Application of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter and development by mm6889

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                                                                    Renewable Energy xxx (2009) 1–10



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                                                                 Renewable Energy
                                                   journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/renene




Application of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter and development of hydrogen
supply technology
Tsai-Wang Huang a, *, Yao-Chung Huang a, Rebecca Pin Bye a, Kun-Hai Lin a, Hung-Chung Shen a,
Lin-Huei Jeffrey Huang b, F.H. Rick Hsiao b, Joson Chuang b, S.L. Chung c, Vincent Jean c
a
    CPC Corporation, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
b
    Asia Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies, Ltd., Taiwan
c
    Taigene Electric Machinery Co., Ltd., Taiwan




                                                       a b s t r a c t

Keywords:                                              Taiwan is small in geographic size and dense in population, it is also seriously suffered from the pollution
Hydrogen                                               caused by scooters and automobiles. Through past years, Taiwan has developed a very strong foundation
Fuel cell                                              in both electronics and scooter industries. In view of the technology development, utilization of energy
Hydrogen storage canister
                                                       sources and environmental protection, Taiwan has gained an outstanding environment for the devel-
                                                       opment of fuel cell electric scooters. Under the sponsoring of Department of Industrial Technology of
                                                       MOEA, Taiwan CPC Corporation, Asia-Pacific Fuel Cell Corporation and Taigene Corporation jointly
                                                       implemented an integrated project, which reached the following research results: With respect to the
                                                       technologies of fuel cell key components: Fuel Cell Stack Humidifier, Quick Connector, Low Pressure
                                                       Metal Hydrogen Storage Canister, Water Jacket, Water Pump, Blower and Controller, Secondary Trans-
                                                       mission Technology, Fuel Cell Controller, DC–DC Converter, Fuel Cell System Integration and Testing.
                                                       With respect to the technologies of Li-ion secondary battery energy system key components: The
                                                       maximum output power of Li-battery is up to 2685 W, incorporating with 1100 W from fuel cells, the
                                                       total power can reach up to 3785 W, enough to meet the requirements of scooters. In addition to the
                                                       power requirement, other features including the monitoring to Li-battery power level, the half-load
                                                       motor control, the equalization of battery and the over-load protection are also realized in this system.
                                                       With respect to the design of whole fuel cell scooter and components deployment: The design of whole
                                                       fuel cell scooter and component deployment was completed. The scooter was physically finished its
                                                       entire feature test and 1500 km rough road test (equivalent to the driving mileage of 50,000 km on
                                                       normal roads) in Automotive Research & Test Center (ARTC). A 2.5 kW motor was adopted in the scooter.
                                                       Through the test performed on the dynamic meter in ARTC, it was concluded that the scooter was in
                                                       compliance with the requirements of features, whereas, the motor shall be above 4 kW in order to gain
                                                       better feature performance. With respect to hydrogen supply infrastructure: Taiwan CPC has completed
                                                       its infrastructure planning and cost analysis of hydrogen storage canister filling and exchange. Addi-
                                                       tionally, it also started the construction of the first domestic small-scale hydrogen generation demon-
                                                       stration unit, which is fed by natural gas. This unit is equipped to supply the hydrogen to fuel cell vehicles
                                                       and equipment with the output of 100 Nm3/h and the purity of 99.99%þ (CO < 1 ppmv).
                                                                                                                                 Ó 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.




1. Research background                                                                 warming had brought people’s attention to the earth environ-
                                                                                       mental protection. In the control and reduction of CO discharge,
   In the face of abnormal climate caused by global warming, such                      except of the US, other industrial countries had officially signed
as meting of iceberg, elevation of sea level and climate change,                       Kyoto protocol in 2005 to implement the control. Although Taiwan
which caused strong and powerful tropical hurricane, storm, heat                       is not one of the countries entering into this protocol, however, as
wave, drought, etc. The terror to the disasters created by global                      a country ranked 21 in CO discharge in the world. we must
                                                                                       aggressively face this issue.
                                                                                           The repeatedly heightening of oil price has become the most
    * Corresponding author.                                                            noticed global topic, the capture and application of energy sources
      E-mail address: chi-wang@yahoo.com.tw (T.-W. Huang).                             always directly associated with the rise and fall of human being’s

0960-1481/$ – see front matter Ó 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.12.037



