E-commerce
too.

1. Hacking of an electronic system can easily be done in today‘s world
and therefore, any kind of electronic data is always at risk. The risk
can be minimized but it will always be there.

2. Perhaps, the online interaction between businesses will not be good
enough to finalize a deal because the business owner could feel like he
doesn‘t yet know the person because of minimal eye-contact required.


                                                                 Page 11 of 79
3. Computers are not perfect. With computers, anything can go wrong
at any time and nobody can stop. The risk of that is being minimized
everyday but it will never completely go away.

However, the advantages totally overcome the disadvantages and thus
E-commerce is a very efficient way of doing business and therefore
most companies today have websites and web stores!

The social issue related to this could be the fact that everything is
going online and even less and less interaction between people is
required. If this keeps going on, all of us will mainly be computers
talking to other computers and there wouldn‘t be any conferences or
dinners anymore!

The ethical issue is of course the fraud and hacking involved. Credit
card frauds happen all the time and that is the same as stealing.



Integrated Systems – Robotics


Revision Notes

Robots
A robot is a mechanical device controlled by computer processors and
programs to do human-like tasks faster or in unsafe environments.
The word is also used to describe a computer program that "explores"
the World-Wide Web without human intervention, automatically
following links on hypertext documents.

Android
An android is a machine created to perform one or more functions
normally done by humans and that looks like a human. Android
literally means "possessing human features"; the Oxford English
Dictionary defines android as "an automaton resembling a human
being." Androids resemble humans while robots do not have to.

Cyborg
A cyborg is a human with one or more mechanical or electronic devices
implanted to enhance their capabilities.




                                                               Page 12 of 79
Sensors
An input device that detects physical or chemical conditions around an
IT system e.g. temperature, light, motion, pH. Some are digital (e.g. a
simple on/off light gate), some are analogue and require analogue to
digital conversion before their signal can be processed.

Situations where it is more appropriate to use robots rather
than humans:

Car Production
Packaging
Electronics
In the home –robot vacuum cleaning and floor washing
Elder care – humans cannot always provide round the clock care so
robots become more useful in this case
Duct cleaning – hazardous spaces robots become more useful
Surgery robots (telerobots) can be controlled from a distance e.g. on
the battle field.

Types of input/output peripherals used in robots.

Arms
Fingers
Wheels
Voice
Legs
Eyes (Webcam)


Asimov's three laws of robotics
   A robot may not harm a human being, or, through inaction,
    allow a human being to come to harm.
   A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings,
    except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
   A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such
    protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

The   advantages of robots from a management point of view
      Save labor costs
      Improve quality and productivity
      Ideal for dangerous jobs and other tasks not suitable for a
       human




                                                              Page 13 of 79
KOT Databases and Spreadsheets

A key field is a field or set of fields of a database (typically a
relational database) table which together form a unique identifier for a
database record (a table entry). The aggregate of these fields is
usually referred to simply as "the key".

Row —also called a record represents a single, implicitly structured
data item in a table. In simple terms, a database table can be thought
of as consisting of rows and columns or fields. Each row in a table
represents a set of related data, and every row in the table has the
same structure. For example, in a table that represents companies,
each row would represent a single company.

Columns might represent things like company name, company street
address, whether the company is publicly held, its VAT number, etc. In
a table that represents the association of employees with departments,
each row would associate one employee with one department. The
implicit structure of a row, and the meaning of the data values in a
row, requires that the row be understood as providing a succession of
data values, one in each column of the table. The row is then
interpreted as a relvar composed of a set of record, with each record
consisting of the two items: the name of the relevant column and the
value this row provides for that column. Each column expects a data
value of a particular type. For example, one column might require a
unique identifier, another might require text representing a person's
name, and another might require an integer representing hourly pay in
cents.

A search algorithm, broadly speaking, is an algorithm that takes a
problem as input and returns a solution to the problem, usually after
evaluating a number of possible solutions. Most of the algorithms
studied by computer scientists that solve problems are kinds of search
algorithms. The set of all possible solutions to a problem is called the
search space. Brute-force search or "naïve"/uninformed search
algorithms use the simplest, most intuitive method of searching
through the search space, whereas informed search algorithms use
heuristics to apply knowledge about the structure of the search space
to try to reduce the amount of time spent searching.

There are different types of search methods used in computers:

An uninformed search algorithm is one that does not take into account


                                                               Page 14 of 79
the specific nature of the problem.

List search algorithms are perhaps the most basic kind of search
algorithm. The goal is to find one element of a set by some key.

Tree search algorithms are the heart of searching techniques. These
search trees of nodes, whether that tree is explicit or implicit.

Many of the problems in Tree search can be solved using SQL type
searches. SQL typically works best on structured data. It offers one
advantage over hierarchical type search in that it allows accessing the
data in many different ways.

In general, a query is a form of questioning, in a line of inquiry. A
query may also refer to:

- A precise request for information, typically keywords combined with
Roolean operators and other modifiers, in the field of information
retrieval.

- A database query, the standard way information is extracted from
databases.

- Query language and database query language, ways of specifying a
query.

- Command-Query Separation (CQS), a concept in object-oriented
programming, especially in the Eiffel programming language.

- The question mark, especially as used by programmers (analogous to
the use of "bang" for the exclamation mark).

- Query (Quaker), a question used for reflection and spiritual exercises
among members of the Society of Friends.

- The formal name for a proposal letter (and perhaps accompanying
materials) sent by an author to a literary agent or publisher to garner
interest in a new work.

A database management system (DBMS) is a system or software
designed to manage a database, and run operations on the data
requested by numerous clients. Typical examples of DBMS use include
accounting, human resources and customer support systems. DBMSs
have more recently emerged as a fairly standard part of any company


                                                                 Page 15 of 79
back office. A DBMS is a complex set of software programs that
controls the organization, storage and retrieval of data in a database.
A DBMS includes A modeling language, A database query language , &
A transaction mechanism, that ideally would guarantee the ACID
properties, in order to ensure data integrity, despite concurrent user
accesses (concurrency control), and faults (fault tolerance).

Mail merge is a computer term describing the production of multiple
(and potentially large numbers of) documents from a single template
form and a structured data source. This technique is used to create
personalized letters and pre-addressed envelopes or mailing labels for
mass mailings from a database mailing list of names and addresses.
The procedure of mail merging is typically carried out using a word
processing program. The template is a word processing document
which contains fixed text that will be the same in each output
document variables which act as placeholders to be replaced by text
from the data source.


2.3 Communication systems

Knowledge of technology:
Key terms:
Internet protocols: Method or protocol by which data is sent from one
computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a
host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely
identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.

Examples are:
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A protocol that is used to transmit
hypertext documents through the Internet. It controls and manages
communications between a Web browser and a Web server.

FTP: File Transfer Protocol. Protocol that allows users to copy files
between their local system and any system they can reach on the
network. It is a very common method of moving files between two
Internet sites.

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Program. It is a session layer protocol
that coordinates the transmission, reception, and retransmission of
packets in a data network to ensure reliable (confirmed)
communication. The TCP protocol coordinates the division of data
information into packets, adds sequence and flow control information
to the packets, and coordinates the confirmation and retransmission of


                                                                Page 16 of 79
packets that are lost during a communication session. TCP utilizes
Internet Protocol (IP) as the network layer protocol.

Cookies: a cookie (also tracking cookie, browser cookie, and HTTP
cookie) is a small piece of text stored on a user's computer by a web
browser. A cookie consists of one or more name-value pairs containing
bits of information such as user preferences, shopping cart contents,
and the identifier for a server-based session, or other data used by
websites. It is sent as an HTTP header by a web server to a web
browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it
accesses that server. A cookie can be used for authenticating, session
tracking (state maintenance), and remembering specific information
about users, such as site preferences or the contents of their electronic
shopping carts.

Listserv: A type of electronic mailing list, allowing for distribution of
email to many subscribers. An electronic mailing list typically used by
a broad range of discussion groups. When you subscribe to a listserv,
you will receive periodic email messages about the topic you have
requested.

Web cam: A cam, home cam, or webcam is a video camera, usually
attached directly to a computer, whose current or latest image is
request-able from a Web site. A live cam is one that is continually
providing new images that are transmitted in rapid succession or, in
some cases, in streaming video. Sites with live cams sometimes imbed
them as Java applets in Web pages.

HTML: An acronym for Hypertext Markup Language, HTML codes is
interpreted by the web browser to format documents in a particular
way.

Netiquette: A contraction of the words "Net" and "etiquette," this
refers to the online code of good manners for Internet users. It
describes the acceptable manner in which to communicate on the
Internet.

Intranet: A private network inside a company or organization that uses
the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet,
but that is only for internal use.

URL: Uniform Resource Locator: an address of a web page, ftp site,
audio stream or other Internet resource, for example,
http://en.wiktionary.org/


                                                                 Page 17 of 79
Hyperlink: it is a link from a hypertext file to another location or file;
typically activated by clicking on a highlighted word or icon at a
particular location on the screen

Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be transmitted over a
network in a fixed amount of time, measured in kilobits, megabits, or
gigabits per second (Kbps, Mbps, or Gbps).

WWW: World Wide Web. A service that resides on computers that are
connected to the Internet and allows end users to access data that is
stored on the computers using standard interface software (browsers).
The WWW (commonly called the "web") is associated with customers
that use web browsers (graphic display software) to find, acquire and
transfer information.

Browser: A Web browser is a software application for retrieving,
presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide
Web.

Search engine: A Web search engine is a tool designed to search for
information on the World Wide Web. The search results are usually
presented in a list and are commonly called hits. The information may
consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files.

E-mail: A process of sending text messages in electronic form. The
messages can also include images and video clips.



Social consequences of addiction to the Internet:

      May cause the loss of your spouse or family, e.g. divorce
      Distracts you from important things such as your job and your
       family
      Some physical symptoms include "cyber shakes," dry eyes,
       carpal tunnel syndrome and headaches. "A focus on the
       computer and lack of attention to daily reality is indicative of
       poor judgment and results on lowered grades in school, job loss,
       and indebtedness."
      Failed attempts to control behavior
      Heightened sense of euphoria while involved in computer and
       internet activities
      Neglecting sleep to stay online therefore constant tiredness


                                                                  Page 18 of 79
    Being dishonest with others
    Feeling guilty, ashamed, anxious, or depressed as a result of
   online behavior
    Physical changes such as weight gain or loss, backaches,
      headaches, carpal tunnel syndrome
    Withdrawing from other activities such as social events

Social impact of global viruses:
   A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and
     infect a computer.
   The term virus is mistakenly used to define malware, adware,
     and spyware because these programs don't have a reproductive
     ability.
   Global: worldwide and means of, or relating to, or involving the
     entire world, in the general sense or as the planet Earth.
   Malware: is software designed to infiltrate a computer without
     the owner's informed consent.
   Adware: is any software package which automatically plays,
     displays, or downloads advertisements to a computer after the
     software is installed on it or while the application is being used.
   Business and Employment: people might lose their business files
     due to their computer being affected by a virus.
   Arts, entertainment &Leisure: People might also lose their Art or
     there entertainment through the virus changing their format.

Means of blocking access to information:

Firewalls: A firewall is a guard between you and the Internet; this can
be either a software or hardware firewall. It regulates access of
program between you and the Internet. Firewall protection is very
useful and very necessary for users who are always connected to the
Internet. Firewalls work in the background controlling inbound and
outbound traffic and notify the user of any intrusion attempts on their
system. In addition to a good firewall you should also install a good
virus scanner and keep it up to date with the latest virus information.
A virus scanner with a firewall will reduce your risk of being hacked or
virus infected and helps keep both you and your system secure.
Whenever your computer is connected to the internet regardless of
whether your browser is opened your computer is vulnerable to attack
by hackers, worms, Trojan s, spy ware and so on. For those who are
utilizing a DSL, Cable Modem, LAN or T1 connection you are open to
threats every time you turn your computer on and until your computer
is turned off, you have a permanent connection to the Internet. It is
very simple for just about anybody to come through your Internet


                                                               Page 19 of 79
connection and access your computer.
Many PC users believe that no one would bother breaking into their
anonymous home computer. Unfortunately, this is not true. Every
computer on the Internet has its own IP address, a unique string of
numbers that serve as a type of identification. Hackers often program
their computers to scan random IP addresses and attack whenever a
vulnerable machine is found. They don't need to know your machine
personally to attack it. At that point they can perform many malicious
acts or steal all of your private information. There are hundreds of
ways this can be accomplished.

Passwords: can also be used to help protect your computer files as
well as things such as your email inbox and accounts on different sites
from being accessed. These passwords should contain a mixture of
letters, number and symbols in order to make it difficult for anyone to
be able to guess them. These passwords would usually accompany a
username that you pick or your username would appear in the form of
your e-mail.

Features of a web browser:

Browsers are the software that allows you to access the World Wide
Web. The most popular browsers are Microsoft's Internet Explorer,
Mozilla FireFox, Netscape Browser and Apple's Safari.

