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Smallpox

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					Smallpox
  What does smallpox look like?
• Fatal hemorrhagic
  smallpox in a twelve-
  year-old girl, 1970s,
  Bangladesh. Here, the
  eyes are filled with
  blood, and blood
  blisters form in the
  mouth and inside the
  body.
        Symptoms of smallpox
• 7-17 days: infected    • Not contagious
  person feels fine

• Day 17+ fever 101-     • Person is too sick to
  104, tiredness, head     carry on their normal
  and body aches,          activities.
  vomiting.
Smallpox in Illinois
  1912
             More symptoms
• Rash, red spots on      • Within 24 hours, rash
  tongue and in mouth.      spreads to all parts of
  Later, rash starts on     the body.
  face, arms, legs,
  hands, and feet.        • Pustules crust and
• Rash becomes raised       scab. Within three
  “pustules” as if an       weeks, the scabs will
  object were under the     fall off.
  skin.
More pictures of the outbreak
      How is it transmitted?
• When a person in the middle days of
  infection breathes out, the air passes over
  the pustules in the mouth, the virus becomes
  airborne. Anyone who comes in contact
  with that water vapor could then be
  infected.
• If the virus is in blankets or bedding shared,
  it is easily spread to others.
Difference between smallpox and
        chicken pox
                • Chicken pox tends to
                  break out near the torso
                  and trunk of the body.
                • Smallpox, after the first 12
                  days, expand to outer
                  extremities more. See
                  hands and feet to the left.
                • http://www.idph.state.il.us
                  /Bioterrorism/smallpoxchi
                  ckenpox9.htm
       Why is smallpox fatal?
• People can survive after contracting
  smallpox. The statistics vary depending on
  the type and severity of the cases.
      variola major =severe hemorrhaging
                       -30% fatality rate
      variola minor= ordinary, not as severe
                       -1% fatality rate
            Why is it fatal?
• Patients die from smallpox due to secondary
  causes.
  – Fever and vomiting cause dehydration
  – Pustules become infected
  – Weakness from fever and lack of energy
 The first vaccinations

the Tribal Messenger - smallpox
               Recent history
• As a result of vaccination, the last outbreak in the
  US was in 1949.
• The last known natural case was in Somalia in
  1977. Since then, the only known cases were
  caused by a laboratory accident in 1978 in
  Birmingham, England, which killed one person
  and caused a limited outbreak. Smallpox was
  officially declared eradicated in 1979.
   Why Smallpox is a concern.
• Because smallpox was wiped out many
  years ago, a case of smallpox today would
  be the result of an intentional act.
      Where is the virus today?
• The virus is kept in two approved labs in the U.S.
  and Moscow, Russia. Some believe after the fall
  of the Soviet Union, South Korea and Iraq may
  have acquired some of the virus.

• Concern exists today that the virus was made into
  a weapon by some countries and that terrorists
  may have obtained it.

				
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posted:12/21/2011
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