The Nervous System

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					  The Nervous System



                By,
Alex Mazzarisi, Chanel Ross, Alyssa
 Macola, and Johanna Burkhardt
          Parts of Nervous System
   Central Nervous System (CNS)
       Brain and Spinal Cord
   Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
       Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, and Autonomic
        Nervous System.
            What you need to know
   Neurons- These are the long and stringy cells of the
    nervous systems. They carry electrical “messages”
    throughout the body.

   Brain- Is located within cranium and is suspended in
    fluid. It contains billions of neurons and is the control
    center of the body.

   Spinal Cord- Located in the spine. It is a tube of
    neurons that attach to the brain. Information can also
    be processed here.
Lets talk about the Brain
   You need your brain to read this slide,
    to remember this information, and to
    ask questions about it.
   There are three main parts of the brain:
    the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the
    brain stem.
   All three of parts perform unique and
    necessary functions in the body.
Lets talk about the Brain
(continued)
   Cerebrum: Is the largest part of the
    brain and controls vision, touch, smell,
    taste, hearing and thought.
   Cerebellum: Controls balance and
    coordination.
   Brain Stem (Medulla): Controls bodily
    functions of digestion, breathing and
    heartbeat.
The Four Lobes
      The Four Lobes!
   Temporal Lobe- Deals with emotional
    responses, hearing, memory, and speech.
   Frontal Lobe- Deals with emotions, reasoning,
    planning, parts of speech, movement and
    problem solving.
   Occipital Lobe- Controls vision and color
    recognition.
   Parietal Lobe- Information processing, pain
    and touch sensation, visual perception, and
    speech
       Damages to the Lobes?
            Oh noes!
   Temporal Lobe- Lose ability to speak, memory loss,
    forget words, trouble recognizing words, seizures,
    epilepsy, aggressive behavior, and change in sexual
    behavior.
   Frontal Lobe- lose concentration, speech impaired,
    apathy, inattentiveness, delayed responses to
    questions, and no inhibition.
   Occipital Lobe- blindness (even if eyes function
    normally), difficulty recognizing objects and faces,
    trouble interpreting what they see.
   Parietal Lobe- numbness and impaired sensation,
    right-left disorientation, apraxia (can’t do normal
    tasks anymore), and confusion/deliria.
Interesting BRAIN Facts
   The average weight of an adult human
    brain, 2.8-3.1 pounds.
   Skin contains 45 miles of nerves
   Nerve impulses can travel from the
    brain at speeds up to 170 miles per
    hour
   Number of neurons in the human spinal
    cord: 1 billion
Etiologies, symptoms, and
treatment of brain abscesses
   Brain abscesses is an abscesses caused by
    inflammation.
   A brain abscesses is caused by multiple things like
    ear infections, scalp wounds/injuries, urinary tract
    infection, and a collections of bacteria or fungi in the
    immune system and the brain.
   Symptoms of a brain abscesses are headache,
    vomiting, confusion, coma, infection fever, and
    fatigue
   Treatment of a brain abscesses are antibiotics and
    surgical drainage.
Types of head injuries
 Concussions
 Skull Fractions

 Intracranial Hematomas
Concussions
   Minor head injury
   Usually after a fall or minor car accident
   Symptoms are headaches, confusion,
    loss of awareness, memory loss,
    vomiting
   Treatment for concussions are getting
    rest and prescribing medications
Skull Fractures
   Caused when there is a break or
    fracture in the skull bone
   Symptoms are severe head pain, not
    being able to walk or balance, or may
    be in a coma
   Treatment is an overnight/long-term
    stay in a hospital is required
Intracranial Hematomas
   Known as blood clots in the brain
   Blood clots is found in the skull and on
    top of the brain.
   Not usually treated because it causes
    death.
Spinal Cord

• The spinal cord's function is to
  transport messages through out the
  body. It is called the "highway to
  the body" between the brain and the
  body. The spinal cord's structure is
  17-18 inch long nervous tissue.
• But length varies from person to
  person
Interesting Spinal Cord
Facts
• The connective joints of the
  vertebrae are cushioned by disks of
  tough fibrous cartilage.
• The spine is made of 33 vertebrae
• Vertebrae are divided into 5 regions
  •   Cervical
  •   Thoracic
  •   Lumbar
  •   Sacrum
  •   Coccyx
Neurons!