Browser Features

Most browsers contain the following features. Some of these may be
presented as buttons (or icons) in a toolbar. If you don't find a button,
you will find a menu item in one of the menus provided. You can
usually customize the toolbar to include any or all of these features:

Address field
This area is where the URL (web page address) for the web page is
displayed or entered. (A field is a text entry or display area.) In many
browsers, there's a little downward facing arrow next to this field.
When you click on the arrow you will see a list of recently visited
websites. Clicking one of these URLs will take you to that website. You
can also enter a URL into this field and then press enter or return to go
to the website. In some browsers there is a "Go" button next to this
field that initiates a server request after typing in a URL. By the way,
you don't usually have to type in the "http://" part of the URL. Most
browsers will add that information in for you when you press enter or
return.


                                                                Page 20 of 79
Autofill Forms Button
When you encounter a page that has a form on it, such as an order
page, this button will make filling out the form much easier. See the
Autofill section in Preferences to use this feature.

Back Button
Use this button to go back to the previous page opened in this
particular browser window. In some browsers, holding the mouse
down on this button produces a menu of previous pages that you can
then choose from. In other browsers, there's a little arrow next to the
Back button that produces this menu.

Bookmarks or Favorites
You can easily create a shortcut to your favorite web pages by using
the Bookmark (or Favorites) menu or button. This is a very important
feature and it works a little differently in each browser. In Internet
Explorer, use the Favorites Menu to Add to Favorites. You can then use
the Organize Favorites menu item to place your bookmark in a folder
or particular place in the list. In Netscape, FireFox and Safari, choose
Add Bookmark from the Bookmark menu. You can then choose Show
All or Manage Bookmarks to create folders and/or rearrange your
bookmarks. In most browsers you can also place favorite websites to
an area just above the main browser window.

Close Box
This button in the upper right corner of the window will close the
browser window. If there is only one browser window open, the
program will exit. One way to tell if you have more than one browser
window open is to look at the button bar at the bottom of the screen.
If you see more than one button with the icon of the browser you are
using, you can switch between the open windows by clicking on these
buttons. Another way to deal with multiple windows is to minimize or
Restore the window to its pre-maximized size. On the Macintosh,
there's a similar button, but separate windows are more obvious and
closing the last one does not quit the browser.

Fonts or Larger or Smaller
In Internet Explorer a button called Fonts gives you a menu to choose
the size of the text displayed in the browser window. Some browsers
offer two buttons, Larger and Smaller to change the size of the text.

Forward Button
Like the Back button, the Forward button takes you to pages that you


                                                               Page 21 of 79
have previously seen in a particular browser window. The Forward
button is only available if you have used the Back button and want to
go Forward to where you were before. In some browsers, holding the
mouse down on this button produces a menu of previous pages that
you can then choose from. In other browsers, there's a little arrow
next to the Forward button that produces this menu.

History Button
Most browsers offers a History button or menu item which allows you
to look at the last several hundred web pages you've been to, and
select one of them for an easy return path.

Home Button
This button takes you to the page that has been designated as your
"home" page. You can select your "home page" in the browser's
Preferences (or Internet Options) section.

Favorites, Links or Personal Toolbar
You can add your own buttons to this toolbar. In Explorer it is called
Favorites or Links Toolbar and in Netscape it is called the Personal
Toolbar. These toolbars can be hidden or shown by using the View
menu.

Maximize Button
In Windows you can use this button to make the browser's window
enlarge to full screen. When the window is already maximized the
Restore button replaces this button.

Menu bar
In Windows the Menu bar is a part of each browser window. Choices
include File, Edit, View, History, Favorites or Bookmarks and Help. On
the Macintosh, these Menus are always at the top of the screen.

Minimize Button
In Windows you can use this button to make the browser's window
disappear from the screen. You can restore the window by clicking its
button on the bottom of the screen.

Print Button
You can print any web page by clicking this button.

Reload or Refresh Button
If you suspect the contents of a browser's window may have changed
since the last time you viewed it, you should click the Reload or


                                                               Page 22 of 79
Refresh button to update the page.

Restore Button
If the browser's window is maximized you can use this button to
restore the size of the window so that it no longer fills the entire
screen. This is very useful if you want to see more than one window at
the same time.

Search Button or Field
In some older browsers there is a button to go to the page you have
designated as your "search" page. You can select your "search page"
in the browser's preferences section or by clicking the "Choose a
Search Engine" button in the Search window. Most browsers now have
a search field, at the right end of the main button bar, which you can
type into to perform Internet searches.

Security Indicators
Most browsers show a padlock icon in the lower left corner of the
window to indicate a secure connection. This means that data being
sent or received from that server is encrypted and would be extremely
difficulty for a third party to access. If this padlock is in the locked
position, you know you have a secure server connection. If the padlock
is unlocked, then you do not. Another way to tell is by the URL or web
site address. If the URL begins with https:// then the server
connection is secure.

Status Bar
The bar along the bottom of the browser's window shows you what is
being loaded into the browser window at the moment or the URL of the
link your mouse is over. There is usually also a progress indicator that
shows how much of a file has already been downloaded.

Stop Button
Use this button if you want to stop loading the contents of a page.

Window Title
The title of the web page appears in the browser window's title.
Sometimes pages don't have titles. When you bookmark a page, the
windows title is used to identify the bookmark.

How Do Browsers Work

A web browser works by using a protocol called HTTP to request a text
document from a web server. The text document contains special


                                                              Page 23 of 79
instructions (usually written in HTML) that tell the browser how to
display the document on the user's screen. The instructions may
include references (hyperlinks) to other web pages, information about
text formatting and color, and position information for images
contained in the document

Comparison of Internet and intranet:

Internet                             Intranet
Internet is worldwide, and can be    Intranet is like local internet, i.e.
accessed from any computer with      can only be accessed on a web of
an internet connection               computers, like a business or a
                                     school. Things on the intranet can
                                     sometimes be accessed via the
                                     internet.
Does not usually require a form of   Usually requires a form of
validation to be accessed.           validation to access it
Encryption methods:

Encryption
Encryption is the process of changing text so that it is no longer easy
to read. A very simple example is the following sentence:
Guvf vf n fvzcyr fhofgvghgvba pvcure.


Commercial encryption uses methods, which are a lot more secure
than the one I used to produce that example. Almost all modern
encryption methods rely on a key - a particular number or string of
characters, which are used to encrypt, decrypt, or both.
In the next sections, common encryption methods are presented. To
illustrate how they work, fictitious characters named Bob and Alice will
be introduced. Private key encryption and public key encryption are
discussed, as are their limitations.

Private key encryption
Private key encryption is the standard form. Both parties share an
encryption key, and the encryption key is also the one used to decrypt
the message. The difficulty is sharing the key before you start
encrypting the message - how do you safely transmit it?

Many private key encryption methods use public key encryption to
transmit the private key for each data transfer session.



                                                                Page 24 of 79
If Bob and Alice want to use private key encryption to share a secret
message, they would each use a copy of the same key. Bob writes his
message to Alice and uses their shared private key to encrypt the
message. The message is then sent to Alice. Alice uses her copy of the
private key to decrypt the message. Private key encryption is like
making copies of a key. Anyone with a copy can open the lock. In the
case of Bob and Alice, their keys would be guarded closely because
they can both encrypt and decrypt messages.

Public Key encryption

Public key encryption uses two keys - one to encrypt, and one to
decrypt. The sender asks the receiver for the encryption key, encrypts
the message, and sends the encrypted message to the receiver. Only
the receiver can then decrypt the message - even the sender cannot
read the encrypted message.
For example: When Bob wants to share a secret with Alice using public
key encryption, he first asks Alice for her public key. Next, Bob uses
Alice's public key to encrypt the message. In public key encryption,
only Alice's private key can unlock the message encrypted with her
public key. Bob sends his message to Alice. Alice uses her private key
to decrypt Bob's message.
The thing that make public key encryption work is that Alice very
closely guards her private key and freely distributes her public key.
She knows that it will unlock any message encrypted with her public
key.

Limitations of encryption

Cryptanalysis, or the process of attempting to read the encrypted
message without the key, is very much easier with modern computers
than it has ever been before. Modern computers are fast enough to
allow for 'brute force' methods of cryptanalysis - or using every
possible key in turn until the 'plain text' version of the message is
found.
The longer the key, the longer it takes to use the 'brute force' method
of cryptanalysis - but it also makes the process of encrypting and
decrypting the message slower. Key length is very important to the
security of the encryption method - but the 'safe' key length changes
every time CPU manufacturers bring out a new processor.
Encryption does not make your data secure. Not using encryption,
however, means that any data in transit is as easy to read as the
contents of a postcard sent in regular mail. Encryption at least ensures
that anyone who does read your messages has worked hard at it.


                                                               Page 25 of 79
The effects of limiting bandwidth:

Bandwidth is, in its simplest terms, the amount of data a service has
the capacity to deliver. The more users on a system, the slower the
bandwidth, especially when they are engaging in a lot of data transfer.
Uploading web site pages, streaming live video, downloading music or
even playing your favorite console or online games can increase the
amount of bandwidth used in a household.

What affects bandwidth?

Everything you do over the Internet affects your bandwidth usage.
While most consumers will never even come close to a 250 GB limit, if
you do a fair amount of downloading, you may be picked up on your
company‘s service provider bandwidth radar and receive notice for it.

Actions That Use Bandwidth:

- Downloading
- Uploading
-   Online gaming
-   Network console gaming
-   Streaming music, movies or other videos (e.g. YouTube)
-   VOIP service


Some companies will begin capping customer accounts at a 250 GB
bandwidth limit. Customers that go over this amount in one month will
be warned. If their account does it again within a six-month period,
their service will be terminated for up to a year. While most consumers
will never even come close to hitting that limit, for households with
multiple Internet users, it is possible that service will be interrupted by
this limit.

Limiting bandwidth is nothing new. Providers all over the world, most
notably in Australia, have been limiting bandwidth for years. This limit
allows all users in a service, or particular area, have a faster
connection by limiting households to a certain percentage of
bandwidth. Once they reach this limit, they are cut off in a way that


                                                                 Page 26 of 79
decreases their overall connection speed to encourage them to step
away from the Internet for a while.

While limiting one household seems futile, when it comes to
bandwidth, limiting a high-usage household can mean higher
connection speeds for the rest of the server cluster they belong to.
Companies have said that close to 99% of their subscribers do not
reach even half the 250 GB threshold limit they are setting. However,
they are setting the limit regardless so that the minorities of users that
do use more than the limit are not significantly affecting the area of
service they reside in.


E-mail:

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email or e-mail, is a method
of exchanging digital messages. E-mail systems are based on a store-
and-forward model in which e-mail computer server systems accept,
forward, deliver and store messages on behalf of users, who only need
to connect to the e-mail infrastructure, typically an e-mail server, with
a network-enabled device (e.g., a personal computer) for the duration
of message submission or retrieval. Originally, e-mail was always
transmitted directly from one user's device to another's; nowadays
this is rarely the case.

An electronic mail message consists of two components, the message
header, and the message body, which is the email's content. The
message header contains control information, including, minimally, an
originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses.
Usually additional information is added, such as a subject header field.

Originally a text-only communications medium, email was extended to
carry multi-media content attachments, which were standardized in
with RFC 2045 through RFC 2049, collectively called, Multipurpose
Internet Mail Extensions (MIME).

The foundation for today's global Internet e-mail service was created
in the early ARPANET and standards for encoding of messages were


                                                                Page 27 of 79
proposed as early as 1973 (RFC 561). An e-mail sent in the early
1970s looked very similar to one sent on the Internet today.
Conversion from the ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s
produced the core of the current service.
Network-based email was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in
extensions to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but is today carried by
the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), first published as Internet
standard 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of transporting email
messages between systems, SMTP communicates delivery parameters
using a message envelope separately from the message (headers and
body) itself.

Pros
▪ The problem of logistics
Much of the business world relies upon communications between
people who are not physically in the same building, area or even
country; setting up and attending an in-person meeting, telephone
call, or conference call can be inconvenient, time-consuming, and
costly. E-mail provides a way to exchange information between two or
more people with no set-up costs and that is generally far less
expensive than physical meetings or phone calls.

▪ The problem of synchronization
With real time communication by meetings or phone calls, participants
have to work on the same schedule, and each participant must spend
the same amount of time in the meeting or call. E-mail allows
asynchrony: each participant may control his or her schedule
independently.



Cons
Most business workers today spend from one to two hours of their
working day on e-mail: reading, ordering, sorting, ‗re-contextualizing‘
fragmented information, and writing e-mail. The use of e-mail is
increasing due to increasing levels of globalization—labor division and
outsourcing amongst other things. E-mail can lead to some well-known


                                                                Page 28 of 79
problems:

▪ Loss of Context: which means that the context is lost forever;
      there is no way to get the text back.
Information in context (as in a newspaper) is much easier and faster
to understand than unedited and sometimes unrelated fragments of
information. Communicating in context can only be achieved when
both parties have a full understanding of the context and issue in
question.