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civilization. The oil reserve will only last less than 50 years by 2054,         application of hydrogen technology in a short period of time, it is
hence, aggressively seeking for alternative energy is the most                   necessary to start from the enhancement of fuel cell industry.
significant task in current stage for global researchers. The research            Hydrogen can be generated from many sources, any fossil energy
and application include alcohol, propane, natural gas, bio-energy,               that contains hydrogen atoms, such as natural gas, petroleum, coal,
solar energy, and hydrogen, the purpose is to find an energy that is              methane, alcohol, methanol [1], can all be used as the source of
convenient to use, clean and more effective, in order to resolve two             generating energy for fuel cells. Presently natural gas is the main
big issues including energy crisis and warming disaster caused by                source of hydrogen, the effective use of energy conversion effi-
petrochemical energy. Countries with forward-looking view have                   ciency will be considered in the future, the ultimate goal is to use
already adopted various measures in the early stage to aggressively              solar energy to dissolve water. Hydrogen has the features of light
converting into energy–economic entity, to develop new energy,                   molecular weight, large volume and flammable, whereas, liquid
for the purpose of avoiding green house gas discharge. In viewing                hydrogen is difficult to be processed due to its extremely low
the history of global economic development, every industrial                     temperature. The price of hydrogen fuel is three times higher than
revolution occurs at the time when energy type is converting and                 that of petroleum right now, it will be dropped in the future after
matching supply equipment is appearing. Facing the world devel-                  the improvement of technology and mass production. Somehow,
opment trend of energy-type conversion and strong international                  the supply system of hydrogen fuel cannot be compared with
competition, we must review the development of our automobile                    current gasoline pipelines, shipping system and gas stations. Fuel
industry with the view of scientific development, and confirm the                  cell scooters must be accompanied with hydrogen refilling stations,
concept of new generation automobile research and development                    plus the development of on board hydrogen storage tank tech-
from the idea of coordinating and developing energy, environment,                nology, so the key factor of using hydrogen lies on the safe and
resource, national economy and regional economy.                                 economical storage and delivery [2]. Current method of hydrogen
                                                                                 storage includes room temperature high pressure, room tempera-
2. Research motivation                                                           ture carbon adsorbing, low temperature liquidization, and metal
                                                                                 hydride. The application of hydrogen in the future shall be as cheap
    The advanced countries intend to increase the ratio of wind                  and convenient as gasoline, in order to satisfy the needs of
power, solar energy, hydrogen energy, bio-energy and fuel cell to                consumers. The adoption of metal hydride in the production of
30% by 2020. The study from experts believes that within next 25                 hydrogen canister has become the main research in local academic
years, the world demand to energy will be increased by 1.7% every                sectors and industries.
year. Petroleum is still the biggest source of energy, thus, by 2030,                Fuel cell was originally adopted years ago in the moon-landing
the daily petroleum production will reach 120 million barrels to                 space shuttle as the main source of power in the US. Somehow, due
satisfy the world energy demand. The demand of petroleum by                      to the high cost it was hard to be commercialized. In recent years,
automobiles will also be largely increased. The pollution volume                 fuel cell technologies have evolved into a new era, the potential
discharged from vehicles will be increased by at least 70% within                ones are proton exchange membrane (PEM) used in electrical
next 30 years, hence, the urgency at present is to develop engines               scooters, flat-type solid oxide electrolyte used for on-site power
and transportation vehicles that can reduce the emission of CO2.                 supply, and direct methanol fuel cell used in 3C products.
Comparing the CO emission from the same calorie by using 1 l of                  Governments and private companies of many countries around the
gasoline as the baseline, coal is 1.56, diesel is 1.03, gasoline is 1 and        world including Europe, US, Japan, Korea, Singapore and China are
hydrogen is 0. Hydrogen does not emit CO at all, therefore, no                   all aggressively investing both manpower and capital in the
pollution to environment. In viewing current development, the                    development of various fuel cells. Taiwan has been developing fuel
trend is clear now that hydrogen vehicles will be the mainstream in              cells for a period of time, Energy and Resource Laboratory of ITRI
the future. Thus, today the urgency for the industrialized countries             and Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division of Chung-shan
and large energy companies is to learn the core technologies –                   Institute of Science and Technology [3]. Armaments Bureau M.N.D.
Hydrogen storage canister and fuel cells. Taiwan has to import all               have focused on the research of PEM fuel cells. Taiwan Power
the needed energy, in addition, it seriously suffers from the pollu-             Corporation also established a phosphoric acid fuel cell power
tion caused by motorcycles and automobiles, hence, the govern-                   station in 1995 to undertake long-term operational tests. Other
ment or energy enterprises shall aggressively make the preparation               academic research institutes include National Taiwan University,
in the early stage. Taiwan had laid down solid foundation for                    National Cheng Kong University, Technology and Science Institute
electronics and motorcycle industries in the past years, addition-               of North Taiwan and Yuan-Ze University have invested significant
ally, Asian-Pacific area is suitable for the development of fuel cell             research manpower and resources [4]. After National Science
scooter industry. As such, from the aspects of technology devel-                 Council (NSC) started to accept the application of fuel cell research
opment, energy use and environmental protection, Taiwan holds                    plans, the research dynamic of this topic in Taiwan has again been
very good conditions in the development of fuel cell scooters. The               advanced largely. The application of fuel cell ranges from the power
government shall take practical actions to demonstrate to the                    for transportation vehicles and home appliances in the daily life,
global communities the determination and effort of Taiwan in the                 industrial and commercial used power generation systems, and
protection to environment and the care to the earth, so that we will             aerospace energy source. It is a low pollution, high efficient and
not be ruled out in this energy competition of the century.                      diversified energy technology [5]. With respect to the research and
                                                                                 development of fuel cell technologies in Taiwan, academic research
3. Current development status of hydrogen and hydrogen                           institutes mostly focus on components and material due to the
fuel cell technologies                                                           long-term research period and high risks, whereas, industries
                                                                                 mainly focus on products and system integration. Both of them
   Hydrogen is a clean energy that has the storable feature. Due to              must introduce foreign existing technologies and components in
the trend of energy safety and sustainable environment develop-                  order to accelerate the maturity of products and the dynamics of
ment, hydrogen has been viewed as an important energy that is                    commercialization. Presently, Asia-Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies
capable of resolving long term difficult position of traditional fossil           Ltd. is considered to be in the leading position among private
fuel. Presently, many nations in the world are adopting fuel cell as             enterprises in Taiwan in the commercialization of main products.
the demonstration of hydrogen utilization. Hence, to expand the                  The commercialization of fuel cell products is defined as a mid to


