03 4th of July supplement

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Safety Tips for Public Fireworks Displays ......................................................................................1

Tips on Choosing Safe Fireworks ....................................................................................................1

Injuries .............................................................................................................................................2

Fireworks Injury Rates are at an All-time Low ...............................................................................3

The National Council on Fireworks Safety: Fireworks Safety Test ................................................4

How to be Safe and Avoid Legal Problems on July 4 .....................................................................5

Boating Safety Starts with Awareness of the Dangers ....................................................................7

Life Jackets ......................................................................................................................................9

Motorcycle Safety ..........................................................................................................................10

Driving with Motorcycles ..............................................................................................................11

Required Motorcycle Protective Equipment ..................................................................................13

Fishing............................................................................................................................................14

Camping .........................................................................................................................................17

Barbeque Food Safety ....................................................................................................................21

BBQ Safety Tips ............................................................................................................................23

Picnic Safety Tips ..........................................................................................................................23

Lightning Safety.............................................................................................................................25

Don’t Let Alcohol Put a Chill on Your Summer ...........................................................................26

Lawnmower Safety Tips ................................................................................................................26

The National Council on Fireworks Safety: Fireworks Safety Test Answers ...............................28




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The fire service is usually responsible for the public's safety when a large-scale fireworks
display is presented. A trained pyrotechnic operator and crew conduct the actual firing of
the display. These professionals know and comply with all state and local regulations.
The following tips should help make the display more enjoyable to the public, as well as
make the display as safe as possible:
     Spectators should obey all ushers or monitors and respect the safety barriers set
        up to allow the trained operator room to safely do his job. Resist any temptation to
        get close to the actual firing site. In fact, the best view of the fireworks is from a
        quarter of a mile or more away.
     Although it rarely happens, it is possible that a firework component might fall to
        the ground without exploding. The public should be cautioned not to touch these
        fireworks. If they happen to find any which have not exploded, they should
        immediately contact the local fire or police department.
     Pets have very sensitive ears and the booms and bangs associated with a fireworks
        display can be quite uncomfortable --particularly to dogs. In fact, the noises can
        actually hurt their ears. Leave pets at home if you are going to a fireworks show.
     Leave the lighting of all fireworks to the trained operator when you attend a
        public display. Sparklers, fountains, and other items that many states allow for use
        by private individuals are not appropriate to use when a large crowd is present.
        Leave your own fireworks at home --the display will provide plenty of
        excitement.
     Sit back, relax, and enjoy the show!



It is extremely important to know the difference between a legal
consumer firework and a dangerous explosive device. Items such as
M-80s, M-l00s, and blockbusters are not fireworks; they are federally
banned explosives. They can cause serious injury or even death. Stay
away from anything that isn't clearly labeled with the name of the item,
the manufacturer's name and instructions for proper use. Here are some
more tips to help ensure a safe 4th of July:
      Fireworks are not toys. Fireworks complying with strict regulations enacted by
         the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission in 1976 function primarily by
         burning to produce motion and visible or audible effects. They are burning at
         approximately the same temperature as a household match and can cause burn
         injuries and ignite clothing if used improperly.
      NEVER give fireworks to young children. Close, adult supervision of all
         fireworks activities is mandatory. Even sparklers can be unsafe if used
         improperly.
      Select and use only legal devices. If you choose to celebrate the 4th of July with
         fireworks, check with your local police department to determine what fireworks
         can be legally discharged in your area.
      Stay away from illegal explosives. Illegal explosive devices continue to cause



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     serious injuries around the 4th of July holiday. These devices are commonly
     known as M-80s, M-100s, blockbusters or quarter-pounders. Federally banned
     since 1966, these items will not contain the manufacturer's name and are usually
     not labeled. Don't purchase or use unlabeled fireworks. If you are aware of
     anyone selling such devices, contact your local police department.
    Homemade fireworks are deadly. Never attempt to make your own devices and do
     not purchase or use any kits that are advertised for making fireworks. Mixing and
     loading chemical powders is very dangerous and can cause serious injury or even
     death. Leave the making of fireworks to the experts.

