“We have to educate our girls, no matter
On the last day of VEC training in village Saspan, the kalajatha gave
its performance on girls’ education, illustrating the discrimination that
girls faced. This moved village woman Ramdulari to such an extent
that she stood up after the performance and said, “This also happens
in our homes—we never learnt to read and write, and though we send
our boys to school, we don’t send our girls to school. Today, we have
to decide that girls should be educated, no matter what happens.”
This small incident highlights one of the greatest strengths of
Janshala—the ability to mobilise communities.
Districts No of Blocks/Urban area
Lucknow 8 blocks/1 UA
Major indicators (as per Census Report 2001)
Population 166.1 million
% share in total population of India 16.17
Population density (per sq. km) 689
Average annual exponential
growth rate (1991-2001) 2.3%
Sex ratio 898
Literacy rate (%)
U T T A R P R A D E S H
Lucknow Janshala at a glance Introduction
Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India. Its
No. of blocks & urban wards 8&2 capital, Lucknow, has long been known for its
No. of schools 1206 culture, poetry, cuisine and handicraft like chikan
No. of teachers 2916 work and zardozi. The city has a population of over
Para-teachers 117 3.6 million. The literacy rate is 69.3%—76.63% for
males and 61.22% for females.
No. of students 2,06,431
Janshala was started in Lucknow in April 2000. In
the first phase, the programme covered all eight
blocks in the rural areas and two wards in the urban areas. In the second
phase the whole city was covered.
A total of 21 visioning workshops were held in 2000, prior to launching the
programme. In the first phase, a workshop was organised by DIET, Lucknow,
and subsequently, visioning workshops were held in all the blocks and wards.
The participants included officials from DIET and the Education Department,
primary school principals and teachers, gram pradhans, members of
panchayats, NGOs, community representatives, and members of Nehru Yuva
Kendra. The workshops succeeded in introducing the Janshala programme at
the block and district levels and generating awareness among the community.
Sample surveys were also carried out in the blocks.
Janshala's strengths lie in an effective community mobilisation campaign,
quality improvement through training and use of computers, and convergence
with other social sector departments.
Community mobilisation and micro-planning
The main initiatives for community mobilisation include the School Chalo
Abhiyan and kalajathas. Apart from these, camps and fairs have also
School Chalo Abhiyan
The “School Chalo Abhiyan” (a school enrolment drive), organised in July
2001, was implemented in two phases. The first phase (1-15 July) involved
community contact and identification of out-
of-school children. Rallies involving
schoolchildren and teachers went around the
villages shouting slogans and carrying
banners. Songs and street-plays were also used
to convey the message. A number of ‘maa-beti
melas’ were organised. School principals
identified the out-of-school children by
carrying out surveys in their respective areas.
Apart from these, meetings of VECs, gram
sabhas and parents were held, in which
participants expressed their determination to
enrol all children of school going age,
especially girls, in schools.
A community mobilisation campaign
U T T A R P R A D E S H
In the second phase (16-31 July), enrolment of out-
Bal Mela in primary school,
of-school children was carried out. Both dropouts Dhodhankheda: Highlights
and those who had never been enrolled were
brought to school. Poor children were provided free ! Games and cultural programmes
textbooks. As part of the campaign, the Chief ! TLM stall
Minister addressed a mass gathering of about ! Model of the school
10,000 people and stressed the importance of ! Health camp
education. Subsequently, everyone took an oath that ! Clay models and TLM developed by children
all children between the ages of 6 and 11 years ! Food stalls by children
would be brought to school.
As a result of this campaign, about 90 percent of
children in Lucknow are enrolled in primary schools.
Kalajathas were organised to raise awareness about education, increase
enrolment, especially of girls, and increase community participation in
education. A team of 12 Master Trainers was trained by artists. These trainers
then held kalajathas at the block level, in villages and in urban slums. Involving
drama, street-plays and songs, the kalajathas evoked a tremendous response
from the community. They specially focused on the importance of educating
girls. There has been a marked improvement in
enrolment of girls after the kalajathas.
Apart from the above, the following steps have A glimpse
been taken for community mobilisation:
In Baznagar, Kakori block,
! Summer camps were organised in five villages the team of resource persons
of Maal. carrying out the micro-planning managed to
reach the school only after crossing open drains
! Bal Melas were held on 17-18 January 2002 in and waterlogged lanes. On the way, some youths
all primary schools of the district. were gambling, and showed no interest when the
team asked for directions. However, a number of
! 825 members of the core group were trained in curious parents joined the team when they started
urban areas. conducting a house-to-house survey.
! VEC training module was printed and VEC In one of the houses, 13-year-old Tasneem was
training was completed. helping her mother, Hameeda Bano, in stitching
chikan kurtas. Tasneem was not attending school
! Field trial of VEC training module by District due to disability and poverty. Apart from her,
Resource Group (DRG) has been completed in many out-of-school children were found. In the
three villages—Jindaur (Malihabad), evening, the team, along with the villagers,
Salehnagar (Maal), and Bhatgaon (Sarojini gathered in the school grounds. A school mapping
Nagar). exercise was carried out, in which many villagers
such as Hamida Bano, Mewalal and Kalavati
! 40 DRG members have been identified and participated wholeheartedly. Two youths, Rajesh
trained through State Resource Group; 169 and Sumer, who had passed class 12, raised the
DRG members have been trained by DRG. needs and problems of the village and helped in
developing the village education plan.