▪ Information overload: E-mail is a push technology—the sender
      controls who receives the information. Convenient availability of
      mailing lists and use of "copy all" can lead to people receiving
      unwanted or irrelevant information of no use to them.
▪ Inconsistency: E-mail can duplicate information. This can be a
      problem when a large team is working on documents and
      information while not in constant contact with the other
      members of their team.
Despite these disadvantages, e-mail has become the most widely used
medium of communication within the business world.

Problems

Information overload

A December 2007 New York Times blog post described E-mail as "a
$650 Billion Drag on the Economy", and the New York Times reported
in April 2008 that "E-MAIL has become the bane of some people‘s
professional lives" due to information overload, yet "none of the
current wave of high-profile Internet start-ups focused on e-mail really
eliminates the problem of e-mail overload because none helps us
prepare replies".

Technology investors reflect similar concerns.



Spamming and computer viruses

The usefulness of e-mail is being threatened by four phenomena: e-


                                                                 Page 29 of 79
mail bombardment, spamming, phishing, and e-mail worms.

Spamming is unsolicited commercial (or bulk) e-mail. Because of the
very low cost of sending e-mail, spammers can send hundreds of
millions of e-mail messages each day over an inexpensive Internet
connection. Hundreds of active spammers sending this volume of mail
results in information overload for many computer users who receive
voluminous unsolicited e-mail each day.

E-mail worms use e-mail as a way of replicating themselves into
vulnerable computers. Although the first e-mail worm affected UNIX
computers, the problem is most common today on the more popular
Microsoft Windows operating system.

The combination of spam and worm programs results in users
receiving a constant drizzle of junk e-mail, which reduces the
usefulness of e-mail as a practical tool.

A number of anti-spam techniques mitigate the impact of spam. In the
United States, U.S. Congress has also passed a law, the Can Spam Act
of 2003, attempting to regulate such e-mail. Australia also has very
strict spam laws restricting the sending of spam from an Australian
ISP, [40] but its impact has been minimal since most spam comes
from regimes that seem reluctant to regulate the sending of spam.

E-mail spoofing
E-mail spoofing occurs when the header information of an email is
altered to make the message appear to come from a known or trusted
source. It is often used as a ruse to collect personal information.

E-mail bombing

E-mail bombing is the intentional sending of large volumes of
messages to a target address. The overloading of the target email
address can render it unusable and can even cause the mail server to
crash.



Privacy concerns


                                                                 Page 30 of 79
E-mail privacy, without some security precautions, can be
compromised because:

▪ E-mail messages are generally not encrypted;
▪ E-mail messages have to go through intermediate computers before
      reaching their destination, meaning it is relatively easy for others
      to intercept and read messages;
▪ Many Internet Service Providers (ISP) store copies of e-mail
      messages on their mail servers before they are delivered. The
      backups of these can remain for up to several months on their
      server, despite deletion from the mailbox;
▪ The Received: fields and other information in the e-mail can often
      identify the sender, preventing anonymous communication.
There are cryptography applications that can serve as a remedy to one
or more of the above. For example, Virtual Private Networks or the Tor
anonymity network can be used to encrypt traffic from the user
machine to a safer network while GPG, PGP, SME mail, or S/MIME can
be used for end-to-end message encryption, and SMTP STARTTLS or
SMTP over Transport Layer Security/Secure Sockets Layer can be used
to encrypt communications for a single mail hop between the SMTP
client and the SMTP server.

Additionally, many mail user agents do not protect logins and
passwords, making them easy to intercept by an attacker. Encrypted
authentication schemes such as SASL prevent this.

Finally, attached files share many of the same hazards as those found
in peer-to-peer filesharing. Attached files may contain Trojans or
viruses.

Tracking of sent mail

The original SMTP mail service provides limited mechanisms for
tracking a transmitted message, and none for verifying that it has
been delivered or read. It requires that each mail server must either
deliver it onward or return a failure notice (bounce message), but both
software bugs and system failures can cause messages to be lost. To


                                                                 Page 31 of 79
remedy this, the IETF introduced Delivery Status Notifications (delivery
receipts) and Message Disposition Notifications (return receipts);
however, these are not universally deployed in production.
Viruses:
Strange as it may sound, the computer virus is something of an
Information Age marvel. On one hand, viruses show us how vulnerable
we are -- a properly engineered virus can have a devastating effect,
disrupting productivity and doing billions of dollars in damages. On the
other hand, they show us how sophisticated and interconnected
human beings have become.

For example, experts estimate that the Mydoom worm infected
approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day in January
2004. Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it
forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to
completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be
contained. The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating
effect. In January 2007, a worm called Storm appeared -- by October,
experts believed up to 50 million computers were infected. That's
pretty impressive when you consider that many viruses are incredibly
simple.

--When you listen to the news, you hear about many different forms of
electronic infection. The most common are:
▪ Viruses - A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real
      programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program
      such as a spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet
      program runs, the virus runs, too, and it has the chance to
      reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.
▪ E-mail viruses - An e-mail virus travels as an attachment to e-mail
      messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing
      itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book.
      Some e-mail viruses don't even require a double click -- they
      launch when you view the infected message in the preview pane
      of your e-mail software.
▪ Trojan horses - A Trojan horse is simply a computer program. The



                                                               Page 32 of 79
     program claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but
     instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard
     disk). Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically.
▪ Worms - A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer
     networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the
     worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific
     security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the
     security hole, and then starts replicating from there, as well.
Features of a web page:
   ▪ Accessibility: whether the webpage can be accessed easily e.g.
     no passwords or access code required

  ▪   Speed: the amount of time it takes for the page to load, it needs
      to be quick, and light on graphics as these slow it down

  ▪   Style: appearance is important as it needs to be entertaining for
      the person surfing the website.

  ▪   Device independence: by being able to view a Web page with
      any browser, under any operating system, and on any computer
      with any monitor, at any resolution, window size, and font size.
      Also being able to stylize it and colorize it, as you like, by
      changing the user preferences in your Web browse.

Global databases:

  ▪   Global database link
      A database link that links each database in a network to all other
      databases. This enables any user of any database in the network
      to specify a global object name in a SQL statement or object
      definition. A global database link that is the same as the global
      database name is registered with the Oracle Names server.

  ▪   Global database name
      It is the full name of the database, which uniquely identifies it
      from any other database. The global database name is of the
      form "database_name.database_domain," for example,
      sales.us.acme.com.
      The database name portion, sales, is a simple name you wish to
      call your database. The database domain portion, us.acme.com,
      specifies the database domain in which the database is located,
      making the global database name unique. When possible, Oracle


                                                               Page 33 of 79
      Corporation recommends that your database domain mirror the
      network domain.
      The global database name is the default service name of the
      database, as specified by the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the
      initialization parameter file.

Online services:
A business that provides its subscribers with a wide variety of data
transmitted over telecommunications lines. Online services provide an
infrastructure in which subscribers can communicate with one another,
either by exchanging e-mail messages or by participating in online
conferences (forums). In addition, the service can connect users with
an almost unlimited number of third-party information providers.
Subscribers can get up-to-date stock quotes, news stories hot off the
wire, articles from many magazines and journals, in fact, almost any
information that has been put in electronic form. Of course, accessing
all this data carries a price.
The difference between an online service and a bulletin board service
is one of scale and profits. Online services provide a variety of
information and services, whereas BBS's normally concentrate on a
single theme. In addition, BBS's are often operated on a non-profit
basis whereas online services are always for profit. Three of the
largest online services are America Online, CompuServe and MSN.
One online service that defies classification is the Internet. In terms of
users, it is the largest service, but it is not centrally controlled by any
one organization, nor is it operated for profit.

E- commerce:
Electronic commerce, commonly known as (electronic marketing) e-
commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of
products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and
other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted
electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet
usage. The use of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and
drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain
management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing,
electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems,
and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce
typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the
transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of



                                                                 Page 34 of 79
technologies such as e-mail as well.
A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely
electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a
website, but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of
physical items in some way. Online retailers are sometimes known as
e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail. Almost all big
retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web.
Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred
to as business-to-business or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested
parties (e.g. commodity exchange) or limited to specific, pre-qualified
participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce that is
conducted between businesses and consumers, on the other hand, is
referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. This is the type of
electronic commerce conducted by companies such as Amazon.com.
Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of
e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the
financing and payment aspects of the business transactions.

E- Banking:
A system allowing individuals to perform banking activities at home,
via the internet. Some online banks are traditional banks, which also
offer online banking, while others are online only and have no physical
presence. Online banking through traditional banks enable customers
to perform all routine transactions, such as account transfers, balance
inquiries, bill payments, and stop-payment requests, and some even
offer online loan and credit card applications. Account information can
be accessed anytime, day or night, and can be done from anywhere. A
few online banks update information in real-time, while others do it
daily. Once information has been entered, it doesn't need to be re-
entered for similar subsequent checks, and future payments can be
scheduled to occur automatically. Many banks allow for file transfer
between their program and popular accounting software packages, to
simplify record keeping. Despite the advantages, there are a few
drawbacks. It does take some time to set up and get used to an online
account. Also, some banks only offer online banking in a limited area.
In addition, when an account holder pays online, he/she may have to
put in a check request as much as two weeks before the payment is
due, but the bank may withdraw the money from the account the day
that request is received, meaning the person has lost up to two weeks


                                                                Page 35 of 79
of interest on that payment. Online-only banks have a few additional
drawbacks: an account holder has to mail in deposits (other than
direct deposits), and some services that traditional banks offer are
difficult or impossible for online-only banks to offer, such as traveler's
checks and cashier's checks.

E- Health:
The term e-Health (E-Health, eHealth...) has been in use since the
year 2000. E-health encompasses much of medical informatics but
tends to prioritize the delivery of clinical information, care and services
rather than the functions of technologies. No single consensus, all-
encompassing definition of eHealth exists - the term tends to be
defined in terms of a series of characteristics specified at varying
levels of detail and generality (see next section). The term is not
included in the MeSH taxonomy but most of the topics typically
classified as being part of e-health are encompassed within the
medical informatics MeSH tree.

Throughout many western national healthcare services, extensive e-
Health infrastructures and systems are now viewed as central to the
future provision of safe, efficient, high quality, citizen-centered health
care. (Information on current national e-Health implementation
programs, centered on the deployment of national information
infrastructures and electronic medical record systems is provided on
Open Clinical.)

Though current technological developments are essentially limited to
developed countries, e-Health is now a global topic. It was discussed
at the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society in
December 2003 and at the World Health Assembly in May 2005. The
World Health Organization has established various e-Health initiatives,
such as the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) in 2005, which
aims "to provide Member States with strategic information and
guidance on effective practices, policies and standards in eHealth". The
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held with the
participation of 175 countries (second phase, 16-18 November 2005,
Tunis), affirmed its commitment to "improving access to the world's
health knowledge and telemedicine services, in particular in areas such
as global cooperation in emergency response, access to and
networking among health professionals to help improve quality of life
and environmental conditions".
In Europe, e-Health forms a major part of the European Commission
e-Europe action plan. The EU has set out ambitious plans for its
member states envisaging the definition of health data interoperability


                                                                 Page 36 of 79
standards by the end of 2006, the implementation of health
information networks by 2008 and "online services such as tele-
consultation (second medical opinion), e-prescription, e-referral, tele-
monitoring and telecare" by the end of 2008.

The 10 e‘s in e-health:
▪ Efficiency - one of the promises of e-health is to increase efficiency
      in health care, thereby decreasing costs. One possible way of
      decreasing costs would be by avoiding duplicative or
      unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic interventions, through
      enhanced communication possibilities between health care
      establishments, and through patient involvement.
▪ Enhancing quality of care - increasing efficiency involves not only
      reducing costs, but at the same time improving quality. E-health
      may enhance the quality of health care for example by allowing
      comparisons between different providers, involving consumers
      as additional power for quality assurance, and directing patient
      streams to the best quality providers.
▪ Evidence based - e-health interventions should be evidence-based
      in a sense that their effectiveness and efficiency should not be
     assumed but proven by rigorous scientific evaluation. Much work
     still has to be done in this area.
▪ Empowerment of consumers and patients - by making the
     knowledge bases of medicine and personal electronic records
     accessible to consumers over the Internet, e-health opens new
     avenues for patient-centered medicine, and enables evidence-
     based patient choice.
▪ Encouragement of a new relationship between the patient and
     health professional, towards a true partnership, where decisions
     are made in a shared manner.
▪ Education of physicians through online sources (continuing medical
     education) and consumers (health education, tailored preventive
     information for consumers)
▪ Enabling information exchange and communication in a
     standardized way between health care establishments.
▪ Extending the scope of health care beyond its conventional
     boundaries. This is meant in both a geographical sense as well


                                                                Page 37 of 79
      as in a conceptual sense. e-health enables consumers to easily
      obtain health services online from global providers. These
      services can range from simple advice to more complex
      interventions or products such a pharmaceuticals.
▪ Ethics - e-health involves new forms of patient-physician interaction
      and poses new challenges and threats to ethical issues such as
      online professional practice, informed consent, privacy and
      equity issues.
▪ Equity - to make health care more equitable is one of the promises
      of e-health, but at the same time there is a considerable threat
       that e-health may deepen the gap between the "haves" and
       "have-nots". People, who do not have the money, skills, and
       access to computers and networks, cannot use computers
       effectively. As a result, these patient populations (which would
       actually benefit the most from health information) are those who
       are the least likely to benefit from advances in information
       technology, unless political measures ensure equitable access for
       all. The digital divide currently runs between rural vs. urban
       populations, rich vs. poor, young vs. old, male vs. female
      people, and between neglected/rare vs. common diseases.
In addition to these 10 essential e's, e-health should also be
▪ Easy-to-use,
▪ Entertaining (no-one will use something that is boring!) and exciting

E- Libraries:
Physical site and/or website that provides 24-hour online access to
digitized audio, video, and written material, such as wikipedia.