To help you celebrate safely this 4th of July, the Consumer Product Safety Commission
and the National Council on Fireworks Safety offer the following safety tips:

      Always read and follow label directions.
      Have an adult present.
      Buy from reliable sellers.
      Use outdoors only.
      Always have water handy (a garden hose and a bucket).
      Never experiment or make your own fireworks.
      Light only one firework at a time.
      Never re-light a "dud" firework (wait 15-20 minutes
       and then soak it in a bucket of water).
      Never give fireworks to small children.
      Store fireworks in a cool, dry place.
      Dispose of fireworks properly by soaking them in
       water and then disposing of them in your trashcan.
      Never throw or point fireworks at other people.
      Never carry fireworks in your pocket.
      Never explode fireworks in metal or glass containers.
      The shooter should always wear eye protection and never have any part of the
       body over the firework.
      Stay away from illegal explosives.




The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) monitors a sample of hospital
rooms and produces annual injury estimates associated with a number of consumer
products based upon the injuries that are recorded at these selected hospitals. Using this
data, CPSC estimates that 7,000 people were treated for fireworks-related injuries in
1998.

CPSC emphasizes that estimates are based on injuries relating to fireworks, but it is
incorrect to say that injuries were caused by the product. Also, the figure covers injury
reports associated with all types of fireworks, including accidents involving homemade
items and large, illegal explosive devices.



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In 1976, CPSC enacted national standards for family-type fireworks in response to a
petition calling on CPSC to ban all fireworks except for licensed public displays. All
fireworks, now legally available for sale to consumers, must comply with the CPSC rules.
Since the adoption of these regulations, the amount of fireworks used each year has
doubled; suggesting that the injury rate, in terms of injuries per one million pounds of
fireworks, ignited has declined significantly.

                           A recent report prepared by CPSC analyzed injury data
                           collected over a seven-year period. The study concluded, "In
                           instances where legal types of fireworks were involved in
                           accidents, either from misuse or malfunction, the resulting
                           injuries were relatively minor and did not require
                           hospitalization," The CPSC study also noted that a majority of
                           the injuries from the "consumer" or family-type fireworks
                           involved misuse rather than malfunction.

Illegal fireworks continue to be a serious problem. Over the past 10 years, illegal
explosives or homemade fireworks have typically caused 30-33 percent of the injuries
associated with fireworks.

Today's consumer fireworks are primarily noted from their beautiful visual effects rather
than explosive noise. With the enactment of rigid safety standards for consumer
fireworks, a safe, enjoyable backyard fireworks display is now possible.




From 1994 to 1998 alone, the injury rate dropped over 44%. According to the CPSC,
there were an estimated 7,000 people treated for fireworks related injuries in 1998. That
is down from 10,900 in 1995. In 1994, the figure was 12,500.

Injuries per 100,000 pounds of fireworks have dropped from 17.8 in 1990 to 6.2 in 1996,
based on statistics from the CPSC’s NEISS system.

Federal safety regulations, combined with increased consumer awareness, are making the
4th of July holiday safer than ever. However, explosive devices like M-80s and M-100s
continue to be a problem. Though banned since 1966, these illegal explosives still
account for one-third of all 4th of July injuries.

This 4th of July, legal fireworks that meet the safety regulations of the CPSC will be on
sale in 40 out of 50 states and the District of Columbia.




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    1. What is the first thing to do before lighting a firework?

    2. How do you know if you are buying quality legal fireworks?

    3. Where should you light & watch fireworks?

    4. It's always good to have handy when having a fireworks display.

    5. How many fireworks should you light at a time?

    6. If a firework does not work after lighting it, how long should you wait before
       trying to light it again?

    7. Should small children handle and light fireworks?

    8. What should you do if a firework fails to work after lighting it?

    9. Where should you store fireworks?

    10. How should you dispose of a discharged firework?

    11. How should you carry fireworks?

    12. What part of your body should be over a firework when lighting it?

    13. What safety equipment should you wear when lighting a firework?

    14. Are illegal explosives like M-80's and Cherry Bombs really dangerous or just
        more fun?

    15. Is it safe to throw or point a firework at another person?

    16. How do you find out what fireworks are legal to buy and light in your city?

    17. Should kids and teenagers be allowed to handle and light fireworks without a
        responsible adult close by?

    18. How many fireworks should you carry to the lighting area?

    19. What device should you use to light a firework?

    20. Is it OK to drink alcohol and light fireworks?
*Test answers can be found on the last page of this publication.



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The 4th of July weekend is supposed to be a day of celebration and relaxation, but for
thousands of Americans each year it is a day of illness and accidents caused by ignorance
or carelessness. Besides causing misery, summer mishaps frequently lead to lawsuits. In
my 30 years as a trial lawyer, I have represented a number of clients whose 4th of July
weekend turned into a nightmare. Although there is no good time to get sick or injured,
holidays such as July 4th are the absolute worst time because hospitals and clinics are
frequently understaffed. Fewer staff means greater risk of malpractice.