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                                                      Fig. 1. Fuel Cell Stack (Developed by APFCT).



long-term program in Taiwan. In order to create environmentally                of the MEA. Hence, stack would be designed according to the power
sound industries in the future, more government agencies and                   requirement. The fuel cell stack installed into the fuel cell scooter
private enterprises in Taiwan will invest in the development and               discussed in this paper was designed in accordance with the power
commercialization of products, as well as the setting of related laws          profile of the hybrid electric scooter. The cell numbers and MEA
and standards [6,7].                                                           active area have been calculated in advance to meet the scooter
                                                                               power demand, then modified after experiment and real scooter
                                                                               test. Fig. 2 shows the performance curve of the stack at test station.
4. Technology development of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter
                                                                                 2. Humidifier development (see Fig. 3):
    The primary market of fuel cell powered scooter is in Asia,
including Taiwan, Mainland China, Thailand, Philippine,.etc. In                   In addition to the stable flow rate, the air supplied to fuel cell
the past, lead-acid battery has been the major power source for                stack must be appropriately humidified; higher relative humidity
electric scooter. However, due to the shortcomings of the lead-acid            would ensure higher power generation efficiency and longer life
battery powered scooter, such as low performance, insufficient                  cycle of fuel cell. Hence, APFCT has developed humidifier to match
driving range, high weight, insufficient electricity recharge station           with the fuel cell stack installed in the fuel cell scooter. Table 1
and high price, lead-acid powered scooter was not competitive on               shows the performance test of APFCT humidifier at difference gas
the market. The PEM fuel cell has the inherent attributes of low               flow rate.
temperature, rapid start-up and high power density, which makes
it the ideal power source for electric vehicles. Asia-Pacific Fuel Cell           3. Quick connector development (see Fig. 4):
Technologies, Ltd. (APFCT) is a Taiwan based company. APFCT has
been developing PEM fuel cell engine system for scooter and has                    Proper collocation between the fuel cell and hydrogen storage
completed several generation of prototype zero emission fuel cell              canister plays a significant role to the safety of the fuel cell system.
powered fuel cell scooters. The performance of the APFCT fuel cell             Hence, it’s imperative to have a connector, which could be con-
scooter was tested and verified by the Automotive Research and                  nected and disconnected rapidly, safely and efficiently. The quick
Testing Center (ARTC) in Taiwan. The third and fourth generation of            connector used in this project is quite small in size. It is user
APFCT fuel cell scooter (ZES III and ZES IV) are totally new inte-             friendly and could remain well connected without malfunction or
grated fuel cell/chassis scooters designed from ground-up and are
deemed as pre-commercial prototypes.
    The technology development of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter                                                                 I-V C u rve of 24V Stack
was divided into five key items:                                                                40.0

                                                                                               35.0
 A. Fuel cell system key components technology:
    1. Fuel Cell Stack Development (see Fig. 1):                                               30.0

                                                                                               25.0
                                                                                  Voltage, V




                                                                                                                                                                                 Power, W




    Stack is the core of the fuel cell power system. If the required
                                                                                               20.0
fuels (hydrogen and air) are supplied continuously, fuel cell could
                                                                                               15.0
continuously and stably generate DC electricity. Stress distribution
is very important for fuel cell module design. Uneven stress                                   10.0

distribution will cause partial over contact resistance, which will                             5.0
increase waste heat and lead to fuel cell performance decay.
                                                                                                0.0
Besides, uneven stress distribution will also form heat spot of fuel                                  0       20      40     60     80       100       120     140   160   180
cell and cause fuel cell leakage at the weaker point of the structure.
                                                                                                                                    Current, A
    The voltage of fuel cell stack is decided by the number of single
cells assembled, the maximum current is decided by the active area                                        Fig. 2. Performance Curve of APFCT Fuel Cell Stack (36 cells).



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                    Fig. 3. Humidifier (Developed by APFCT).

