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MF2388 Narrow Row Grain Sorghum Production in Kansas

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MF2388 Narrow Row Grain Sorghum Production in Kansas Powered By Docstoc
					MF-2388 • Crop Production


                                           DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY
    Row spacings have                                                                          100 bushels per acre, row
 been of interest in crop                                                                      spacings had less effect
 production for decades.                                                                       on yields (Table 1). When
 Yield increases from nar-
 row rows have been attrib-
 uted to better light
                                   Narrow-row                                                  averaged across these
                                                                                               locations, yields from all
                                                                                               three row spacings were
 interception and more
 efficient water use. Plant
                                  Grain Sorghum                                                within 3 bushels per acre.
                                                                                                  Studies conducted at
 productivity is at its high-
 est near the time the crop
 closes the canopy, there-
                                   Production in                                               Hays in the 1970s reported
                                                                                               9-bushel per acre yield
                                                                                               advantage to 12-inch rows
 fore, a crop that closes its
 canopy earlier in the
 growing season should
                                      Kansas                                                   compared to conventional
                                                                                               36-inch rows. The advan-
                                                                                               tage of narrow rows was
 have an advantage over a                                                                      most consistent when
 crop with slower canopy                                                                       planting in mid to late
 development.                                                                                  June with seeding rates
    Increasing grain sor-                                                                      two to three times higher
 ghum yields by using nar-                                                                     than the recommended
 row rows has been studied                                                                     seeding rates. A study
 at Kansas State University                                                                    conducted at Garden City
 at various time during the past 20 years. The following        from 1977 to 1980 found a less consistent advantage to
 section will discuss managing narrow-row grain sor-            narrow (10-inch) rows compared to wide (30-inch) rows.
 ghum production in Kansas.                                     However, results from individual years did indicate that
                                                                when subsoil moisture is good prior to planting, yields
 Agronomic Considerations                                       from sorghum planted in 10-inch rows at 50,000 to
 for Narrow-row Grain Sorghum                                   75,000 plants per acre were equal to, or exceeded yields
 Growing Conditions                                                                         from the low-population-
    Research conducted in      Considerations for narrow-row sorghum                        wide rows.
 eastern Kansas indicated that • Greatest yield advantage under high-yield environ-            These studies conducted
 row-spacing responses           ments (good soil moisture at planting time in western
                                                                                            across Kansas found that
 depend on the growing           Kansas and highly productive soils).
                                                                                            when growing-season
 condition’s effects on yield  • Later planting dates typically show yield advantage.
                                                                                            moisture (both subsoil
 potentials (Table 1). For the • Select hybrids based on yield, standability, stalk rot and
                                                                                            moisture and rainfall) was
 three locations with average    charcoal rot resistance, and stay-green characteristics.
                                                                                            adequate, narrow rows were
 yields above 100 bushels per • Weed control can be enhanced because of quick               more productive than wide
 acre, sorghum in 10-inch        canopy closure.
                                                                                            rows. When moisture was
 rows yielded 12 bushels per   • Maintain seeding rates similar to those used in wide
                                                                                            limited, grain yields were
 acre more than in 20-inch       rows (perhaps increase 10 percent if using a grain drill).
                                                                                            equal across all row spac-
 rows and 15 bushels per acre • Grain drills, air seeders, or planters adjusted to narrow- ings. The exception was full
 more than the 30-inch rows.     row spacings can be used successfully.
                                                                                            season hybrids planted at
 Yields in the 20-inch rows    • Conventional, reduced, or no-till seedbed preparation
                                                                                            Garden City in a continuous
 were only 4 bushels per acre    can be used similar to wide rows.
                                                                                            sorghum system with little
 more than in the 30-inch      • Cultivation as an alternative for weed control is
                                                                                            stored soil moisture at
 rows suggesting that the        extremely difficult in rows less than 20 inches wide.
                                                                                            planting. Under these
 biggest increase comes from • Use of row-crop head will not be possible for harvest        conditions, the low popula-
 very narrow rows.               in narrow rows.
                                                                                            tion-wide row spacings
    When moisture stress       • Spraying with narrow profile tire sprayers is advisable
                                                                                            produced higher yields.
 reduced the yields below        to minimize traffic injury to sorghum plants.

    Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
                                                                       2




   Sorghum’s drought tolerance reduces the risk of                         with the seed, this can also be accomplished with a grain
narrow-row grain sorghum production in Kansas. In                          drill fitted with fertilizer tanks or boxes. Narrow rows
high rainfall years or on highly productive soils, narrow                  also have the advantage when placing fertilizer with the
rows produce higher yields than conventional row                           seed in that the recommended rate of nitrogen containing
spacings. However, in most low-yielding environments,                      fertilizer can increase from 10 pounds nitrogen per acre
narrow rows will produce grain yields similar to wide                      to 15 or 20 pounds nitrogen per acre (depending on
rows. This enables producers to adopt narrow rows in                       narrow-row spacing) since the fertilizer concentration in
most sorghum producing situations.                                         a given row is reduced as more rows are planted. If a
                                                                           producer is currently applying phosphorous fertilizer in a
Tillage systems                                                            band next to the planted row (2 × 2 placement), then
    Adapting narrow rows to either conventional, minimum                   fertilizer placement shanks can be used to achieve the
or no-tillage systems is certainly possible if key issues are              same type of placement on a grain drill.
considered. The management difference between the
tillage systems deal primarily with pest control and                       Planting Date Considerations
nutrient placement. In most scenarios, pest management                        The ability of narrow rows to quickly develop a canopy
strategies that work under a given tillage system will work                makes it more advantageous for later planting dates. When
in narrow rows in that tillage system. Herbicide and                       planting is delayed as a result of weather conditions or
insecticide application equipment for narrow rows will be                  grain sorghum is being double cropped after wheat,
discussed in the Machinery Considerations section. One                     narrow rows should be considered to increase grain yields.
consideration from a disease standpoint for narrow-row                     In western Kansas, delayed planting also allows more soil
sorghum production using no-till would be selecting a                      moisture to be stored for the sorghum crop and time to
hybrid with good resistance to sooty stripe. Sooty stripe is               control additional flushes of weeds.
a fungal disease in which the growing crop is infected
from spores that overwinter on sorghum residue from the                    Seeding Rates and Hybrid Selection
previous year’s crop. The disease spreads rapidly when the                    Grain sorghum adapts to the conditions it is grown
relative humidity in the crop canopy is high. The quicker                  under by producing more heads per plant (tillers), seeds
developing canopy of narrow-row sorghum may increase                       per head and even by increasing seed weight. Research
the spread of the disease in a high-residue system.                        studies indicate that sorghum yields in eastern Kansas
    Placement of fertilizer in a no-till system should also                are maximized as long as plant populations of more
be considered when adopting narrow-row grain sorghum                       than 40,000 plants per acre are achieved. This yield
production. For the most part, the nitrogen application                    response to plant populations was consistent regardless
methods used in each tillage system under wide rows                        of row spacings in studies conducted in 1995 and 1996
will work adequately in narrow rows. However, the                          in northeast Kansas (Table 2).
placement of phosphorous fertilizer may be a greater                          In western Kansas, subsoil moisture and hybrid
challenge in narrow rows. If a producer is currently                       maturity needs to be considered when selecting a
applying phosphorous fertilizer with the planter in a band                 seeding rate. When subsoil moisture is adequate (after a
Table 1. Grain sorghum grain yields for three row spacings in seven environments in Kansas.
                                                          Location - Years1
Row     Manhattan2 Powhattan2                 Belleville2      Manhattan2        Belleville2   Manhattan3 Wellington4
Spacing   1995       1995                       1995             1996              1996          1997       1997
(in)                                                      Grain Yield (bu/a)
10            137.5              92.1               77.1             122.7             117.9      83.6          77.2
20            115.0              93.4               77.8             119.6             108.8      ——             —
30            115.1              83.8               90.4             113.3             102.5      84.3          79.9
LSD*(0.05)            - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -            NS†           NS†
1
 Planting dates ranged from May 22 to June 6 across all seven environments. 2Averaged across three plant populations and
two hybrids. 3Averaged across three plant populations. 4Averaged across two hybrids.* LSD Least Significant Difference, used
to determine if two means are statistically different. †NS—Not significantly different based on the statistical methods used.
                                                                3