Make your summer healthier, carefree, and lawyer-free by heeding the following safety
tips:
     Water Sports. As the temperature climbs, so do reported drownings or near
      drownings in the Washington area. Last year nearly 4,000 American children
      drowned and another 8,000 to 12,000 suffered permanent neurological damage.
      Keep yourself and others out of hot water by observing a few simple tips from
                             Infant Swimming Research:
                         Do not permit children to swim unsupervised -- not even for
                          a second.
                         Do not permit adults to swim alone.
                         Never leave a child to supervise another child.
                         Never assume someone else is watching your children.
                         Prohibit diving board daredevil stunts, dangerous horseplay,
                          and motorboat stunts.
                         Wade --don't dive --into unfamiliar waters.
                         Keep a portable phone by the pool.
                         Be prepared for an emergency; maintain rescue equipment at
                          your poolside.

    Food. In summertime, foods can quickly reach a temperature where bacteria
     multiply rapidly. Make sure that all foods are handled properly by observing the
     following federal recommendations for summer food preparation:
          Keep food chilled right up until the time you cook or eat it.
          Keep food covered and out of direct sunlight, especially meat, eggs, and
            dairy products such as mayonnaise.
          If food smells, tastes, or looks to be tainted, discard it immediately.
          Wash hands before and after handling raw meat and poultry; never put
            cooked food on a platter that contained raw meat or poultry.
          Cook meats thoroughly.
          Exercise extreme caution at the barbecue; don't wear loose clothes near it.
          Be especially careful with lighter fluid.
          Do not add lighter fluid to an already lit fire because the flame can flash
            up to the container and cause it to explode.
          Supervise children around grills. Keep matches and lighters away from




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             children. Demonstrate how to Stop, Drop, and Roll in case a piece of
             clothing should catch fire.
    Alcohol. According to Mothers Against Drunk Driving, someone dies in an
     alcohol-related traffic crash every 32 minutes. During holidays such as the 4th of
     July, drunk driving fatalities are especially frequent. Alcohol also can kill in the
     swimming pool, at the beach, or in a boat. If you serve alcohol, and inebriated
     guests hurt themselves or others, you may be held accountable by law.

If you choose to serve alcohol, follow a few simple guidelines to protect your guests and
yourself:
                        Never serve alcohol to those below the legal drinking age.
                        Always offer non-alcohol alternatives.
                        Serve food with alcohol.
                        Serve guests one drink at a time.
                        Stop serving alcohol at least one hour before the party ends;
                           offer instead coffee and non-alcohol alternatives.
                        Arrange safe rides home for all your guests. Have non-
                           drinkers ready to serve as designated drivers. If necessary, call
                           a cab or make arrangements for a guest who has been drinking
                           to stay the night.

    The Great Outdoors. Hiking, camping, and other trips off the beaten path
     require increased vigilance. Crime, overexertion, accidents with camping
     equipment, and fires are among the chief dangers. Another significant danger is
     getting lost in unfamiliar terrain. The following Search & Rescue Safety Rules
     may save your life:
          Do not lead excursions into unfamiliar terrain.
          Let someone know where you are going and when
             you plan to return.
          Put a note on your car's dashboard (face down) with
             the time you started, your itinerary, and your
             estimated time of return.
          Dress in layers. Always pack a rain poncho.
          Each person in your group should carry water, a
             snack, a whistle, and matches or a lighter.
          If you get lost, find a dry, accessible spot and stay
             put. Blow your whistle three times at regular intervals
             to signal for help.
     In addition :
          Never start fires except in designated campgrounds.
          Always check camping equipment before you leave for your excursion.
          Get in good shape before you embark on a demanding hike.
          Be sure that you and your companions are in good health. Do not
         overexert yourself; drink plenty of bottled water.
    Fireworks. All of us have been told the stories about loss of sight or hearing
     caused by stray firecrackers and sparklers, yet accidents occur each year. Last


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       year an estimated 7,600 people --many of them children --were treated for
       fireworks-related injuries.

       Stay safe. Leave fireworks to the professionals. If you must use fireworks and it is
       legal to do so in your locale, observe the following guidelines from the National
       Council on Fireworks Safety:
            Always read and follow label directions.
            Have an adult present.
            Buy from reliable fireworks sellers.
            Ignite fireworks outdoors.
            Have water handy.
            Light one at a time.
            Never re-ignite malfunctioning fireworks.
            Never give fireworks to small children.
            Store fireworks in a cool, dry place; dispose
               of them properly.
            Never throw fireworks at another person.
            Never shoot fireworks in metal or glass containers.