                                                                                                         Fig. 4. Quick Connector (Developed by APFCT).
leakage after continuous vibration test. Fig. 5 shows the fixture for
the quick connector durability test performed in this project.

    4. Heat exchange water jacket development (see Fig. 6):

   In this project, fuel cell stack was cooled by water. During the
electro-chemical reaction process of fuel cell stack, waste heat will
be produced; on the contrary, the metal hydride hydrogen storage
canister will absorb heat while discharging hydrogen. Hence, the
heat generated by fuel cell stack could be recycled to heat the metal
hydride hydrogen storage canister. In this project, a water jacket
was designed as heat exchanger. Metal hydride hydrogen storage
canister was put inside the water jacket. The water jacket needs to
provide sufficient heat exchange capacity to meet the hydrogen
discharge requirement of the hydrogen storage canister. The water
jacket designed by APFCT is shown as Fig. 6.

    5. Water pump development (see Fig. 7):

   According to the temperature control requirement of this                                           Fig. 5. Fixture for Durability Test of Quick Connector.
project, measure the pressure, flow rate and power consumption of
the water pump at vicarious operation condition, and then design
and manufacture a suitable water pump for the hybrid fuel cell                        and Research Testing Center (ARTC) in Taiwan showed that, in order
scooter based on the data collected.                                                  to reach the original scooter performance target, the output power
                                                                                      of the motor should be increased to 4 kW or higher. The perfor-
    6. Air blower development (see Fig. 8):                                           mance curve of the motor is shown in Fig. 12. In addition, half-load
                                                                                      mode function of motor was designed into controller to protect fuel
    According to the specification requirement, an air blower, which                   cell stack and lithium-ion battery in case there are any abnormal
could be linearly controlled and could be integrated with fuel cell                   situations.
controller, was developed. In this project, the air blower has been
tested at various operation conditions (see Table 2 for the test results                8. Two speed transmission technology development (see Fig. 13):
of pressure, flow rate and power consumption). Test results showed
that this air blower remains almost the same in performance after                        This project modified the market available 2 speed transmission
450 h operation of the fuel cell system. See Figs. 9 and 10 for the flow               system. The weight was much lower than the original design;
and pressure curve of the air blower developed in this project.                       however, the feature of the 2 speed automatic switch still
                                                                                      remained. The test results showed that using this transmission
    7. Motor and motor driver development (see Fig. 11):                              system to match with the motor could increase the torque at low

   The original specification requirement of the motor was set at
2.5 kW. However, the test results at dynamometer of Automotive

Table 1
Performance Test of APFCT Humidifier at Difference Gas Flow Rate.

Simulated    Gas flow Pressure       Pressure   Temperature    R.H. %       Note
current A    rate    drop           drop       ( C)
             slpm    (millibar)     (in H2O)
30           53.8     2.9            1.16      51.7           96.5w97
60           107.6    8.1            3.25      52.0           97w97.2
90           161.4   14.9            5.98      50.1           96
120          215.2   23.9            9.59      49.7           95.5w96.5
             350 max 45.7           18.3       47.4           95
                                                                                                  Fig. 6. Water Jacket for Heat Exchange (Developed by APFCT).



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                                                                                     Table 2
                                                                                     Pressure, flow rate and power consumption of the air blower.

                                                                                     NO:01 Pressure (kPa) Flow rate (l/min) Current (A) Voltage (VDC) Power (W)
                                                                                     Full                  4.5               309.3              3.7           24               88.8
                                                                                                           4.6               259.3              3.5           24               84
                                                                                                           4.7               220.4              3.4           24               81.6
                                                                                                           4.8               138.8              3             24               72
                                                                                                           4.9               119.6              3             24               72
                                                                                                           5                 117.3              3             24               72
                                                                                                           5.2                91.1              3             24               72
                                                                                                           5.3                41.8              3             24               72
                                                                                                           5.4                20.7              2.9           24               69.6

                                                                                     Close                 5.5                 2.4              2.9           24               69.6




                                                                                                       6



      Fig. 7. Water Pump used in Cooling System (Developed by Taigene).                                5

speed climbing without scarifying the maximum speed perfor-
mance. The main modification done in this project is to keep the
                                                                                       Pressure, kPa   4
planet gear as 2 speed transmission base, however, the bulky gear
was replaced with time belt. As a result, the total weight was
                                                                                                       3
reduced from 13 kg to 7 kg. Gear ratio at the first speed is 12:1, at
the second speed is 7.41:1. The transmission switched from first to
second speed when the scooter speed is over 30 kph.                                                    2

 9. Low pressure metal hydride hydrogen storage canister devel-
    opment (see Fig. 14):                                                                              1


   Hydrogen storage canister is a key comportment of the fuel cell
                                                                                                       0
scooter engine system. The metal hydride powder inside of the                                              0          50        100       150         200      250       300          350
                                                                                                                                       Flow rate, l/min

                                                                                                                       Fig. 9. Blower Performance curve (before Test).