• Neurons are nerve cells that
  transmit nerve signals to and
  from the brain at up to 200 mph.
Parts of the Neuron
• Axon terminals transmit the electro-
  chemical signal across a synapse
• Synapse is the gap between the axon
  terminal and the receiving cell
• Axon is a long extension of a nerve cell,
  and it takes information away from the cell
  body.
• Dendrites bring information to the cell
  body (signal receivers).
• Myelin coats and insulates the axon
  increasing transmission speed along the
  axon.
• Cell body (soma) contains the neuron's
  nucleus
Different Types of Neurons
• Sensory neurons: carry messages from the
  body's sense receptors (eyes, ears, etc.) to
  the CNS. These neurons have two
  processes.
• Motor neurons: carry signals from the CNS
  to the muscles and glands. These neurons
  have many processes originating from the
  cell body.
• Inter neurons: form all the neural wiring
  within the CNS. These have two axons
  (instead of an axon and a dendrite). One
  axon communicates with the spinal cord;
  one with either the skin or muscle. These
  neurons convey information between
  different types of neurons.
Neuron Fun Fact!

• The word "neuron" was coined
  by the German scientist
  Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von
  Waldeyer-Hartz in 1891.
Neuron Synopsis

• http://science.education.nih.gov/
  supplements/nih2/addiction/acti
  vities/lesson2_neurotransmissio
  n.htm
Diseases and Disorders

•   Alzheimer Disease
•   Huntington Disease
•   Tourette Syndrome
•   Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    Disease
 Alzheimer Disease
• What is it?
  • A disorder that affects thinking,
    memory, and everyday tasks. It starts in
    microscopic neurons in the brain, most
    commonly in the area that deals with
    learning and processing info.
• Symptoms: Difficulty remembering
  new info, Dementia, inability to
  recognize friends/family, and mood
  swings.
Huntington Disease

• What is it?
  • a genetic disorder in which
   specific brain cells deteriorate.
• Symptoms: Antisocial behavior,
  hallucinations, irritability,
  moodiness, fidgeting.
Amyotrophic Lateral
Sclerosis (ALS)
• What is it?
  • A neurodegenerative disease.
    (Nerves are damaged or killed). In
    ALS more motor neurons die off and
    messages from brain to muscles do
    not flow normally. Brain and spinal
    cord don’t send messages correctly.
• Stephen Hawking suffers from AFL
AFL (continued)
• Symptoms:
  • First is weakness in arm and legs.
    Weakness tends to be more on one
    side than the other
  • Increased stumbling
  • Loss of coordination in fingers
  • Spreads to all voluntary muscle
    groups in the body
  • Breathing and swallowing will
    become difficult.
Tourette Syndrome
• What it is: An inherited disorder that is
  characterized by involuntary and repeated
  body movements, also known as a tic.
• Symptoms: Two Types of, “tics.”
  • Vocal
     • Includes grunting and barking, to simple clearing
       of the throat
  • Motor
     • Involves face and neck muscles.
• No known cure, but it is possible to,
  “outgrow,” the tics.
               Interconnectedness
   Think of the Nervous System as the Control center of the body.
    Without it the other systems wouldn’t know what to do.
   Respiratiory/caridovascular/digestive/endocrine/excritory-all of
    these systems receive messages from the brain, to perform their
    specific and subconscious functions. Whether it be breathing,
    insulin release, digestion, a heart beating, or waste movement to
    the bladder.
   Skeletal/ Muscular- Messages associated with movement are sent
    to the systems, from the brain.
   Reproductive- the brain releases hormones that develop this
    system and also deals with sexual arousal.
   Epithelium- Brain receives messages from nerve endings
    embedded in the skin (such as the sensation of pain) that allow it
    to respond to outward situations.
Sources
•   http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/nervoussys.html
•   http://www.sci.uidaho.edu/med532/Disease_index.htm
•   http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html
•   http://www.neuroskills.com/tbi/bfrontal.shtml
•   http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/lobe.html
•   http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brai
    n/Neuron.shtml
•   http://www.mind.ilstu.edu/curriculum/neurons_intro/neuro
    ns_intro.php
•   http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/topic.do?topic
    Key=~HRRkkGmKh8XBhwH
•   http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/b/brain_abscess/intro.ht
    ml
•   http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec06/ch082/ch082b.html
•   http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/b/brain_abscess/causes.
    htm
•   http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2
    3/Brain_diagram_without_text.svg/800px-
    Brain_diagram_without_text.svg.png
•   http://www.spineuniverse.com/anatomy/spinal-structure-
    body-mechanics
       And finally, a song from
          Pinky & the Brain
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5n
    MsXg1Lk

				
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posted:12/21/2011
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