Use of appropriate search engines:

What follows is a basic explanation of how search engines work.

▪   Keyword Searching
▪   Refining Your Search
▪   Relevancy Ranking
▪   Meta Tags
▪   Concept-based Searching (This information is dated, but
        might have historical interest for researchers)



                                                               Page 38 of 79
Search engines use automated software programs known as spiders or
bots to survey the Web and build their databases. Web documents are
retrieved by these programs and analyzed. Data collected from each
web page are then added to the search engine index. When you enter
a query at a search engine site, your input is checked against the
search engine's index of all the web pages it has analyzed. The best
urls are then returned to you as hits, ranked in order with the best
results at the top.

Keyword Searching

This is the most common form of text search on the Web. Most search
engines do their text query and retrieval using keywords.

What is a keyword, exactly? It can simply be any word on a
webpage. For example, I used the word "simply" in the previous
sentence, making it one of the keywords for this particular webpage in
some search engine's index. However, since the word "simply" has
nothing to do with the subject of this webpage (i.e., how search
engines work), it is not a very useful keyword. Useful keywords and
key phrases for this page would be "search," "search engines," "search
engine methods," "how search engines work," "ranking" "relevancy,"
"search engine tutorials," etc. Those keywords would actually tell a
user something about the subject and content of this page.

Unless the author of the Web document specifies the keywords for her
document (this is possible by using meta tags), it's up to the search
engine to determine them. Essentially, this means that search engines
pull out and index words that appear to be significant. Since search
engines are software programs, not rational human beings, they work
according to rules established by their creators for what words are
usually important in a broad range of documents. The title of a page,
for example, usually gives useful information about the subject of the
page (if it doesn't, it should!). Words that are mentioned towards the
beginning of a document (think of the "topic sentence" in a high school
essay, where you lay out the subject you intend to discuss) are given
more weight by most search engines. The same goes for words that
are repeated several times throughout the document.

Some search engines index every word on every page. Others index
only part of the document.

Full-text indexing systems generally pick up every word in the text



                                                              Page 39 of 79
except commonly occurring stop words such as "a," "an," "the," "is,"
"and," "or," and "www." Some of the search engines discriminate
upper case from lower case; others store all words without reference
to capitalization.

The Problem With Keyword Searching

Keyword searches have a tough time distinguishing between words
that are spelled the same way, but mean something different (i.e. hard
cider, a hard stone, a hard exam, and the hard drive on your
computer). This often results in hits that are completely irrelevant to
your query. Some search engines also have trouble with so-called
stemming -- i.e., if you enter the word "big," should they return a hit
on the word, "bigger?" What about singular and plural words? What
about verb tenses that differ from the word you entered by only an
"s," or an "ed"?

Search engines also cannot return hits on keywords that mean the
same, but are not actually entered in your query. A query on heart
disease would not return a document that used the word "cardiac"
instead of "heart."

Refining Your Search

Most sites offer two different types of searches--"basic" and "refined"
or "advanced." In a "basic" search, you just enter a keyword without
sifting through any pull down menus of additional options. Depending
on the engine, though, "basic" searches can be quite complex.

Advanced search refining options differ from one search engine to
another, but some of the possibilities include the ability to search on
more than one word, to give more weight to one search term than you
give to another, and to exclude words that might be likely to muddy
the results. You might also be able to search on proper names, on
phrases, and on words that are found within a certain proximity to
other search terms.

Some search engines also allow you to specify what form you'd like
your results to appear in, and whether you wish to restrict your search
to certain fields on the internet (i.e., Usenet or the Web) or to specific
parts of Web documents (i.e., the title or URL).

Many, but not all search engines allow you to use so-called Boolean


                                                                Page 40 of 79
operators to refine your search. These are the logical terms AND, OR,
NOT, and the so-called proximal locators, NEAR and FOLLOWED BY.

Boolean AND means that all the terms you specify must appear in the
documents, i.e., "heart" AND "attack." You might use this if you
wanted to exclude common hits that would be irrelevant to your
query.

Boolean OR means that at least one of the terms you specify must
appear in the documents, i.e., bronchitis, acute OR chronic. You might
use this if you didn't want to rule out too much.

Boolean NOT means that at least one of the terms you specify must
not appear in the documents. You might use this if you anticipated
results that would be totally off-base, i.e., nirvana AND Buddhism,
NOT Cobain.

Not quite Boolean + and - Some search engines use the characters +
and - instead of Boolean operators to include and exclude terms.

NEAR means that the terms you enter should be within a certain
number of words of each other. FOLLOWED BY means that one term
must directly follow the other. ADJ, for adjacent, serves the same
function. A search engine that will allow you to search on phrases
uses, essentially, the same method (i.e., determining adjacency of
keywords).

Phrases: The ability to query on phrases is very important in a search
engine. Those that allow it usually require that you enclose the phrase
in quotation marks, i.e., "space the final frontier."

Capitalization: This is essential for searching on proper names of
people, companies or products. Unfortunately, many words in English
are used both as proper and common nouns--Bill, bill, Gates, gates,
Oracle, oracle, Lotus, lotus, Digital, digital--the list is endless.

All the search engines have different methods of refining queries. The
best way to learn them is to read the help files on the search engine
sites and practice!

Relevancy Rankings

Most of the search engines return results with confidence or relevancy


                                                              Page 41 of 79
rankings. In other words, they list the hits according to how closely
they think the results match the query. However, these lists often
leave users shaking their heads on confusion, since, to the user, the
results may seem completely irrelevant.

Why does this happen? Basically it's because search engine
technology has not yet reached the point where humans and
computers understand each other well enough to communicate clearly.

Most search engines use search term frequency as a primary way of
determining whether a document is relevant. If you're researching
diabetes and the word "diabetes" appears multiple times in a Web
document, it's reasonable to assume that the document will contain
useful information. Therefore, a document that repeats the word
"diabetes" over and over is likely to turn up near the top of your list.

If your keyword is a common one, or if it has multiple other meanings,
you could end up with a lot of irrelevant hits. And if your keyword is a
subject about which you desire information, you don't need to see it
repeated over and over--it's the information about that word that
you're interested in, not the word itself.

Some search engines consider both the frequency and the positioning
of keywords to determine relevancy, reasoning that if the keywords
appear early in the document, or in the headers, this increases the
likelihood that the document is on target. For example, one method is
to rank hits according to how many times your keywords appear and
in which fields they appear (i.e., in headers, titles or plain text).
 Another method is to determine which documents are most frequently
linked to other documents on the Web. The reasoning here is that if
other folks consider certain pages important, you should, too.

If you use the advanced query form on AltaVista, you can assign
relevance weights to your query terms before conducting a search.
Although this takes some practice, it essentially allows you to have a
stronger say in what results you will get back.

As far as the user is concerned, relevancy ranking is critical, and
becomes more so as the sheer volume of information on the Web
grows. Most of us don't have the time to sift through scores of hits to
determine which hyperlinks we should actually explore. The more
clearly relevant the results are, the more we're likely to value the
search engine.



                                                                 Page 42 of 79
Information On Meta Tags

Some search engines are now indexing Web documents by the Meta
tags in the documents' HTML (at the beginning of the document in the
so-called "head" tag). What this means is that the Web page author
can have some influence over which keywords are used to index the
document, and even in the description of the document that appears
when it comes up as a search engine hit.

This is obviously very important if you are trying to draw people to
your website based on how your site ranks in search engines hit lists.

There is no perfect way to ensure that you'll receive a high ranking.
Even if you do get a great ranking, there's no assurance that you'll
keep it for long. For example, at one period a page from the Spider's
Apprentice was the number- one-ranked result on AltaVista for the
phrase "how search engines work." A few months later, however, it
had dropped lower in the listings.

There is a lot of conflicting information out there on Meta tagging. If
you're confused it may be because different search engines look at
Meta tags in different ways. Some rely heavily on Meta tags; others
don't use them at all. The general opinion seems to be that meta tags
are less useful than they were a few years ago, largely because of the
high rate of spamdexing (web authors using false and misleading
keywords in the meta tags).

Note: Google, currently the most popular search engine, does not
index the keyword Meta tags. Be aware of this is you are optimizing
your web pages for the Google engine.

It seems to be generally agreed that the "title" and the "description"
meta tags are important to write effectively, since several major
search engines use them in their indices. Use relevant keywords in
your title, and vary the titles on the different pages that make up your
website, in order to target as many keywords as possible. As for the
"description" Meta tag, some search engines will use it as their short
summary of your URL, so make sure your description is one that will
entice surfers to your site.

Note: The "description" Meta tag is generally held to be the most
valuable, and the most likely to be indexed, so pay special attention to
this one.



                                                               Page 43 of 79
In the keyword tag, list a few synonyms for keywords, or foreign
translations of keywords (if you anticipate traffic from foreign
surfers). Make sure the keywords refer to, or are directly related to,
the subject or material on the page. Do NOT use false or misleading
keywords in an attempt to gain a higher ranking for your pages.

The "keyword" Meta tag has been abused by some webmasters. For
example, a recent ploy has been to put such words "games" or "mp3"
into keyword meta tags, in hopes of luring searchers to one's website
by using popular keywords.

The search engines are aware of such deceptive tactics, and have
devised various methods to circumvent them, so be careful. Use
keywords that are appropriate to your subject, and make sure they
appear in the top paragraphs of actual text on your webpage. Many
search engine algorithms score the words that appear towards the top
of your document more highly than the words that appear towards the
bottom. Words that appear in HTML header tags (H1, H2, H3, etc) are
also given more weight by some search engines. It sometimes helps
to give your page a file name that makes use of one of your prime
keywords, and to include keywords in the "alt" image tags.

One thing you should not do is use some other company's trademarks
in your Meta tags. Some website owners have been sued for
trademark violations because they've used other company names in
the Meta tags. I have, in fact, testified as an expert witness in such
cases. You do not want the expense of being sued!

Remember that all the major search engines have slightly different
policies. If you're designing a website and meta-tagging your
documents, we recommend that you take the time to check out what
the major search engines say in their help files about how they each
use meta tags. You might want to optimize your meta tags for the
search engines you believe are sending the most traffic to your site.

Concept-based searching (The following information is out-dated,
but might have historical interest for researchers)

Excite used to be the best-known general-purpose search engine site
on the Web that relies on concept-based searching. It is now
effectively extinct.

Unlike keyword search systems, concept-based search systems try to



                                                               Page 44 of 79
determine what you mean, not just what you say. In the best
circumstances, a concept-based search returns hits on documents that
are "about" the subject/theme you're exploring, even if the words in
the document don't precisely match the words you enter into the
query.

How did this method work? There are various methods of building
clustering systems, some of which are highly complex, relying on
sophisticated linguistic and artificial intelligence theory that we won't
even attempt to go into here. Excite used to a numerical approach.
Excites‘ software determines meaning by calculating the frequency
with which certain important words appear. When several words or
phrases that are tagged to signal a particular concept appear close to
each other in a text, the search engine concludes, by statistical
analysis, which the piece is "about" a certain subject.

For example, the word heart, when used in the medical/health context,
would be likely to appear with such words as coronary, artery, lung,
stroke, cholesterol, pump, blood, attack, and arteriosclerosis. If the
word heart appears in a document with others words such as flowers,
candy, love, passion, and valentine, a very different context is
established, and a concept-oriented search engine returns hits on the
subject of romance.



2.2.6 Tutorials, training and wizards (assistants)

Key terms:
Tutorial software: computer programs that give instruction in how to
use the software program or system that they support. These
programs simulate the capabilities of the system.

Training software: Computer programs that training, usually job
related, e.g., how to perform tasks, about company procedures or
policies. Training programs may also be used to teach basic knowledge
and skills. They permit users to learn at a pace determined by the
user, easy repetition of material, and some give information in
response to answers or choices made by the users.