Table 2. Two-year average grain sorghum yields for                  Machinery Considerations
three plant populations at Belleville and Manhattan.                for Narrow-row Grain Sorghum
                                                                       Growing narrow-row grain sorghum likely will not
  Plant Population         Belleville    Manhattan
                                                                    require equipment changes for most growers. There are,
  (plants/acre)             Grain Yield (bu/acre)
                                                                    however, some items most growers should consider
  30,000                      101               117                 when planting sorghum in narrow rows. For this discus-
  60,000                      106               122                 sion, equipment considerations will be divided into
  90,000                      107               120                 planting, crop management, and harvesting.
  LSD(0.05)                   NS                NS
                                                                    Planting
fallow period or above average winter rainfall), re-                    Growers have three basic options for planting narrow-
search indicates that seeding rates for narrow rows                 row grain sorghum, drills, air seeders, and split-row
should be set to achieve final stands of 50,000 to                  planters. Since most growers have a grain drill, this is an
75,000 plants per acre if early to medium-maturing                  easy option. However, setting the seed metering rate low
hybrids are used. If narrow-row sorghum is to be                    enough may be a problem. Be sure to check the calibra-
planted in a continuous sorghum cropping system or if               tion charts in the operators manual to determine the
a full season hybrid is being used, typical seeding rates           proper settings. Remember, this is a starting point and
of 20,000 to 50,000 seeds per acre should be used.                  the calibration should be checked after a known acreage
   When selecting a hybrid for grain sorghum production             is seeded. Make sure seeding depth is set correctly and
in narrow rows, grain yield should still be the primary             good seed to soil contact is obtained when using a drill.
focus. After selecting hybrids for yield potential, a second-       Keep in mind, establishment rates with a drill are often
ary concern should be standability. Standability can be             lower than with a planter, so seeding rates should be
important since harvesting lodged plants in a narrow-row            increased 10 to 20 percent to achieve similar plant
production system will be more difficult compared to                populations as achieved when using a planter.
conventional row spacings. Growers should scrutinize a                  Air seeders, another option for seeding narrow-row
given hybrids ratings for standability, stalk rot and char-         crops, were popular in Kansas a few years ago, but that
coal rot resistance, and stay-green ratings. These ratings          popularity had declined. However, new styles of air
can give a producer indications of a hybrids ability to             seeders have led to resurgence in popularity. New
stand under adverse growing and harvesting conditions.              designs of air seeders include better metering and
                                                                    different options for openers, including some disc
Weed Competition and Weed Control                                   models. The better openers allow for better seed
   Light interception advantages of narrow-row sor-                 placement. Air seeders are typically wide, resulting in
ghum systems offer weed control advantages over                     greater seed capacities than most grain drills. They also
wider rows since early canopy closure reduces the                   are versatile enough to plant many different crops in a
number of weeds that emerge during the growing                      wide range of conditions. The main disadvantage of air
season. Research conducted at Kansas State University               seeders is their initial cost.
indicated that the growth of weeds that did emerge was                  Using a split-row planter, a planter that has row units
reduced in the 10-inch rows by 24 percent compared to               positioned to split the middles of the conventional row
the 20-inch rows and by 45 percent when compared to                 spacing allowing for planting in narrow rows, will
the 30-inch rows. Under heavy broadleaf weed pres-                  result in more uniform stands than a grain drill as
sure, the 10-inch rows produced 6 bushels per acre                  planters give better seed to soil contact than most drills
more grain than the 20-inch rows and 31 bushels per                 and tend to provide more uniform stands. Split-row
acre more grain than the 30-inch rows.                              planters will achieve better seed metering than a grain
   Since cultivation is not possible, herbicides are                drill at the lower seeding rates seeding typically used
required for in-season weed control in narrow rows. For             for grain sorghum. The main disadvantage of split-row
control of grassy weeds, soil-applied herbicides are                planters is initial cost, but they do have the advantage
currently the most reliable option for grain sorghum in             that they can be used to plant other crops such as corn
the absence of cultivation. Postemergence herbicide                 or soybeans in narrow rows.
selection and timing should not be different than those
used in wide rows.
                                                                                   4