                                                                                                       6


                                                                                                       5



                                                                                                       4
                                                                                       Pressure, kPa




                                                                                                       3


                                                                                                       2



                                                                                                       1


                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                           0          50        100       150         200      250       300          350
                                                                                                                                       Flow rate, l/min

                             Fig. 8. Air Blower.                                                               Fig. 10. Blower Performance curve (after 450 h Durability Test).



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                                                                                                                   Fig. 14. Low Pressure Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Canister (Developed by APFCT).



                                                                                                                                       hydrogen amount is 44.8 g, which means 93% of effective
                                                                                                                                       hydrogen content.

                                                                                                                    b. The internal structure of the hydrogen storage canister has
                                                                                                                       been modified to improve the heat transfer of the canister. As
                                                                                                                       a result, the effective hydrogen content was increased from 86%
                                                                                                                       to 93%.
                        Fig. 11. Motor and Motor Driver (Developed by Taigene).
                                                                                                                     c. Fig. 15 (Discharging Performance Curve of the Low Pressure
                                                                                                                        Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Canister) showed that
                                                                          10                 100                        continuous discharging time was 55 min at 8.2 slpm, 30  C,
             5000
                                                                                                                        1 atm.
             4500                                                         9                  90
             4000                                                         8                  80
                                                                                                                   10. Fuel cell controller development (see Fig. 16):
             3500                                                         7                  70
                                                                                                   Efficiency, %
                                                                               Torque, N.m




             3000                                                         6                  60                       Reaction process of fuel cell combines continuous hydrogen
    Pin, W




             2500                                                         5                  50                    supply, air supply and heat balance. In this project, MCU was used
             2000                                                         4                  40                    to calculate and execute the control logic. Through DAC, analog
             1500                                                         3                  30                    control signal was output to control each component of the system.
                                                                          2                  20                    One feature of MCU is that it makes the control logic program-
             1000
                                                                                                                   mable. Through this way, the operation parameter of fuel cell could
              500                                                         1                  10
                                                                                                                   be adjusted easily.
               0                                                       0                     0
                    0           2000        4000        6000        8000
                                                                                                                   11. DC–DC Converter development (see Fig. 17):
                                       Speed, rpm

                                 Fig. 12. Performance Curve of Motor.                                                  The main feature of this technology is to control charging
                                                                                                                   current of the DC–DC converter at different state of charge of the
                                                                                                                   lithium-ion battery and to prevent overcharge of the lithium-ion
aluminum canister could absorb and store hydrogen at very low                                                      battery. It also ensures that fuel cell could operate at best voltage
pressure.                                                                                                          with best operation efficiency. This DC–DC converter can control
                                                                                                                   output voltage of fuel cell system at higher than 25.8 V and boost
    a. The charging and discharging test results of the metal hydride                                              the bus voltage to 41.5 V required by motor and by the charge of
       hydrogen storage canisters showed that the total weight of the                                              Lithium battery. This DC–DC converter transfer power between
       canister after charging hydrogen was 4338.9 g, and became                                                   different voltage of fuel cell and Lithium-battery by tracking their
       4294.1 g after discharging hydrogen. The total discharged                                                   voltage separately at the same time and applying PWN control
                                                                                                                   device. This makes the efficiency of DC–DC converter higher than
                                                                                                                   90% at operation power up to 1300 W.



                                                                                                                                       30                                                   150

                                                                                                                                       25                                                   125
                                                                                                                     Flow rate, slpm




                                                                                                                                       20                                                   100
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pres., psig




                                                                                                                                       15                                                   75

                                                                                                                                       10                                                   50

                                                                                                                                        5                                                   25

                                                                                                                                        0                                                   0
                                                                                                                                            0   10   20   30    40   50    60   70   80   90
                                                                                                                                                               Time, min

                                                                                                                   Fig. 15. Discharging Performance Curve of the Low Pressure Metal Hydride Hydrogen
               Fig. 13. Two Speed Transmission System (Developed by Taigene).                                      Storage Canister.



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              Fig. 16. Fuel Cell Controller (Developed by APFCT).