Community Schools 81
U T T A R P R A D E S H
! 32 Master Trainers of MTA/PTA/Women’s
Changing the teachers’ mentality
Mobilisation Group (WMG) have been trained
The primary school of Gopalkheda, at DIET.
Mohanlalganj block, presented a dismal
picture. Outside the school, some youths were ! Training of MTA/PTA has been completed,
playing cards and drinking liquor. In the 12031 MTA/PTA members trained and 215
school verandah, children of different classes resource persons of MTA/PTA have been
were sitting together while the lady teachers trained for block level.
were gossiping. Intermittently, the teachers
used to bang their sticks on the table to silence School mapping
the noisy children. There was no atmosphere of School mapping was carried out in 2000 at the
learning. When the DIET team arrived, the district and block levels. Village surveys carried out
teachers rushed to their classes. during the visioning workshops had indicated that
each village had different needs and problems and
In class II a boy was reciting the thus required local-level planning. Thus, village
multiplication tables loudly. In class III, education plans were formulated at the block level
children were copying questions and answers after village surveys and school mapping. These
from the blackboard without comprehension. exercises saw of participation and cooperation
Some children were fighting. At the from community members, including youth and
school handpump, village women were women. People came forward to discuss the
washing clothes. problems and specific needs of their areas.
To change this dismal scenario of the school, Micro-planning identified a number of out-of-
Janshala started a 10-day teachers’ training school and disabled children. It also highlighted
programme at the block level with the help of the shortage of teachers and schools as the
a group of trained state level resource persons. basic problems.
The training included activity-based learning,
social awareness, TLM development, Field trials of the first round of micro-planning in
teaching exercise in primary schools and four villages was completed by all village education
group discussions. committees (VECs).
A multi-pronged approach has been adopted to
improve the quality of teaching-learning, involving
teacher training, exposure visits, and
The DPEP training module was adopted
for training of teachers with some
modifications. The 10-day training
programme consisted of training on
teacher sensitisation, use of textbooks,
multi-grade teaching and time
management, group learning, TLM
development, classroom activities, and
exhibition of TLM. All teachers have been
trained. Apart from training of teachers,
the following training has been completed:
Training of teachers
U T T A R P R A D E S H
! Selection of 117 BRCs, Nyaya Panchayat Resource
Coordinators (NPRCs) and Assistant BRC.
Coordinators and their training by State Resource
! Training of 89 trainers by SRG.
Teachers have been trained on how to improve
classroom teaching and make lessons more interesting
using computers. During the training, lessons were
developed in language, mathematics, science and
social studies, the best of which were saved on CDs.
The 20-day training on computer-enabled education Computer training to teachers
has so far been imparted to 570 primary teachers.
Teaching-learning: A changing
To improve the quality of teaching, a number of picture
exposure visits have been organised for teachers and
resource persons to observe various aspects of What the children say:
teaching and learning. Visits have been organised to ! "We now love to come to school, as we do not
M.V. Foundation (group learning); Digantar and Bodh have to carry a heavy bag. We sit on colourful
(alternative education); Cini Asha, Kolkata (education mats."
of urban marginalised children); Hyderabad (working Kailash
of Block Resource Coordinators); Bhopal (computer ! "Teacher teaches us through games."
training) and Rishi Valley (multi-grade teaching). Meeta
! "When Guruji is away, we learn by ourselves
These visits have resulted in the following benefits: in the learning corner."
! Inclusion of two-day programme on group
learning in the teachers’ training module. What the teachers say:
! "This training is different from what we had
! Strengthening the plan of alternative education. received earlier."
Nisha Kale, Malhor
! Launch of a project for urban marginalised ! "Earlier, I had to go from house to house and
children by the NGO called Pratham, in bring the children to school, but now, parents
association with Janshala. themselves bring their children to school."
Kanchan Lata, Malihabad
! Improved functioning of Block Resource ! "Now children don’t want holidays, as they get
Coordinators. bored at home."
! Introduction of computers in primary schools.
Other measures to improve the quality of teaching
and learning include:
! Teachers’ handbooks providing guidelines for better handling of multi-level
and multi-grade teaching, and evaluating multi-phase learning, distributed
to all schools.
Community Schools 83
U T T A R P R A D E S H
! A grant of Rs 500 to each teacher to
develop TLM and school improvement
grant of Rs 5000 for every school.
! Development of 10 model schools by
DIET in each block and two in urban
areas; 97 model schools prepared by
NPRC coordinator at NPRC level.
! 50 TLM workshops held to develop
textbooks, lessons and TLMs.
! Arrangement of 117 community-based
teachers (Shiksha Mitra) in Maal and
Functional assessment of a disabled child Malihabad blocks.