Wizard: A program that guides users through a sequence of choices
and helpful information, leading to the completion of specific tasks
such as software installation, mail merges, or computer configuration.
An assistant is able to answer specific questions.


                                                                 Page 45 of 79
Help menu and help features: Almost similar to the wizards and
assistance this feature is designed to provide the user with help and is
generally provided in most software‘s such as the tutorial software,
training software and most word processors. This feature generally
provides the user with a search in which the user can type to what he
wants a solution to.

―Read Me‖ files: A ―read me‖ file contains data relating to other files
which are in a directory or an archive. It is very commonly distributed
with most computer software these days. These files are called text
files and are usually under these types of names TXT, README.1ST,
READ.ME, or simply README.

Using wizards and online assistants:

Tutorials
Pertaining to the computer;
▪ "programmed instruction provided to a user at a computer terminal,
      often concerning the use of a particular software package and
      built into that package."
▪ "a manual explaining how to use a particular software package or
      computer system." (Dictionary.com 2006)
Wizards
▪ "An interactive help utility that guides the user through a potentially
      complex task, such as configuring a PPP driver to work with a
      new modem. Wizards are often implemented as a sequence of
      dialog boxes which the user can move forward and backward
      through, filling in the details required. The implication is that the
      expertise of a human wizard in one of the above senses is
      encapsulated in the software wizard, allowing the average user
      to perform expertly." (Dictionary.com 2006)
The use of "wizards, assistants and online assistants in the design and
creation of a product, for example, desktop-published documents,
slideshows, web sites." (IBO 2006)
Try This...
Open the Microsoft Office 2000 Word Processor
Click File --> Project Gallery --> Menus & Catalogues --> Menus
Make a Menu for favourite local restaurant
Save and Print


                                                                  Page 46 of 79
Generally, training is an organized special session where attendance is
required, tutorials are designed for self-paced learning and wizards are
little 'tips' or 'how to‘s' for small tasks.


Templates


A template in the IT sense is a pre-made outline or format for a file to
be made in. This can be for word processing documents, style sheets,
web sheets, or a software template. A software template is "generally
identified as any processing element that can be combined with a data
model and processed by a template engine to produce a result
document." (Wikipedia, accessed February 24, 2007)
The most commonly known type of templates are the ones used in
word processing. These types of templates include types of letters
(formal and informal), reports, etc. These templates can be browsed
for online by going to Microsoft Word > File > New... > then in the
window on the right of the screen click the "Templates on Office
Online" link.
Check out Templates for more information on all kinds of templates.


Ethical and Social Issues


▪ Reliability
       The step by step tutorial, training and wizards content is
      correct.
       Will work every time and be useful
       Can be confusing or hard to follow the steps
       Reliability refers to the operation of hardware, the design of
      software, the accuracy of data or the correspondence of data
      with the real world. Data may be unreliable if it is entered
      incorrectly or if it becomes outdated. For example, a medical
      record that becomes dissociated from the patient it refers to
      becomes unreliable. The reliability of machines, software and
      data determines our confidence in their value.
▪ Globalization and Cultural Diversity
      The need for IT companies to consider global and cultural


                                                                Page 47 of 79
       diversity preparing training and tutorial software (IBO 2006, i.e.
       language, level of language, content (images, text, etc), suit
       learning styles
        Globalization means the diminishing importance of geographic,
       political, economic and cultural boundaries. IT has played a
       major role in reducing these boundaries. For example, any
       dramatic event anywhere in the world can be broadcast almost
       instantly by television or on the Internet. However, there is a
       fear that easier communication can become a source of cultural
       homogeneity. The new global village provides a worldwide
       cultural awareness, but may lead to less diversity.
▪ People and Machines
   ▪    The requirement of organizations to provide training when
     implementing change. (IBO 2006)
   ▪    The balance in responsibility between an individual and an
     organization for training. (IBO 2006)
   ▪    Speed and accuracy of tasks are improved
   ▪    Work is made easier and more pleasant




Tutorials

The balance in responsibility between an individual and an
organization for training

This is a very important topic concerning individuals and jobs
nowadays. A balance in responsibility between an individual and an
organization for training is required for a full and efficient job. That
being said, we will discuss now the outcomes and more features on
this topic. Training for jobs is necessary. This is done quite often, and
in all companies. This is required so that the individual can ‗get a hang‘
of things going on in the office, as well as to give him an idea of the
future ahead of him.

This is also done when an individual does not meet the needs of the
company and the company feels that they can improve the individual
by training him in that area. For example, if a person is an Economics
post-graduate from oxford, and he is computer illiterate (this is an



                                                                Page 48 of 79
extreme idea but it is a simple one), then the company feels that they
can expand his abilities by training him in computers. Another scenario
is when an individual has not studied computers, and his job is as a
manager at a software company.

The company will train the individual so that he is a computer literate
and can do well in both managing, and understanding the areas. We
all agree that it is the responsibility of the company to train the
individuals. But that is assumed to be to a certain extent. I mean, a
company can‘t train an individual more than enough. That would be a
loss for the company, esp. if the individual quits.

In fact, that would be a gain for the company he joins next. But the
point is, the individual, too, must have a responsibility concerning his
own training. He should consider his options before applying for an
interview, or before taking up a career. Before applying, he should see
that he has the necessary skills for the job, and that the company
should not train him for expected material which he is already
supposed to know. There is a difference between one or two day
trainings, and 5 month trainings.

The requirement of organizations to provide training when
implementing change

This is a very practical measure. If there are changes in the system,
employees must be adequately trained to deal with and use that
change efficiently. A simple example would be a new database system
for a hotel. One can't expect to change the system one fine day and
hope all the employees can keep up with the change. New features
and characteristics need to be explained to maintain efficiency. If no
training is given, many unnecessary mistakes will be made before a
level of efficiency is reached.

A hotel receptionist, could theoretically, misunderstand the system and
book a week-long guest for an extra day. This could cost a lot for the
guest who may remain unaware of the mistake.

Practice makes perfect and training accelerates the training process
making life easier for the company and the consumer- who don't suffer
due to mistakes caused by not understanding changes. In some cases,
training not only accelerates but is the only practically way of learning
something. Telling a bunch of workers at an Ad agency to suddenly
start using Photoshop to create layouts instead of paper would cause
problems without training. It would take an impractical amount of time


                                                               Page 49 of 79
for them to teach themselves and achieve a reasonable level of
efficiency. The consumers, people ordering the Ads, will probably
suffer as a result of poor initial quality.

Not training when implementing change can affect the product's
consumers and as such be a requirement- besides, it will increase the
efficiency of the company -unless the training is very costly. For
consumers' sake, training must be provided by organizations
implementing change.

Key terms tutorial software, training software, wizards and
assistants, help menu and help features, ―Read Me‖ files

Tutorial Software – Tutorial software‘s are types of programs which
assist or guide a user to learn something. Tutorial software‘s in this
case mainly play the role of a tutor or a teacher. Tutorial software‘s
are generally designed to be user-friendly such that the user can be
guided easily.

Training Software – Training software‘s are types of programs which
help a user get training. This type of software is usually designed to let
a trainee experience the actual circumstances as it would during a real
situation. Training software‘s generally are used because they are
efficient. It is cheaper to give training to trainee than actually building
a real situation. The advantage this has is that companies can hire
several trainees and train them with this software for minimal costs
and risks.

For example when the government wants to hire train drivers, they
usually train them with the help of these training software‘s. Hence by
this they can easily train the drivers without taking into account the
costs of actual training which would be driving the actual train and
risks such as train accidents. Consequently again in this scenario
training software‘s minimize the costs and risks.

Wizards and Assistance –Tools that assist the user, typically by
―popping up‖ and helping.

Help menu and help features – Catalogued and indexed databases
within a program that provide assistance on a variety of subjects.
Topics are generally searchable.

―Read me‖ files – A ―read me‖ file is a helpful file usually packaged
with the software designed to instruct the user in its operation.


                                                                 Page 50 of 79
Using wizards, assistants and online assistants in the design
and creation of a product, for example, desktop-published
documents, slideshows, web sites

These can be done very conveniently.
The technology emerged when Microsoft and Apple felt the need to
help and enlarge their customer base by helping them with procedures
crucial to creating files that could be made with their applications.

The issues that are related are those of:
The business of the company that manufactures the software
The ease of use for the customer
The faith that the customer has in the brand(for example Microsoft or
Apple who create software for presentations and spreadsheets)

The stakeholders are the customers who, with the assistance of
wizards, can create files that can be made using some application or
another. These people can significantly save their time and act in an
efficient manner. This will give them a satisfaction and keep them
coming for products released by major software power houses.

The situation doesn‘t really have a problem unless it‘s difficult to use
or if it is non-existent. Both of these are rare occurrences.

It really affects only business of companies that release software. An
example of what is talked is the ―Mac fever‖. Converts to Macintosh
prefer it to Windows and to these people Mac is considered an
addiction.

Also, the impact is global because software is available to most people
who can afford it anywhere with relative ease.

Personal and public
Communications

Knowledge of Technology

Key terms:

      Convergence: The merging of personal computing,
       telecommunications, and television into a single technology
       platform. One of the few early examples was WebTV,
       discontinued by Microsoft in 2001. Currently, cell phones and



                                                                 Page 51 of 79
    PDAs are leading the convergence push by incorporating digital
    cameras, Web browsers, and TV or radio receivers, for example.

   Teleconferencing: A teleconference is a telephone meeting
    among two or more participants involving technology more
    sophisticated than a simple two-way phone connection. At its
    simplest, a teleconference can be an audio conference with one
    or both ends of the conference sharing a speaker phone. With
    considerably more equipment and special arrangements, a
    teleconference can be a conference, called a videoconference, in
    which the participants can see still or motion video images of
    each other. Because of the high bandwidth of video and the
    opportunity for larger and multiple display screens, a
    videoconference requires special telecommunication
    arrangements and a special room at each end

   Videoconferencing: Conducting a conference between two or
    more participants at different sites by using computer networks
    to transmit audio and video data. For example, a point-to-point
    (two-person) video conferencing system works much like a video
    telephone. Each participant has a video camera, microphone,
    and speakers mounted on his or her computer. As the two
    participants speak to one another, their voices are carried over
    the network and delivered to the other's speakers, and whatever
    images appear in front of the video camera appear in a window
    on the other participant's monitor.
    Multipoint videoconferencing allows three or more participants to
    sit in a virtual conference room and communicate as if they were
    sitting right next to each other. Until the mid 90s, the hardware
    costs made videoconferencing prohibitively expensive for most
    organizations, but that situation is changing rapidly. Many
    analysts believe that videoconferencing will be one of the
    fastest-growing segments of the computer industry in the latter
    half of the decade.

   Telecommuting: The practice of working at home and
    communicating with your fellow workers through the phone,
    typically with a computer and modem. Telecommuting saves the
    employee getting to and from work and saves the employer from
    supplying support services such as heating and cleaning, but it
    can also deprive the worker of social contact and support.

   Digital television: TV broadcasting system that can transmit
    images with 720 to 1080 horizontal lines of resolution as


                                                            Page 52 of 79
    compared with 480 lines of the ordinary (analog) television
    system. Digital television offers interference-free, CD-quality
    sound and multiplexing of 6 channels less than one bandwidth.

   Push–pull technologies: Currently, one of the most fashionable
    technologies within the Internet is ―Push‖ technology. Contrary
    to the ―Pull' world of web pages where users request data from
    another program or computer, via a web browser, ―Push‖
    enables services to be targeted at the user, without them having
    to initiate the information collection activity. Instead, information
    finds the user. In other words, an automated retrieval of data
    from the Internet, corporate data sources and e-commerce web
    sites, is delivered directly to specific user populations in a
    personalised manner. ―Push‖ Technology allows you to become
    an integral part of your customers daily lives by enforcing your
    brands and services directly to them every day. Key messages
    and personalised information that they have requested, and
    critical information can be delivered to their desktop, screen
    saver, any wireless device, mail account and more. ―Push‖
    amplifies and extends your current Web presence while providing
    new and valuable services. Your customer is directed back to
    your Web site for more in-depth information. This technology
    eliminates the need to wait for customers to visit your site,
    instead, allowing an organisation to take their business to their
    customerbase.

   Mobile phone and associated services and uses:

    The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is
    SMS text messaging, with 74% of all mobile phone users as
    active users (over 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion total subscribers at
    the end of 2007). SMS text messaging was worth over 100
    billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide
    average of messaging use is 2.6 SMS sent per day per person
    across the whole mobile phone subscriber base (source Informa
    2007). The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to
    a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-
    person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.

    The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were
    worth 31 Billion dollars in 2007, and were led by mobile music,
    downloadable logos and pictures, gaming, gambling, adult
    entertainment and advertising. The first downloadable mobile
    content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when


                                                                Page 53 of 79
       Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringing tone
       service. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo
       introduced its mobile internet service, i-Mode, which today is the
       world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size
       as Google in annual revenues.