                                                                                                                  Fig. 18. Lithium-ion Second Battery.
 B. Secondary battery energy system key components develop-
    ment (see Fig. 18).
                                                                                       layout, adjustment of the system operating condition and set up of
    Assembly of lithium-ion secondary battery: In this project, an                     the parameter. In this project, a system simulation test platform
integrated circuit component was used to sense the current for                         (breadboard) was developed. The fuel cell system parameters, such
monitoring state of charge (SOC) of the secondary battery. By this,                    as voltage, current, pressure, temperature, flow rate, were
discharging current of Lithium-ion secondary battery was limited                       completely recorded. Meanwhile, dynamic load simulation could
to protect the battery from over-discharge prior to low voltage                        be performed at the breadboard according to the real load
protection by hardware was started. In this project, the battery                       requirements. This breadboard provided a very good monitoring
capacity was controlled at 50–80%, which equals to 37–40 V of the                      and verification platform for the fuel cell/lithium-ion hybrid
battery module. Under real operation, in addition to the voltage                       system. Test standards of the fuel cell system key components could
protection to avoid over-charge and over-discharge, ‘‘effective                        also be established through this breadboard test.
battery SOC measurement’’ technology was adapted to correctly                             The breadboard test system included software, hardware (DAQ
monitor the SOC for controlling charge and discharging current to                      module, voltage monitoring module of each cell voltage, electric
protect battery. In this project, the maximum power output of the                      load, computer and fuel cell test platform). The operation interface
lithium-ion battery was 2685 W, the power output of the fuel cell                      of the software is shown in Fig. 20: Left block shows each cell
system was1100 W, thus, the maximum power output of the whole                          voltage and system power output; middle block shows the interior
vehicle was 3785 W. Such power was required to reach the target                        monitoring program of the fuel cell system; right block is the load
performance of the scooter. In addition to the power requirement,                      simulation set up of the electric load.
electricity capacity monitoring of the lithium-ion battery, half-load                     Electric load was used to simulate the load change of motor at
control of the motor, Batteries Equalization, over-load protectio-                     this test platform, through this way, the test engineer could find out
n,.etc have been realized in the fuel cell system of this project.                     in advance if the fuel cell hybrid system meets the target perfor-
                                                                                       mance requirement. Besides, the components of the fuel cell hybrid
 C. Fuel cell system integration and verification (see Fig. 19):                        system could be easily replaced and their parameter could be easily
                                                                                       modified as well. Hence, it was an ideal test platform for the opti-
   Simulation Test Platform of Fuel Cell Scooter Engine System: The                    mization of the fuel cell hybrid system.
simulation test included optimization of the system components




         Fig. 17. DC–DC Converter (Developed by MCL of ITRI, Taiwan).                          Fig. 19. Simulation Test Platform of Fuel Cell Scooter Engine System.



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 technology, Renewable Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.12.037
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8                                                              T.-W. Huang et al. / Renewable Energy xxx (2009) 1–10




                                                  Fig. 20. Operation Interface of the Breadboard Software (Developed by APFCT).


      D.Whole vehicle and components layout design & whole vehicle                            E. The establishment of hydrogen supply technology
      performance test:
                                                                                               Both fuel cell scooters and automobiles in the future will need
    Main purpose of this project was to develop a fuel cell/lithium-                        to refill with hydrogen, thus, the establishment of hydrogen fuel
ion battery hybrid fuel cell scooter. The fuel cell hybrid electric
scooter developed in this project is shown in Fig. 21. This scooter
                                                                                            Table 3
combined the rapid charge/discharge feature of lithium-ion battery                          Commercialization Plan of Fuel Cell Scooter.
and the continuous electricity supply capability of the hydrogen fuel
                                                                                            Item                                   Commercialization plan
cell. The development and announcement of zero emission fuel cell
                                                                                            Fuel cell stack, hydrogen storage      APFCT has been supplying fuel cell stack
scooters represents the energy revolution of the new era. Similar
                                                                                              canister and fuel cell system        and other key components to the fuel cell
fuel cell system could also be applied to other products, such as                                                                  end products developer in Taiwan and
power generator, electric bike and electric wheelchair. Meanwhile,                                                                 foreign countries. The development
hydrogen storage and supply infrastructure is also a key success                                                                   outcome of this project could be used to
factor for the commercialization of fuel cell products. Hence,                                                                     improve the current product and to
                                                                                                                                   increase the commercial sale.
development of fuel cell technology and development of hydrogen
                                                                                            Components of fuel cell system (heat   The components of fuel cell system, such as
storage system/supply infrastructure have to go parallel. Table 3                             exchanger, blower, water pump,       heat exchanger, blower and water pump
shows the commercialization plan of fuel cell hybrid scooter, its                             etc.)                                could be supplied to fuel cell developer in
related components and hydrogen supply infrastructure.                                                                             Taiwan and foreign countries. The project
                                                                                                                                   member Taigene company is an ODM/OEM
                                                                                                                                   supplier of vehicle components for some
                                                                                                                                   large-scale foreign companies. Those
                                                                                                                                   companies are developing fuel cell
                                                                                                                                   products as well. Hence, the outcome of
                                                                                                                                   this project will help Taigene on receiving
                                                                                                                                   potential orders.
                                                                                            Motor and motor driver                 The motor and motor driver developed in
                                                                                                                                   this project could not only be used in the
                                                                                                                                   fuel cell vehicles, but also be supplied to the
                                                                                                                                   traditional battery powered electric vehicle
                                                                                                                                   or hybrid power electric vehicle
                                                                                                                                   manufacturers.
                                                                                            Fuel cell powered electric vehicle     At initial stage, small volume of fuel cell
                                                                                                                                   powered scooter/vehicle will be produced
                                                                                                                                   and sold to domestic and foreign market. If
                                                                                                                                   the market becomes mature, production
                                                                                                                                   will be increased.
                                                                                            Hydrogen supply infrastructure and     Anticipating the upcoming market of fuel
                                                                                              related products and service         cell powered vehicle, hydrogen supply
                                                                                                                                   infrastructure, hydrogen canister recharge
                                                                                                                                   and canister exchange station/hydrogen
                                                                                                                                   refilling station will be established step by
                                                                                                                                   step.
            Fig. 21. Fuel Cell/Lithium-ion Battery Hybrid Fuel Cell Scooter.



