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					   The four major
    biomolecules


Organic molecules part 1
   What are we going to
          learn?
SB1.c
Identify the function of the four
major macromolecules (i.e.
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
nucleic acids).
        Biomolecules
• They are the foundation for the
  structure and function of every
  living cell in every organism.

• They are the building materials
  and the storehouse for energy.
          Carbohydrates
• AKA Carbs
• A carbohydrate is a
  simples sugar or a
  molecule composed of
  two or more simple
  sugars.
• It is composed of
  Carbon (C) ,
  Hydrogen (H), and
  Oxygen (O) in a ratio
  of 1:2:1.
   More than one class...
• Monosaccharides
  are a single sugar
  molecule. An
  example is
  glucose.
  More than one class ....
• Oligosaccharides
  are a short chain
  of two or more
  covalently
  bonded sugar
  units. An
  example is
  sucrose.
  More than one class ....
• Polysaccharides are long straight or
  branched chains of hundreds even
  thousands of sugar molecules in
  length. An example is starch.
Lipids
   • Are organic
     molecules that have
     more carbon-
     hydrogen (C-H)
     bonds and fewer
     oxygen atom than
     carbohydrates.
   • Commonly called fats
     and waxes.
Wash with soap and hot water....
                 • Lipids do not
                   dissolve in water due
                   to the nonpolarity of
                   the lipid molecules.
                   So you need a little
                   bit of soap.
         What? We want fats?
• Used for long term energy storage, insulation,
  and protective coatings.
• Major component of plasma membranes.
And so do plants?
• Waxes are long chains of fatty acids attached
  to an alcohol. Cutin is a wax that helps plants
  retain water.
               Proteins
• Large complex polymers
• They are composed of amino acids made of
  carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and
  sometimes sulfur.
Here, there and everywhere...
• They help us
  contract our
  muscles, transport
  O2 in the blood,
  and the immune
  system.
• They are also part
  of the plasma
  membrane.
A little bit of this, a little bit of that..
• Examples: collagen, enzymes, hemoglobin,
  insulin, and antibodies
Nucleic Acids
• Nucleic acids are
  complex
  macromolecules that
  store information in
  cells in the form of a
  code.
• There are four
  different types of
  nucleotides used to
  form a nucleic acid.
         Basic structure
• The three parts of a nucleotide are a five-
  carbon sugar, a nitrogen containing base, and
  a phosphate group.
   Nucleotides are pretty useful...
• Are the structural units of adenosine
  phosphates (ATP, NAD+, NADP+), nucleotide
  coenzymes, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)

				
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posted:12/20/2011
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