       Companies are starting to offer mobile services such as job
       search and career advice. Consumer applications are on the rise
       and include everything from information guides on local activities
       and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to
       save money on purchases. Even tools for creating websites for
       mobile phones are increasingly becoming available.

   Digital entertainment versus live entertainment

    The main difference between digital and live entertainment is on
    the physical level, a video game for example, might require the
    same level of intelligence, communication skill (if not more than live
    entertainment as there is no physical expressions or tone to help)
    as a live game, the main difference is the physical energy
    consumed. In a proper modern video game, you have to be able to
    quickly analyze and react to a situation, you have to think and plan
    whatever you are going to do, just as in a real game (eg soccer), in
    multiplayer games, conversation skills are of immense need, as the
    only way you have to communicate I by text, no tone, action or
    facial expression to help you, whereas in any live situation, there is
    so much more to help in communication. The only real difference is
    the physical activity, no matter how much FIFA 2009 you play, you
    will not gain any skill or anything good for your body, whereas a
    real game of soccer will help your body and your skills

   Contents of digital entertainment, for example, violence,
    pornography and realism

    There are a lot of issues that is associated the world of digital
    entertainment that is available on the internet. Digital music is a
    broad area with sub-categories such as digital music, digital
    television, and digital video etc. Because of the sub-categories this
    paper is solely concentrated on digital entertainment on the
    internet. This could be things such as videos on sites where it is
    associated with the purpose of entertainment, business, etc. This is
    commonly seen in pornography sites or other sites set up for the
    purpose of entertainment such as YouTube or Google Video. There
    is also the issue of music and files that can be downloaded illegally


                                                                Page 54 of 79
    or legally on the internet that is provided on sites or programs for
    free. A big issue associated with this area is the legality or content
    protection that are on the files, programs, and software etc. being
    distributed on the net.

    Content producers are deeply concerned about the threat that
    digital technologies pose to their ability to control the distribution of
    their works. Millions of people regularly use peer-to-peer programs
    to download copyrighted songs without paying for them, and the
    music industry attributes major revenue losses to file sharing. The
    movie industry fears becoming victim to the same kind of
    widespread piracy over file-sharing networks.

    Content producers are looking smatter technology and digital
    distribution channels as ways to enable even more focused
    distribution models. They picture a future in which consumers have
    many choices in the ways they receive their entertainment, from
    short-term rental downloads to long-term sales. Without effective
    protections from digital piracy, these new offerings will not be
    possible--the studios will not risk exposing their high-value content
    to widespread unauthorized redistribution. Certain providers of
    these ―free distribution‖ of the digital contents are apprehended and
    judged such as Napster. But its impossible to keep track nowadays
    especially with p2p or peer-to-peer sharing of files over the
    internet.

   Features of telecommuting, for example, environmental aspects,
    flexibility, productivity, business and social relationships

    In terms of environmental aspects, telecommuting has quite a few
    environmental benefits and some environmental costs. Some major
    environmental benefits that telecommuting contributes are savings
    in gasoline, a reduction in pollution, a decrease in traffic congestion,
    and lower highway accident rates.

    Telecommuting is very flexible as it makes people‘s work less
    stressful in most cases as it reduces the time and money spent on
    transportation. It encourages most females in the society to work
    as they can work at home and take care of their children, where as
    if telecommuting didn‘t exist most females would stop working after
    they are mothers or while they are pregnant.

    In economics terms ―productivity‖ is defined as the quantity of
    output a worker produces in a certain period of time. The quantity


                                                                   Page 55 of 79
    of output increases in most cases as telecommuting makes
    processing and transmitting data much easier. As a result of this at
    a management level in work is made efficient and leaves the rest to
    the laborers. Hence in some cases where management level is a big
    key to the output, productivity is raised.

    Telecommuting has some disadvantages and one of them is the
    relationship between co-workers. A boss in a company might not
    get to know the employee or a manager as well through
    telecommuting as he/she would not be able to see how productively
    an employee is working.


   Face-to-face communications versus communications via
    technology

    Mobile phone and computers are much similar forms of
    communications. Mobile phones and computers help us to
    communicate with others on different ends of the world. Due to the
    advancement in technology both devices aid in countering
    dangerous acts, in fighting wars, in having peaceful settlements,
    and so forth.

    But, unlike face-to-face communications there are many social and
    ethical issues when using technological communication methods.
    Due to our advancements in technology, we are able to track
    conversations through technological devices, we can alter
    conversations, or we can use one conversation against another to
    cause commotion. Electronic systems now reach into all levels of
    government, into the workplace, and into private lives to such an
    extent that even people without access to these systems are
    affected in significant ways by them. New ethical and legal
    decisions are necessary to balance the needs and rights of
    everyone.

    Technology itself has become so hard to control that we have come
    out with rules to control our technology and have gone as far as
    introducing acts enabling us to misuse technology – such as the
    Patriot Act. Public agency mandates and the right to access of
    public records is also creating problems of a different sort. Some
    agencies are charged with responsibilities to study and thereby help
    protect endangered species, others to understand and help
    preserve archaeological sites. Some of these agencies are finding
    that detailed information about species and their habitats or about


                                                               Page 56 of 79
    sensitive archaeological sites can also harm endangered animals or
    places. Habitats and sites become vulnerable because they become
    known. The problem lies in the right to access of public records.
    Agencies may decide that the best protection of species or sites is
    simply to not gather detailed information about them.

   Minimum requirements to enable realistic teleconferencing and
    videoconferencing

    Minimum requirements for teleconferencing and videoconferencing
    are mainly having a computer that is connected to the internet.
    That‘s pretty much it – as long as you have a computer connected
    to the internet, you can have a video conference. People might
    argue that teleconference might be done with a mobile, however, in
    this case we are also referring to videoconference and for that you
    do need a computer. Unless you live in Japan and have one of those
    phones where the users can see each other while talking, perhaps
    having a mobile is sufficient enough to have a conference but most
    business executives use computers because that is the right and
    the formal way to do it.

    Of course you can have more than just a computer. In order to
    have a no-disturbance videoconference certain things are needed.
    First of all, a FAST Internet connection is a must. Because if your
    internet is slow then the images will be received slowly and the
    interaction between the participants will be poor. Then you need a
    good microphone because the other executives should be able to
    hear your voice clearly and have a decent conversation. Thirdly,
    you must have a good quality web cam so clear images are
    presented to the other party.

    These three things should make your video conferencing experience
    smooth. However, if you have the new Mac and the other party has
    one too then you can use Apple‘s iChat to have an almost-real-life
    videoconference. The program works so smoothly that it seems like
    the person is actually sitting on the other end of the table. Four
    people can be in a VIDEO conference together! And can discuss
    issues like they are in one room! But then, Mac is just on a whole
    another level and might be a bit expensive for some people. So the
    three things listed above should be available in order to have a
    decent videoconference.

   Undetected intrusions into IT systems, for example, phone tapping




                                                               Page 57 of 79
The main problem is that these ―undeteced intrusions‖ which aren‘t
just limited to phone tapping can have a huge impact on the
company. For instance, if Yahoo!‘s IT system was intruded by a
highly qualified and highly paid hacker then the company could lose
all it‘s data and the website would probably be shut down for days,
even months or forever! Of course, that‘s major exaggeration but
that‘s just to show what kind of impact undetected IT intrusions
could have.

Phone tapping is when a third party gains access to the phone lines
of another party. This can be done by playing with the wires or
bribing certain people. Since phone is a very popular way of
communication in today‘s world, the person who has tapped the
phone has access to the victim‘s entire life because telephone calls
are made to everyone – your doctor, husband, lover, friends etc!
Socially, this is against the law, especially without permission. Even
with permission, it‘s plain invasion of privacy, which just isn‘t right.

Other forms of ―undetected intrusions‖ can be hacking of someone‘s
email. But since we are talking about ―IT systems‖ here the hacking
could be of an entire computer. A qualified hacker or someone in
your family can do this. And I do mean to imply that nobody can be
trusted in today‘s world and even your family members might try to
hack into your computer because they want to know what you do
and everything.

If someone does indeed hack into your computer without your
knowledge, then he would be able to read all your e-mails, all your
saved MSN and Yahoo conversations and if he‘s intelligent enough
(which he should be since he hacked into your computer) he‘ll able
to view all the saved passwords to all the websites you visit!

And you won‘t even find out about it until the damage is done.
Socially, just like phone tapping this is against the law. Any form of
invasion of pprivacy is against the law, if done without permission.
Ethically, this is very wrong because simpy put you are invading the
other person‘s life without even letting him know! People do this all
the time today, especially the jealous and protective lovers who
want to find everything their partners are doing when they are not
with them.

There are other forms of intrusions too like a virus or a bug in the
software, which can cause all the company‘s data to just vanish.
These viruses are either sent by random hackers or paid hackers.


                                                                  Page 58 of 79
Therefore, all these anti-virus companies are making so much
money today because everyone‘s scared of viruses because it‘s very
hard to recover lost data and sometimes it‘s too late when the virus
is found. Therefore, in order to detect the ―undetected intrusion‖,
anti-virus software is needed. The best way would be to just buy a
Mac because Macintosh is known to have no viruses!

Basically, it is wrong to intrude somebody else‘s system! It‘s wrong
socially because it‘s against the law and ethically because it‘s clear
invasion of privacy. You can protect yourself by either installing
anti-virus software or creating a really complex password that‘d be
really hard to guess.


   Personal mobile devices, for example, PDA, laptop

    PDA stands for personal digital assistant. According to
    dictionary.com personal digital assistant is ―A lightweight, handheld
    computer, typically employing a touch-sensitive screen rather than
    a keyboard, generally used for storing information such as
    addresses or schedules. Many PDA‘s include handwriting recognition
    software, some support voice recognition, and some have an
    internal cell phone and modem to link with other computers or
    networks.‖ So basically in simple terms a PDA is a phone which has
    multiple features and has widely come to be known as pocket
    computers and palmtop computers.

    Out of several features the one that makes PDA so unique is the
    touch screen. Touch screen is a virtual keyboard which enables a
    user with an easy soft click to access around the system. This
    feature helps the user navigate around the device faster than
    typing with a normal keyboard. The PDA also has a larger screen
    than normal cell phones which enables users to easily view
    websites. The PDA has a strong wireless network which helps one
    view websites online. Most PDA‘s have Bluetooth and infra-red
    which also enable data to transmitted between PDA‘s and laptops.

    Most PDA‘s also have a word processor, spreadsheet viewer and
    PDF file viewer. All these features make life easier and efficient for
    business men. All these features help a business man to access
    information easily on their phone. Although the screen on PDA is
    smaller than a normal computer monitor the information is still
    viewable and pays off at crucial times. The same goes with the
    wireless connection. Although the speed at which data is


                                                                  Page 59 of 79
    transferred into a PDA is no comparison with the speed on a
    computer, chatting and video conferencing from a PDA is still
    happen able.

    PDA not only has designed to use for business and social purposes.
    Recently it has also been used for medical and scientific purposes.
    PDA has been used recently to provide aid diagnosis and drug
    selection. What happens is there is a drug database which helps the
    patient gets information on the particular drug he is taking. It has
    also been used as a way of communication between the doctor and
    the patient when the patient is not in a remote area.
    In conclusion PDA has several benefits and very limited drawbacks.
    Some of these drawbacks are ruggedness, weather and water
    resistance and power considerations. Overall PDA is helpful for
    many business, social, scientific and educational purposes.

   Emerging technologies as the result of convergence of computers
    and communications technology

Computers have allowed many types of technologies to emerge and
expand than ever before. As a result, humans have begun to utilize
resources better than previously and also, have begun organizing
them.

For example, video conferencing used to be very limited because it
was very difficult to set-up, expensive and was not used by many
people. In fact, it was impossible. People only dreamed of such
software which would be free, cheap (or better, cost nothing at all)
and easy to use such that anyone could use it. Now in this century,
anyone (any person with sufficient amount of experience with
computers) can set-up video conferencing on the computer or a
laptop and with an internet connection and a software such as
instant messaging. Such an example is VOIP.

