The Nervous System
Alex Mazzarisi, Chanel Ross, Alyssa
Macola, and Johanna Burkhardt
Parts of Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, and Autonomic
What you need to know
Neurons- These are the long and stringy cells of the
nervous systems. They carry electrical “messages”
throughout the body.
Brain- Is located within cranium and is suspended in
fluid. It contains billions of neurons and is the control
center of the body.
Spinal Cord- Located in the spine. It is a tube of
neurons that attach to the brain. Information can also
be processed here.
Lets talk about the Brain
You need your brain to read this slide,
to remember this information, and to
ask questions about it.
There are three main parts of the brain:
the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the
All three of parts perform unique and
necessary functions in the body.
Lets talk about the Brain
Cerebrum: Is the largest part of the
brain and controls vision, touch, smell,
taste, hearing and thought.
Cerebellum: Controls balance and
Brain Stem (Medulla): Controls bodily
functions of digestion, breathing and
The Four Lobes
The Four Lobes!
Temporal Lobe- Deals with emotional
responses, hearing, memory, and speech.
Frontal Lobe- Deals with emotions, reasoning,
planning, parts of speech, movement and
Occipital Lobe- Controls vision and color
Parietal Lobe- Information processing, pain
and touch sensation, visual perception, and
Damages to the Lobes?
Temporal Lobe- Lose ability to speak, memory loss,
forget words, trouble recognizing words, seizures,
epilepsy, aggressive behavior, and change in sexual
Frontal Lobe- lose concentration, speech impaired,
apathy, inattentiveness, delayed responses to
questions, and no inhibition.
Occipital Lobe- blindness (even if eyes function
normally), difficulty recognizing objects and faces,
trouble interpreting what they see.
Parietal Lobe- numbness and impaired sensation,
right-left disorientation, apraxia (can’t do normal
tasks anymore), and confusion/deliria.
Interesting BRAIN Facts
The average weight of an adult human
brain, 2.8-3.1 pounds.
Skin contains 45 miles of nerves
Nerve impulses can travel from the
brain at speeds up to 170 miles per
Number of neurons in the human spinal
cord: 1 billion
Etiologies, symptoms, and
treatment of brain abscesses
Brain abscesses is an abscesses caused by
A brain abscesses is caused by multiple things like
ear infections, scalp wounds/injuries, urinary tract
infection, and a collections of bacteria or fungi in the
immune system and the brain.
Symptoms of a brain abscesses are headache,
vomiting, confusion, coma, infection fever, and
Treatment of a brain abscesses are antibiotics and
Types of head injuries
Minor head injury
Usually after a fall or minor car accident
Symptoms are headaches, confusion,
loss of awareness, memory loss,
Treatment for concussions are getting
rest and prescribing medications
Caused when there is a break or
fracture in the skull bone
Symptoms are severe head pain, not
being able to walk or balance, or may
be in a coma
Treatment is an overnight/long-term
stay in a hospital is required
Known as blood clots in the brain
Blood clots is found in the skull and on
top of the brain.
Not usually treated because it causes
• The spinal cord's function is to
transport messages through out the
body. It is called the "highway to
the body" between the brain and the
body. The spinal cord's structure is
17-18 inch long nervous tissue.
• But length varies from person to
Interesting Spinal Cord
• The connective joints of the
vertebrae are cushioned by disks of
tough fibrous cartilage.
• The spine is made of 33 vertebrae
• Vertebrae are divided into 5 regions
• Neurons are nerve cells that
transmit nerve signals to and
from the brain at up to 200 mph.
Parts of the Neuron
• Axon terminals transmit the electro-
chemical signal across a synapse
• Synapse is the gap between the axon
terminal and the receiving cell
• Axon is a long extension of a nerve cell,
and it takes information away from the cell
• Dendrites bring information to the cell
body (signal receivers).
• Myelin coats and insulates the axon
increasing transmission speed along the
• Cell body (soma) contains the neuron's
Different Types of Neurons
• Sensory neurons: carry messages from the
body's sense receptors (eyes, ears, etc.) to
the CNS. These neurons have two
• Motor neurons: carry signals from the CNS
to the muscles and glands. These neurons
have many processes originating from the
• Inter neurons: form all the neural wiring
within the CNS. These have two axons
(instead of an axon and a dendrite). One
axon communicates with the spinal cord;
one with either the skin or muscle. These
neurons convey information between
different types of neurons.
Neuron Fun Fact!
• The word "neuron" was coined
by the German scientist
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von
Waldeyer-Hartz in 1891.
Diseases and Disorders
• Alzheimer Disease
• Huntington Disease
• Tourette Syndrome
• Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
• What is it?
• A disorder that affects thinking,
memory, and everyday tasks. It starts in
microscopic neurons in the brain, most
commonly in the area that deals with
learning and processing info.
• Symptoms: Difficulty remembering
new info, Dementia, inability to
recognize friends/family, and mood
• What is it?
• a genetic disorder in which
specific brain cells deteriorate.
• Symptoms: Antisocial behavior,
• What is it?
• A neurodegenerative disease.
(Nerves are damaged or killed). In
ALS more motor neurons die off and
messages from brain to muscles do
not flow normally. Brain and spinal
cord don’t send messages correctly.
• Stephen Hawking suffers from AFL
• First is weakness in arm and legs.
Weakness tends to be more on one
side than the other
• Increased stumbling
• Loss of coordination in fingers
• Spreads to all voluntary muscle
groups in the body
• Breathing and swallowing will
• What it is: An inherited disorder that is
characterized by involuntary and repeated
body movements, also known as a tic.
• Symptoms: Two Types of, “tics.”
• Includes grunting and barking, to simple clearing
of the throat
• Involves face and neck muscles.
• No known cure, but it is possible to,
“outgrow,” the tics.
Think of the Nervous System as the Control center of the body.
Without it the other systems wouldn’t know what to do.
these systems receive messages from the brain, to perform their
specific and subconscious functions. Whether it be breathing,
insulin release, digestion, a heart beating, or waste movement to
Skeletal/ Muscular- Messages associated with movement are sent
to the systems, from the brain.
Reproductive- the brain releases hormones that develop this
system and also deals with sexual arousal.
Epithelium- Brain receives messages from nerve endings
embedded in the skin (such as the sensation of pain) that allow it
to respond to outward situations.
And finally, a song from
Pinky & the Brain