Crop Management                                                                        Summary
   Crop management machinery includes sprayers and                                        Narrow rows have the ability to produce higher
row-crop cultivators. A row-crop cultivator may not be                                 yields than conventional row spacings in highly pro-
an option for most row spacings less than 15 inches.                                   ductive environments and later planting dates while not
Some growers with 20-inch rows are still cultivating.                                  exposing producers to additional risk in more marginal
Cultivating 20-inch rows will require significant changes                              environments. Sorghum producers should not alter
in the cultivator and possibly tractor tire setup and width.                           seeding rates when converting to narrow rows because
   Applying post emergence herbicides on narrow-row                                    of sorghums ability to adjust head number and seed
grain sorghum with a ground applicator may present                                     number per plant. Producers should choose high
challenges. It is possible to drive between 20-inch rows,                              yielding hybrids with exceptional standability, stalk rot
but narrower rows will be a problem. Consider spraying                                 resistance and stay green ratings to reduce the risk of
perpendicular to the planted rows in a crop planted with                               lodging. Sorghum planted in narrow rows can reduce
a drill or 15-inch planter. If you are considering this                                weed competition. A chemical weed control program
option, use the widest possible boom since a wider                                     should rely on preplant or preemergence soil herbicide
boom will maximize the area sprayed compared to the                                    applications followed by an early postemergence
area being driven over. A high clearance sprayer with                                  herbicide application if needed.
18.4-inch tires will drive on 10 percent of the area
sprayed when the sprayer is equipped with a 30-foot                                    Related K-State Research and Extension Publications
wide boom. A sprayer with the same tire setup and a                                    Publication Title                                   Publication Number
60-foot boom will only drive on 5 percent of the area                                  Grain Sorghum Production Handbook. ........................ C-687
                                                                                       Management of Urea Fertilizers. .................................. NCR-326
being treated. Most postemergence herbicide labeled                                    Management Practices Affecting
for sorghum have an 8 to 12-inch plant height restric-                                  Nitrogen Losses from Urea. ....................................... MF-984
tion, limiting most application to the early portion of                                Grain Sorghum Residue ................................................ L-782
the growing season. Any plant damage from tire traffic                                 Phosphorous Facts. ....................................................... C-665
                                                                                       Chemical Weed Control for Field
will have little or no effect on final grain yields due to                              Crops, Pastures, Rangeland, and Noncropland. ........ SRP-777
sorghum’s ability to compensate by increasing head                                     High Population, Narrow Row Dryland
number or seed number per plant in the trafficked areas.                                Sorghum for Southwest Kansas. ................................ KUWR-62
                                                                                       Super Thick Sorghum Management. ............................ SRP-437

Harvesting
   If you are accustomed to harvesting sorghum with a row-                                                      Scott Staggenborg
crop head, expect some changes when converting to or                                               Extension Specialist, Crops and Soils, Northeast
trying narrow-row sorghum. A grain platform with harvest                                                      Barney Gordon
attachments can be very effective in standing sorghum.                                 Agronomist-In-Charge, North Central Kansas and Irrigation Exp. Fld.
The attachments are fixed to the cutter bar and extend                                                            Randy Taylor
forward to help keep heads from falling out of the header.                                        Extension Specialist, Machinery and Farm Power
Attachments are available from several manufacturers and                                                        Stewart Duncan
will greatly improve harvest efficiency in standing crops.                                      Extension Specialist, Crops and Soils, South Central
Performance may be reduced in a lodged crop. Lodged                                                                  Dale Fjell
crops can be harvested with a flex head and pick-up reel.                                             Extension Specialist, Row Crop Production


                   Publications from Kansas State University are available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.oznet.ksu.edu
      Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. In each case, credit Scott
               Staggenborg et al., Narrow-row Grain Sorghum Production in Kansas, Kansas State University, January 1999.

Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
MF-2388                                                                                                                                                  February 1999
It is the policy of Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service that all persons shall have equal opportunity and
access to its educational programs, services, activities, and materials without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age or disability. Kansas State
University is an equal opportunity organization. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, as amended. Kansas
State University, County Extension Councils, Extension Districts, and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating, Marc A. Johnson, Director.
File code: Crops and Soils 1-5

				
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