VOIP (voice over internet protocol) has been another technology
that has emerged with software such as Skype. Skype is a peer-to-
peer Internet telephony network founded by the entrepreneurs
Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis, also founders of the file sharing
application Kazaa. It competes against existing open VoIP protocols
such as SIP, IAX, and H.323. The Skype Group, acquired by eBay in
October 2005, is headquartered in Luxembourg, with offices in
London, Tallinn and Prague. Skype has experienced rapid growth in
both popular usage and software development since launch, both of
its free and its paid services. The Skype communications system is


                                                               Page 60 of 79
notable for its broad range of features, including free voice and
video conferencing, its ability to use peer to peer (decentralized)
technology to overcome common firewall and NAT (Network
address translation) problems, and its extreme countermeasures
against reverse engineering of the software or protocol.
{www.wikipedia.org}
Skype has enabled us pc users (and mac users) to extend our
limitations beyond the telephone. We can now call to anyone with a
microphone (which comes with almost every pc) and speakers.
Better yet, if you have a web camera, you can do live video
conferencing (a dream in the past, reality in the future)

A social network service is social software specifically focused on
the building and verifying of online social networks for whatever
purpose. Many social networking services are also blog hosting
services. As of 2005, there are over three hundred known social
networking web sites. MySpace, Facebook and Friendster are some
well known examples. (Wikipedia.org)

An Internet forum is a facility on the World Wide Web for holding
discussions and posting user generated content, or the web
application software used to provide this facility. Web-based
forums, which date from around 1995[citation needed], perform a
similar function as the dial-up bulletin boards and Internet
newsgroups that were numerous in the 1980s and 1990s. A sense
of virtual community often develops around forums that have
regular users. Technology, computer games, and politics are
popular areas for forum themes, but there are forums for a huge
number of different topics

Lastly, digital downloads have emerged as well. In the US, people
can rent movies through the internet on sites such as Netflix and
also on iTunes, people can buy music digitally. Previously, we used
to get cassettes, and CD‘s. Before that, it used to be on big records,
and on reels. The emergence of computers has allowed us to ease
the process of going to the store or buying it. Other people use
torrents to download music or movies.

With the emergence of technology as a result of computers, more
and more things are becoming common and new technology is
invented every day, thereby, helping us improve our way of living
and modernize it.




                                                               Page 61 of 79
   Public information systems, for example, traffic control, security
    camera systems, public transfer information systems.

There a lot of pubic information systems that range from being
sophisticated to a simple one and have a lot of uses that are generally
aimed at the public. There are also others that are aimed at the public
that are interested at certain aspects of the world such as the Interpol,
a worldwide police force organization that works to help capture
criminals who flee a country to get refuge elsewhere. But usual it
refers mostly to a state‘s government organization such as NAPHSIS
(National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information
Systems) on the internet where people can access it and see what
plans or measures etc. are posted and follow up on it.

Basically the various public information systems are to the benefit of
the general public so such things as traffic control are a crucial part of
our modern day daily life as we know that the traffic control helps
keep the traffic lights functioning perfectly so to move our vehicles
moving in a harmonic and smooth-flowing way as much as possible
without causing an accident. To have a central traffic control helps the
public as they can commute safely because without it, the roads will
be in chaos as each driver tries to go his own desired route causing
trouble for the countless others looking to commute to their desired
destinations too.

Despite the arguments that it is an invasion of privacy but on the
bright side, it can help protect or benefit a lot more people. The
highway cameras are a definite success and vital part of the road
management of the speeds of motorists. Since its introduction it has
played a crucial part in saving a lot of lives and helped to reduce traffic
fatalities and accidents or various sorts and there has been a
worldwide recognition of the frequent use of highway cameras.

Public transfer information systems are general notices or just
information posted or published for the business, universities, banks,
and other organizations. Public transfer information systems are
provided to the public interested in the information published as they
will use this free information to do something that is connected to
publisher or authority directly linked to the information. It helps to
make know to the public information that concerns the people doing
business or teaching so that it can be accessed by the public or people
in specific areas of work so they can use and apply the information to
their use.



                                                                 Page 62 of 79
Technology has really helped society as a whole quite a lot such as
security cameras and not only for security purposes but there are also
other small technologies such as automatic street lighting where as
soon as it is dark then the lights are turned on automatically by its
sensor. But overall it has beneficial aspects but there are always
people who discredit it for some reason which is underestimating the
real benefit of using these technologies.

In the modern world, with technology expanding in daily life and all
aspects of it, it will be a disadvantage not to use such things. In this
growing world the cooperating with each other using technology as
one of our key tools of communication and usage. The technologies
help both locally and globally as for ex: if local authorities fail to
capture a certain criminal then their will be public information about
the reward or the watch out and the public will be notified and also
globally, request for the capture of the criminal if the criminal is in the
foreign country. So both will be affected but through their cooperation
they will most likely apprehend the criminal as both will be on because
security cameras in airports and all transportation terminal or points
will have or be prepared for the surveillance.




Artificial Intelligence
ITGS

Value of the development of AI as a field, for example, whether
it is an appropriate place to put economic resources

Artificial intelligence is getting increasingly complex

Now the question is, which field is appropriate to develop this
technology in. Presently the field that is said to come the closest to
completing this technology is the military.
First, why would the military research artificial intelligence? This may
not be the appropriate question to ask. The question should be why
wouldn‘t the military research artificial intelligence. Indeed the
production of a proper artificial intelligence would mean a lot to the
military. The type of artificial intelligence that the military has in mind
has two types. The first one is in short a all powerful commanding
office by itself.




                                                                  Page 63 of 79
By having this A.I, the military will have a lesser need for large
commanding stations with operators, generals etc. Instead the A.I will
be connected to the military‘s network, and will be able to efficiently
receive information, theoretically analyze it, then issue effective orders
all by itself. If this system comes to use, the army will be able to
operate with less human staff, ultimately resulting in the decrease in
the military‘s expenses.

The system will also be in theory more efficient than human staff since
the different types of jobs are merged into one system, resulting in a
more connective and fast system. Also all decisions the A.I make will
be based on theoretical data, so it will make less mistakes than
humans. The second type of A.I is an independent battlefield
operational type. Long story short, it is a mechanical soldier, or a
robot. The merit from this is of course the lives of millions of soldiers
that will be saved by this technology.

These merits however, are only merits if you see them from the
military‘s point of view.


Ethical issues of various applications of AI, for example,
replacement of human workers, handing decision-making tasks
to a computer

Morals and profit are not two things that usually go hand in hand when
associated with the hard world of business transactions. More often
than not, companies choose monetary gains over moral values, and
because of this, humanity has both benefited and suffered greatly.

Many firms have questioned whether they should retain their human
workers, or let the quicker, more efficient robot workers/computers
take over the management section. Both have their pros and cons. But
which one would lead to a better, stronger company?

The advantages of having a computer-controlled manager is obvious.
First off, the company would have a reliable worker that never took
sick days, could work twenty four hours a day, seven days a week,
and always made the most efficient, cost cutting decision without
letting personal emotions cloud its judgment. At first glance, it seems
like the right choice, but there are several factors that weigh against
an artificial manager.

On of the first things would be that the moral of the company‘s


                                                                Page 64 of 79
workers would be at an all time low. It would be extremely degrading
for a person, who prided themselves on being a loyal and skilled
worker, to have to take orders from a machine, who has little or no
idea of what they have to do to keep the firm active and running.

They would feel misunderstood, ignored, and maybe even angry at
how they are being treated. This will detract from their job
performance, and in the end, lower their efficiency. After all, how could
a twisted amalgamation of steel, silicon and computer chips possibly
comprehend what the average worker has to go through everyday?
These mutinous feelings will lead to lowered performance, latent
anguish, and maybe even incidents of outright disobedience. Because
of their inability to feel, computers help destroy a company.

On the other hand, a talented manager knows exactly what to say and
do to get his laborers in a frenzy of work, utilizing incentives, and
select words of praise to keep them going long into the night. He will
understand what kind of troubles they are facing, and will attempt to
help them by making them feel like part of the ―team‖. A human
manger could identify what kind of problems the employee was facing,
and through his or her understanding and compassion, could
potentially cause the employee to be happier about his or her work,
and make them work harder as a form of compensation for their boss.
However, as human managers have emotions, they also have flaws.

Understanding can be misinterpreted as excessive leniency, which in
turn gives the employees the belief that they are allowed to ―slack off‖
from working. Grudges harbored against stubborn workers, and
irrational dislike can also amount to a loss in efficiency during work, as
both people spend time they could be working on pondering how they
can get their own back on that particular individual. As ridiculous as it
may sound, these petty vendettas can get in the way of getting some
real work done, and therefore do affect how the workers work.

Overall, this is a very difficult question to answer. To have a purely
professional army of robots to build and maintain the company, would
be absolutely impossible, in this day and age. It seems ironic that the
very qualities that make us human and the ones that keep us going in
the business world today.




                                                                Page 65 of 79
Social impact of the use of "smart" machines on everyday life

Smart machines can be used for various purposes that will be to the
advantage of the humans. Therefore, socially they have a very positive
impact by helping us making our lives easier and more secure.

Smart Machines in Education is woven in the utilization of the research
results from cognitive science and artificial intelligence to advance our
perception of technology for education into the next revolution. The
main focus is placed on the illustrations of educational systems, and
the intention is to promote the ―intelligent‖ ideas in virtual learning
environments.

Learning from costless failure is one of the important advantages in
educational simulation. Expectation failures synthesize situations that
students could encounter in their real-life, and encourage them to
maturate their scientific investigation skills in order to learn the
lessons from the failures.

Another novel idea is the creation of a teachable agent. One can often
learn a lot from the feedback and responses from the taught during
the teaching process. The teachable agents offer this opportunity to
students while protecting them from being harmed by ―in-experienced
teachers‖ (other students) at the same time.


Ethical issues related to military applications of AI, for
example, smart weapons, reconnaissance, decision making

Artificial Intelligence(AI) means intelligent machines manufactured by
human beings. It also refers to a trait of intelligence that is existed by
an artificial entity. Research in AI is concerned with producing
machines to mechanize tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples
include control , the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer
questions, voice and facial recognition. The study of AI has also
become an engineering discipline, focused on providing solutions to
real life problems. But it is also applied to military weapons, causing a
lot of problems. Smart weapons are an example of this.

Smart weapons are guided weapons intended to maximize damage to
the target by using a laser, television, or satellite guidance system.
The improvements in accuracy by using AI enable a target to be
effectively attacked with fewer and smaller bombs. Smart weapons,
which use guidance systems that rely on external assistance, are


                                                                 Page 66 of 79
different from brilliant weapons, which are totally self-guided.

In the case of a smart bomb with a laser guidance system, an aircraft
pilot aims a laser beam at the target, a computer keeps the beam
locked on the target, and the bomb has a sensor programmed to find
the reflection of the laser's light. A guidance computer adjusts the path
of the bomb after it is released, using movable fins to steer. Satellite-
guided bombs have guidance computers that use signals from
navigation satellites to confirm that they are on target; the tail fins are
adjusted to control the bomb's course as it falls. Cruise missiles are an
example of this.

The problem with these weapons is the technology of AI, which is
made to improve real life problems, is actually used in the mass
destructive weapons. The fact AI is being used in the wars make many
people sad including me. But on the other hand, we are making those
weapons to protect themselves. The issue is thus multilayered and
complicated.

Access to the knowledge base underlying an inference engine
in an expert system, for example, whether people affected by
decisions made using an expert system should have access to
the rules by which the decision was made

Access to the knowledge base underlying an inference engine in an
expert system, for example, whether people affected by decisions
made using an expert system should have access to the rules by which
the decision was made.

To begin with let's recall what an expert system and inference engine
are so an expert system is "a system that attempts to provide
solutions to problems in a particular field, based on a database of
information about that field. An expert system might specialize in
biology, accounting, human resources, and financial service and be
able to provide answers to questions on all these fields, and even carry
out complex thought processes on questions relating to all these
fields." And an inference engine is "the part of an expert system that
draws inferences and deduces new facts by using old knowledge."

People affected by decisions made using an expert system should
always have access to the rules by which the decision was made so
that the process of attaining the decision can be justified when needed
to. One reasonable way of looking at why there is a need for the rules
is to look at the drawbacks of an expert system. To learn the


                                                                   Page 67 of 79
drawbacks we must understand the practical use of an expert system
first.

The lack of human common sense needed in some decision makings
can sometimes provide unrealistic decisions. The creative responses
human experts can respond to in unusual circumstances and can lead
to various problems. Domain experts not always being able to explain
their logic and reasoning The challenges of automating complex
processes can lead to an undesired outcome. The lack of flexibility and
ability to adapt to changing environments can cause problems in the
field of biology. Not being able to recognize when no answer is
available. For instance in biological cases the system may provide
answers which are not possible and doctors would not instantly see
that there is no real solution to the issue.

Expert system is used and applied in several medical cases. It is
applied when the case is not brief and doesn't have a simple answer to
it. Meaning it has a multiple solutions to it, therefore an expert system
produces algorithmic approach. Hence a very narrow topic such as
"diagnosing skin in human teenagers" can be used to provide rules on
thumbs on how to evaluate the problem. The expert system will use an
expert developer which would draw inferences from the old knowledge
previously inputted by an expert in the field.

In conclusion, an expert system is always right but the rules on which
it is run are inputted by an expert in the field who can be wrong from
time to time. Hence if a wrong solution is provided especially in the
field of biology and financial services someone who doesn't know much
about the field or has absolutely no knowledge may choose to simply
rely on the advice given by the system when it is wrong. In today's
world where there are a number of ways to approach something, the
best and expert in the field can do to is to make sure the validation,
verification and evaluation of the system are made at their best.