! School libraries opened at block and
Convergence with other social sector departments and programmes is taking
place in various aspects of the programme.
! Construction of a school building by the Confederation of Indian Industries
(CII), and provision of toilets and other facilities in 10 other schools. CII is
also providing computers in selected schools.
! The District Urban Development Association (DUDA) has relocated 20
schools that had no buildings to community centres.
! TELCO has helped repair five school buildings, and provided furniture,
! IFFCO has painted 10 school buildings.
! 60 primary schools and 21 upper
primary schools are under construction
under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Convergence with ICDS
! Inclusion of education in anganwadi
! Training of anganwadi workers and
teachers of class I.
! Strengthening of 80 ICDS centres;
Janshala has provided toys worth
Children being taught with the help of pictures and charts.
Rs 5000 these centres.
U T T A R P R A D E S H
Convergence with Health Department
! Health check-up of all schoolchildren in
progress; about 100,000 children examined.
! Hepatitis B vaccination for 300 children of
Convergence for Integrated Education of
! 16 Master Trainers trained on inclusive
education by Amar Jyoti Rehabilitation
Centre, an NGO.
! Identification of disabled children in the age
group of 0-18 years completed in urban Children learning calculation with the help of an abacus
areas by UNDP with assistance of Janshala;
8000 disabled children identified and 5300
were provided appliances.
! Ramps and toilets are under construction in 200 schools with
! Books in Braille being provided to children of class 1-5.
Urban inter ventions
Though a number of programmes are being implemented in rural blocks to
reform education, more needs to be done in urban areas. The NGO called
Better Education Through Innovation (BETI) joined hands with Janshala and
took the initiative in bringing out-of-school children back to school in the two
urban educational wards of the city where Janshala was operating. Another
NGO, Pratham, was also associated.
BETI was given the responsibility of implementing primary education and girls’
education, training and evaluation and monitoring in the two wards. It carried
out a survey in the bastis, which also helped in raising awareness about the
programme and the organization. A 25-member core group was constituted to
provide educational support at the school level. The members were selected
from the bastis and they received a one-day training to acquaint them with the
programme. This core group helped in bringing the programme closer to the
community. The major achievements of BETI include:
! A “School Chalo Abhiyan”, during which about 700 children were enrolled
! Alternative education centres opened, teachers (Bal Mitras) selected, and
imparted a 5-day training. There are 52 such alternative education centres
in Hazratganj and Sadatganj wards, with 1250 children. Out of this, 600
children have enrolled in formal schools.
Community Schools 85
U T T A R P R A D E S H
! Bridge courses conducted for
mainstreaming school dropouts.
! A school building constructed with
local support, as well as a
government grant of Rs 5000.
! Learning centres set up with learning
Pratham started work in Nishatganj
ward in November 2001. It first carried
out a survey of Purana Takiyan basti.
They found communalism and
Training to alternative school teachers
irresponsibility of parents to be major
problems. Pratham adopted a three-
pronged approach in their work—contact, cooperation, and self-dependence.
Pratham has started bridge courses for out-of school children in Hasanganj
and Wazirganj area. At present, there are 60 centres offering bridge course, in
which 1650-1700 children are enrolled. Fifty-five teachers of this course
received a six-day training in January 2002. Pratham aims to later mainstream
these children in the bridge courses.
Pratham: Making a start in a new city
The story begins on November 5, 2001, when we came There were two major problems in starting work here.
to Lucknow for the first time. We were full of doubts One, strong communal feelings and two, disinterest of
before we came here. What kind of city is it? What parents. Considering these, we made a three-pronged
kind of people will we meet? Will we be able to adapt plan to work in the area—contact, involvement, and
ourselves to life in this city? self-evaluation. Following our plan, we started a bridge
course. The bridge course teachers were trained in a
On reaching Lucknow, we met Janshala officials Vrinda six-day camp in January 2002. At present, we have 60
Swarup, Kalpana Awasthi and Meena Sharma, after bridge course centres in two zones of Hasanganj and
which we gained confidence. On Dr Meena Sharma's Wazirganj, in which nearly 1650-1700 children are
suggestion, we first visited Hasanganj and Chowk enrolled. Our endeavour is to get the children admitted
zones. The poverty and backwardness of some colonies in regular schools.
were clearly visible. Some interesting incidents also
took place, especially with regard to our “Bombaiya” The enthusiasm, commitment and cooperation from
Hindi accent. local officials has been praiseworthy. Working with
Meena Sharma was an important experience. City
After this preliminary tour, we decided to start our Education Officer, Pankaj Gupta, also provided help
work in Nishatganj ward. We surveyed Purana Takiyan and gave crucial guidance.
Colony. During the survey, we faced many questions:
How many days will the programme run? What will Together, we are all trying to ensure that in future
you give the children? Will the children get money? every child in Lucknow will be in school.
And, we won’t send our girls either to study or to
teach. Answering such queries and reassuring them was (as recounted by Avi Ghodke and Taslim Bano)
a great learning experience.