    Please cite this article in press as: Huang T-W et al., Application of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter and development of hydrogen supply
    technology, Renewable Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.12.037
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                                                       T.-W. Huang et al. / Renewable Energy xxx (2009) 1–10                                           9


                                                                                    daily to provide 20 hydrogen fuel cell scooters with the exchange
                                                                                    of empty canisters. In the next phase of discussion, the installa-
                                                                                    tion of more complicated automobile hydrogen direct refill
                                                                                    stations will be included.
                                                                                       In the consideration of CO2 emission in the process of
                                                                                    hydrogen production by using natural gas, generally suburban
                                                                                    areas will be selected to install small natural gas reforming
                                                                                    hydrogen production equipment. For a city with 7500 fuel cell
                                                                                    scooters, two ‘‘small natural gas reforming hydrogen production
                                                                                    equipment’’ are needed, each can supply a production rate of
                                                                                    100 m3/h. Figs. 22 and 23 shows the hydrogen refilling equipment
                                                                                    that is capable of refilling 3000 canisters daily. The cost analysis
                                                                                    on the delivery of hydrogen canisters to gas stations by small
                                                                                    trucks shows that the cost of delivering each canister is NT$6, the
                                                                                    operation cost of refilling each canister is NT$6.5, the depreciation
           Fig. 22. Low temperature hydrogen refilling equipment.                    of a spare canister is NT$6, the hydrogen cost in the canister is
                                                                                    NT$4.35, the interest born by each canister is NT$3.68, the
                                                                                    refilling cost of each canister is NT$26.53, and the cruising
supply infrastructure is a must. Simply speaking, the hydrogen                      distance is 30 km. It is estimated that the hydrogen fuel cost with
refilling stations, delivery and storage systems are needed, the                     tax exempted will be equivalent to gasoline. With regard to the
overall infrastructure design is extremely important for the                        installation of automobile hydrogen refilling stations, they still
development of hydrogen energy. As early as 1998, Munich of                         cannot be as simple as the traditional liquid fuel. The refilling
Germany had installed hydrogen refilling stations for the vehicles                   station must be installed with steam quality improvement
in the airport. In California USA, Honda Automobile installed the                   equipment to produce gaseous hydrogen, if the production
first hydrogen refilling station in August of 2001 by using solar                     volume is 100 Nm3/h, then it can produce approximately 220 kg
energy to produce hydrogen. Recently a British petroleum                            of hydrogen per day, enough to supply 7 large size buses.
company also help China to install a hydrogen refilling station in                   Generally, there are two types of automobile hydrogen refilling
Shanghai. In 2002, there were only 50 hydrogen vehicles and 21                      approaches: one is gaseous hydrogen and another is liquid
refilling stations in the world. By 2008, during the period of                       hydrogen. Three factors are involved when refilling gaseous
Beijing Olympics, hydrogen vehicles will be sued. The initial                       hydrogen: pressure, temperature and speed of refilling. In order
hydrogen supply technology in this study adopted hybrid scooters                    to maintain the hydrogen tank in the automobile at a pressure of
with the combination of fuel cells and lithium battery. It is                       350 barg, a higher pressure is needed while refilling. After the
planned to install a small natural gas reforming hydrogen                           automobile is refilled with hydrogen, the temperature in
production equipment in 2008 on Chiayi site of Taiwan, a ‘‘simple                   the hydrogen tank will be harmonized automatically with the
scooter hydrogen refilling station’’ will be established. It will be                 ambient temperature (approximately 25  C) and dropped, hence,
the first ‘‘scooter hydrogen refilling demonstration station’’ in                     the tank pressure will also be dropped below 350 barg. During the
Taiwan. The planning of hydrogen storage canister refilling and                      hot summer days, the tank temperature is not much different
exchange environment as well as the cost analysis will be                           with the ambient temperature, adding the pressure up to
completed, the first small hydrogen production demonstration                         approximately 380 barg will be fine; whereas, the temperature in
system in Taiwan by using natural gas as the input material will                    the winter is low, when the ambient temperature is zero or below
be operated. The hydrogen supply capability is 100 Nm3/h with                       zero degree, the tank temperature will be much different from the
the purity of 99.99%þ (CO < 1 ppmv) for the use of fuel cell                        ambient temperature, it is necessary to frequently pump the
vehicles and equipment. A total of 200 canisters can be refilled                     pressure to 450 barg. With respect to the speed of refilling, if it is


                                                                         PSA Tail Gas


                                                        Steam
                                                       Reformer
                                                                                         Syn Gas
                                                                                        Compressor              PSA          Hydrogen
                                                                          Shift
                                                                         Reactor

                              Combustion                                                            Water/Gas
                               Air Blower                                Steam                      Separator
                                                                                                      Make-Up        Stack
                                                                                                       Water         Gas



                                                      Desulfurizer    Steam
                                                                     Generator


                                                Natural Gas



                                                 Fig. 23. Small natural gas reforming hydrogen production process.