Key Terms—AI, Turing test, parallel processing, machine
learning, natural language, common-sense knowledge, agent,
pattern recognition, expert system, knowledge base, inference
engine, heuristics, fuzzy logic, knowledge engineer, domain

AI – AI stands for artificial intelligence. It is defined as the ability of a
computer or other machine to perform actions which normally require
intelligence. This includes simulating moves for a computer chess
game, or even speaking to humans, as in a chat bot.



                                                                    Page 68 of 79
Turing Test – A Turing test is a test of whether a computer‘s
intelligence is humanlike or not. The test is performed by having a
panel of humans ―talk to‖ a computer. If they believe that the
computer is really a human, then the computer is said to have passed
the Turing Test.

Parallel Processing – Parallel processing is when more than one
computer is working on the same or multiple tasks at the same time.
For example, if a problem or task is too big for one computer to
handle, more computers can work on different parts of it so that the
task can get done faster.

Machine Learning – Machine learning is much like the way living
things learn, except with machines. Through machine learning,
machines can improve their performance on future tasks based on
what they did in the past. They are able to remember which ways are
most efficient and which are least efficient, and which ones do not
work at all.

Natural Language – Natural language is any language spoken by
humans. The opposite of this is programming language or computer
language, which is not as complex as human language. Computers are
not able to understand things like philosophy because they cannot
understand natural language.

Common-Sense Knowledge – Common sense knowledge is the
knowledge that humans have without having to be told. Humans are
able to deduce things like ―if I drop this ball, it will fall‖ without being
taught. However, computers do not have this ability and must be
programmed so that they know that the ball will drop.

Agent – In a client-server exchange, the agent is the part of the
system that does the transferring and packaging of information.

Pattern Recognition – Pattern recognition is the ability to classify
and arrange knowledge according to certain characteristics of that
knowledge. An example of pattern recognition in computers today is
with spyware. Spyware programs monitor the sites that users visit, try
to find patterns in them, and then show advertisements that fit the
category of what users look at.

Expert System – The expert system is a system that attempts to
provide solutions to problems in a particular field, based on a database
of information about that field. An expert system might specialize in


                                                                    Page 69 of 79
biology and be able to provide answers to questions about biology, and
even carry out complex thought processes on questions relating to
biology.

Knowledge Base – The knowledge base is the part of the expert
system that contains all the facts and information that it needs to give
solutions and solve problems.

Inference Engine – In inference engine is the part of an expert
system that draws inferences and deduces new facts by using old
knowledge.

Fuzzy Logic – Fuzzy logic is a type of algebra in which a range of
values ranging from ―true‖ to ―false‖ are employed. It is mainly used in
making decisions where data is not very precise, in order to come up
with an approximate answer instead of an exact one.

Knowledge Engineer – A knowledge engineer is someone who builds
and designs expert systems.

Domain – A domain is a group of networked computers that share a
common IP address


2.1 Basics: hardware and networks

2.1.1 Systems fundamentals

Baud: a data transmission rate (bits/second) for modem

Trojan horse: A computer program with an apparently or actually

useful function that contains additional (hidden) functions that

surreptitiously exploit the legitimate authorizations of the invoking

process to the detriment of security. For example, making a "blind

copy" of a sensitive file for the creator of the Trojan Horse.

Worm: A worm is a self-replicating (makes copies of itself), self-

propagating (moves itself forward) program which is designed to harm



                                                                 Page 70 of 79
your computer and others on the network. Of course, self-replicating

means that they actually make copies of themselves and send

themselves through a network of unprotected computers. Worms can

act on their own and do not need to be associated with any particular

computer program.

Logic bomb: a set of instructions inserted into a program that are

designed to execute (or `explode') if a particular condition is satisfied;

when exploded it may delete or corrupt data, or print a spurious

message, or have other harmful effects

Platform: In computing, a platform describes some sort of hardware

architecture or software framework (including application frameworks)

that allows software to run. Typical platforms include a computer's

architecture, operating system, programming languages and related

runtime libraries or graphical user interface.

Peripheral: A peripheral is a device attached to a host computer but

not part of it whose primary functionality is dependent upon the host,

and can therefore be considered as expanding the host's capabilities,

while not forming part of the system's core architecture.

Examples are printers, scanners, tape drives, microphones, speakers,

webcams, and cameras.




                                                                 Page 71 of 79
Use advantages and disadvantages of analogue and digital data

Digital Data:

Advantages:

     Easy to store and use, that is why computers use it.
     Digital data is designed and artificially created, so it is efficient.
     Less expensive


Disadvantages

     Digital communications require greater bandwidth than analogue
      to transmit the same information.

Analogue Data:

Advantages
   Uses less bandwidth
   More accurate

Disadvantages
    The effects of random noise can make signal loss and distortion
     impossible to recover

Operating systems (multitasking, boot) and utilities, for

example, defragment, diskformat, virus scan programs

What is an operating system?


System software is designed to enable you to run a computer without
having to know exactly what's going on inside. It controls the actual
operation of the computer system. An operating system (OS) such as
Microsoft Windows XP is part of the system software. The purpose of
an OS is to provide the user with a means of operating the computer
and manage the many components and resources of the system.
What is application software?

Application software is a range programs designed for users to perform
specific tasks or functions. Such tasks include word-processing,
spreadsheets, databases, desktop publishing (DTP), presentations and
communications such as email and ‗chat‘.


                                                                    Page 72 of 79
Bootstrap loader

When a computer is powered up it carries out a series of tasks to
check that the basic hardware is operating correctly. It then tries to
load the OS program into the main memory. Checking hardware,
locating and loading the OS is carried out by a small program called
the bootstrap loader that is held in ROM.

Functions of a single user operating system

An OS can be described as having six areas of functionality:

1.   Interpret user commands.
2.   File management.
3.   Memory management.
4.   Input/Output management.
5.   Managing processes.
6.   Resource allocation.


File management

The operating system‘s File Management System (FMS) manages the
storing of files on the hard disk and holds details of the precise
physical addresses where the files are located. The FMS organises
files in a hierarchical filing system for the benefit of the user, though in
reality files are fragmented across the disk‘s surface and therefore
these fragments require to be indexed for retrieval. This index is
known as a File Allocation Table (FAT, FAT32 or NTFS in XP).

Input/Output management (I/O subsystem)

The I/O subsystem is also known as the Basic Input / Output System
(BIOS) as supplied on the PC motherboard in ROM. The I/O
subsystem communicates directly with peripheral devices and handles
the transfer of data between peripherals and the processor.

Managing processes – the kernel

The kernel manages processes and handles interrupt request signals
from peripherals wishing access to the processor. Processes can be
thought of as jobs or tasks. Modern operating systems facilitate
multi-tasking which simply means many tasks can be carried out


                                                                  Page 73 of 79
concurrently i.e. at the same time. In reality a single processor can
only perform one process at a time and therefore it is necessary to
allocate each running process a ‗time slice’ with the processor. As
time slices are in nanoseconds, it appears to the user that many
processes are being executed simultaneously.

Resource allocation

Resource allocation is the way in which an operating system makes a
computer‘s resources available for use at any one time to a running
process. Processes require a computer‘s resources to be allocated
during their runtime such as memory locations in RAM, access to a
device‘s buffer, data files and processor time. The operating system
queues processes that are ready for CPU time and schedules their time
slices resulting in an efficient allocation.



Utility programs

Utility programs are designed to perform a specific task and extend
the functionality of the OS. Some utilities are supplied with the OS,
such as the disk defragmenter utility supplied with Windows XP.
Others are ‗third party‘ in that they are developed by other software
companies and are often free or shareware, such as the AVG anti-virus
utility.


Examples of utility programs include:

Disk partitioning - allows division of hard disk into two or more
partitions with assigned drive letters e.g. E:\. This is very useful if you
want to run two or more different operating systems such as Windows
and Linux, with each partition being ‗bootable‘ and containing all OS,
program and data files.

Disk defragmenter – lets you defragment your hard disk by
gathering together all the free space and restoring fragmented files to
a contiguous state.

Anti-virus checker – detects virus programs on your computer and
removes them, checks incoming files do not contain viruses and keeps
up-to-date with regular updates from the vendor.



                                                                 Page 74 of 79
Responsible computer use (for example, regular back-ups,

virus checking, security, storage, housekeeping)


STORAGE


File Organisation


People use file folders in which to organise their paper documents into
meaningful collections. These file documents could be e.g. financial
papers, receipts etc.
In the same way, computer files can be organized into folders. You are
able to create folders, give them names and store documents and
other files within them. So when you open a folder, all its contents are
revealed.
Folders can be organized hierarchically, which means that a folder can
contain other folders.
If you still couldn‘t find a document, operating systems such as Search
or Find can help you find them.



File compression
File compression is the process of reducing the size of a file so that
you can fit more files into the same amount of disk space. File
compression can be thought of as squeezing, making space for more
files.


File compression can be performed by using an application, an
operating system, or another type of software program. E.g. Adobe
Photoshop, which can save a digital photograph by using GIF or JPEG.




                                                                Page 75 of 79
BACK UPS
Back-ups should be updated regularly, in case of misplacement of files
or folders. These usually come from hard disk failure, a software bug,
or a computer virus that destroyed data files.


It is a good idea to use a backup copy (e.g. a CD) to hold backup files
and save computer storage space. To save time, you should also back
up hard disks by using removable hard drives.


Check out this generic (sample) backup policy that could be adapted
for organization: Backup Policy


VIRUS CHECKING
Firstly, you need a good virus protection program. You can either
purchase it, or download it from the internet. Fee should be included.
When installing, set program to automatically scan all files.


To safely keep computer free of viruses, you should be constantly up-
dating anti-virus software, just to be safe, and insure that no viruses
will breach your computer.


A responsible and systematic approach to implementing or

upgrading IT systems, for example, analysis, design,

implementation, testing, evaluation, training, policies and

standards.

Information Technology will be one of the key factors driving progress
in the 21st century it will transform the way we live, learn, work, and
play. Advances in computing and communications technology will
create a new infrastructure for business, scientific research, and social
interaction. This expanding infrastructure will provide us with new
tools for communicating throughout the world and for acquiring


                                                                Page 76 of 79
knowledge and insight from information.

Information technology will help us understand how we affect the
natural environment and how best to protect it. It will provide a
vehicle for economic growth. Information technology will make the
workplace more rewarding, improve the quality of health care, and
make government more responsive and accessible to the needs of our
citizens. Information Technology also deals with the design and use of
computers and communications for solving a wide variety of problems.
It is remarkable that computers, which were only developed about 50
years ago, are now used in such a large number of large organizations.

We accept as part of our normal life that almost all bills and payments
from governments and large organizations are printed by computers
and that services such as Medicare or Bankcard are possible only
because of the effective use of computers. Although the applications of
computers are diverse, from printing bills to controlling a blast
furnace, they all require that information be stored in the computer
and manipulated by computer programs.

There are two main category of Information Technology. Data
management comprises all the disciplines related to managing data as
a valuable resource. The official definition provided by DAMA is that
"Data Resource Management is the development and execution of
architectures, policies, practices and procedures that properly manage
the full data lifecycle needs of an enterprise."

This definition is fairly broad and encompasses a number of
professions which may not have direct technical contact with lower-
level aspects of data management, such as relational database
management. Data storage is a system for recording information.
Recording can be done using virtually any form of energy. A storage
device may hold information, process information, or both. A device
that only holds information is a recording medium. Devices that
process information may either access a separate portable recording
medium or a permanent component to store or retrieve information.




                                                              Page 77 of 79
Word processing versus page layout
Microsoft Word

▪   Standard – everyone has it
▪   Not much training needed for simple tasks
▪   Fairly powerful . . . If you know the tricks
▪   Crashes, bugs, weirdness of Microsoft
▪   Not cross-platform compatible
▪   Equations cumbersome to publish and edit
▪   Not designed for books or other long projects
▪   Page layout features limited

 Corel WordPerfect
▪ It‘s not from Microsoft
▪ Easy to use
▪ Not as standard as Word
▪ Poor page layout
▪ Poor cross-platform compatibility

 Adobe FrameMaker
▪ Designed for books and long publications
▪ Tools for indexing, bibliographies, etc.
▪ Excellent cross-platform performance
▪ Ready to multipurpose documents
▪ Stable
▪ Equations easily edited, published
▪ Excellent import/export capabilities

PageMaker/InDesign/Quark
▪ Designed for page layout
▪ Works well with others
▪ Excellent typographical control
▪ Require some training to be effective
▪ No native equation editing
▪ Best for image-intensive layouts
▪ Best choice for pre-press

PageMaker vs InDesign vs Quark Express
▪ PageMaker Easy to use, but becoming outdated
▪ InDesign Powerful it‘s from Adobe, works with Photoshop, etc.
▪ State of the art tools
▪ Quark Express Outpaced by In Design It‘s not from Adobe



                                                           Page 78 of 79
Appropriate use of templates

Effective use of word processing functions to streamline production of
documents
Use of appropriate fonts, white space and line spacing to create output
that communicated effectively




                                                              Page 79 of 79

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:8
posted:12/21/2011
language:English
pages:79