 Please cite this article in press as: Huang T-W et al., Application of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter and development of hydrogen supply
 technology, Renewable Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.12.037
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10                                               T.-W. Huang et al. / Renewable Energy xxx (2009) 1–10


too fast, the temperature will go up fast as well (normally the                    very helpful to the shortening of the fuel cell scooter research
temperature in the automobile may go up to 85  C), then higher                    and development time frame and the advancement of tech-
pressure is needed. In order to avoid vicious cycling, hydrogen                    nology and quality, as well as the commercialization of the
must be refilled slowly. More special facilities are needed while                   fuel cell scooters.
refilling liquid hydrogen to automobile instead of gaseous
hydrogen, it is mainly to ensure the tight connection of the                  5.1. Recommendations
connection device between hydrogen refilling nozzle and
hydrogen tank of automobile. The speed of refilling liquid                       1. The technology, quality and cost-down for the fuel cell hybrid-
hydrogen cannot be too fast, for the safety reason, the maximum                    powered electrical scooter developed in this test still need to be
hydrogen to be refilled is 66 g per second. Roughly speaking,                       carried on to reach the ultimate goal of commercialization. It is
a large size bus needs approximately 30w35 kg of hydrogen for                      recommended that the government in the future shall
each refilling and takes 20w30 min, this volume can offer                           aggressively work on the legislation and safety guidelines for
a cruising distance of approximately 300w400 km. The refilling                      the commercialization of products, establish complete
volume for cars is approximately 2w3 kg and take 8w9 min. In                       demonstration platform for operation, in order to confirm
the future the development of hydrogen refilling stations will be                   future direction of R&D, to maintain the leading position in
related with the quantity of hydrogen automobiles.                                 technologies and to reach the global leading position in the
                                                                                   commercialization.
5. Conclusion, recommendations and conclusion                                   2. Through the implementation of this test, except of advancing
                                                                                   the competitiveness for Taiwanese scooter industry, it also
 1 The study described in this paper is the only one in the world                  leads to the leading positioning in the fuel cell scooter tech-
    actually implementing the operation verification test by using                  nology and market. It can be used as the reference for the
    the real ‘‘fuel cell hybrid-powered electrical scooter’’ .In                   improvement of the future products and the accumulation of
    viewing the hydrogen fuel cell scooters demonstrated on                        research energy to establish manufacturing technology and
    websites, newspapers, magazines and exhibitions, they are all                  system integration ability. It will be a good foundation for
    in static demonstrations. None of them offered the actual                      future mass production. It is recommended that the fuel cell
    operation demonstration as the one performed in our test.                      and lithium-battery hybrid-powered system can be estab-
    Hence, through the implementation of this ‘‘fuel cell hybrid-                  lished as a monitoring verification system, so that there is
    powered electrical scooter’’ test, both technology and market                  a legal base for the safety of fuel cell scooters and hydrogen
    have maintained a world leading position.                                      supply systems.
 2. The fuel cell and lithium-battery hybrid-powered electrical
    scooter’’ developed in this test has reached the technology               Acknowledgement
    breakthrough in meeting the demand of electrical loading
    power and lowering the cost.                                                 This project is subsidized by the Department of Industrial
 3. This test has developed a system simulation test platform,                Technology, Ministry of Economic Affairs under ‘‘Industrial Tech-
    system parameters including voltages, current, pressures,                 nology Development Program’’, Project Number: 94-EC-17-A-13-
    temperature, flow volume can be completely recorded on this                11-0019. This project was jointly executed by Asia-Pacific Fuel Cell
    platform. It can also perform dynamic loading simulation based            Technologies, Ltd., Taigene Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., and CPC
    on the actual power needs to provide a good monitoring and                Cooperation, Taiwan.
    verification environment for fuel cell and lithium-battery
    hybrid-powered systems. It is possible to build a complete fuel           References
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 5. The major feature of this technology is to associate with the             Further reading
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                                                                               [1] Wang Chi-Wei. Development status of Taiwan fuel cell industry. Energy
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                                                                               [3] Hsu Ye-Liang. Development status of fuel cell car. March issue; 2002.
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 6. The performance test of the whole scooter – in the actual                      Report; October 2006.
    operation test, this test adopted the high vibration inferior              [5] Taiwan Economic Research Journal 2007;(November Issue).
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                                                                               [7] Benham MJ, Ross DK. NF. Z Phys Chem 1986;147:219.
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 Please cite this article in press as: Huang T-W et al., Application of fuel cell hybrid electric scooter and development of hydrogen supply
 technology, Renewable Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.12.037

								
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