Be safe, not sorry. Make your July 4th weekend one that you will want to remember
rather than forget.

The D.C. Bar Association, and Trial Lawyer of the Year by the Trial Lawyers
Association, D. C, elected Washington malpractice lawyer Jack H. Olender Lawyer of the
Year. He has prosecuted to a verdict or settlement more than ninety cases upwards of a
million dollars each.



Boating is one of the symbols of summer fun. Whether it is canoeing on a river, water
skiing on a lake, or sailing along the coast, Americans love to be on the water. Each year
some 76 million of them enjoy boating as part of their recreation. Without question, that
is a lot of traffic. To ensure everyone's safety, Glen Hetzel, Virginia Cooperative
Extension safety engineer, suggests that boaters take three simple precautions
recommended by the U.S. Coast Guard.

              Wear a life jacket, also known as personal flotation device (PFD). More
               than 77 percent of all fatalities on the water involve people who do not
               wear their PFDs.
              Do not consume alcohol when boating. Alcohol and boating are a
               dangerous combination. More than 50 percent of all fatalities on the water
               are alcohol related.
              Take a course in boating safety. Of all boating accidents, 80 percent are
               attributable to boaters who lack adequate safety skills and knowledge.




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"Everyone, no matter what their age or their swimming ability, should always wear a
properly fitted PFD when out on the water," says Hetzel. "PFDs or life jackets are like car
seat belts --when you need them it is too late to put them on."

PFDs are affordable, readily available, and could prevent many accidental deaths. When
a boater or passenger not wearing a PFD is thrown into the water, the likelihood of a
drowning is great. This is especially true if that person has been drinking alcohol, is
injured in the fall, or lacks the skills or strength to stay afloat.

"Boating under the influence of alcohol is not only
dangerous, in most cases it is illegal," says Hetzel.
Many of the people who enjoy boating are not aware of
the very real, life threatening dangers associated with
consuming alcohol and boating, or they ignore the
warnings about the dangers of boating under the
influence."

Hetzel states that alcohol produces certain physiological responses that directly affect the
safety of everyone around the water: diminished judgment, motor skills, balance, and the
ability to process information. Alcohol slows reaction and reflexive response time and
reduces depth perception, night and peripheral vision, and focus. It can cause an inner ear
disturbance, which can make it impossible for someone suddenly immersed in water to
distinguish up from down; and it can accelerate the onset of hypothermia.

While boating under the influence of alcohol is a major problem itself, it can be
compounded by boater's fatigue, according to Hetzel. Boater's fatigue is a documented
phenomenon in which the combination of sun, wind, vibration, and water motion
approximately triples the effects of alcohol. As a result, a person with a blood alcohol
content of merely .035 percent, or one drink, can experience impaired judgment. The
incidence of boater's fatigue is most common in the peak months from May to
September, when the sun shines the brightest and the waters are most crowded. Not
surprisingly, approximately 70 percent of all boating accidents occur during this period.

Drowning passengers account for many boating-under-the-influence injuries and more
than half of all boating fatalities are the result of a boater falling overboard --not driver
error. Fatalities can result from water skiing, kayaking, or simply falling off the boat.
"While designating a driver appears on the surface to be good solution," says Hetzel, "it
does not ensure everyone on the boat is safe."

Lack of proper boater safety training is a third major cause of injuries and fatalities
occurring on the water. Hetzel says, "If you plan to take any kind of vessel --canoe,
personal watercraft, or powerboat --out on the water, you should take a boating safety
course. The Boat/U.S. Foundation at (800) 245-2628 can help you find a course in your
area."




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What type of life jacket do I use?
   Type 1: This jacket floats best. It is designed to turn most people who are
       unconscious in the water from the facedown position to an upright and slightly
       backward position. This jacket helps the person to stay in that position for a long
       time. It is to be used in open water and oceans. It is available in only two sizes:
       one size for adults (more than 90 Ibs.) and one size for children (less than 90 Ibs.).
   Type 2: This jacket can turn a person
       upright and slightly backwards but not as
       much as the Type 1 jacket. It may not
       always help an unconscious person to float
       face up. It is comfortable and comes in
       many sizes for children. This is the best
       type of jacket to wear if people are boating,
       fishing, or doing other water activities.
   Type 3: This jacket is designed so the
       person can obtain and maintain an upright
       and slightly backward position. It is very
       comfortable and comes in many styles. This
       jacket is often used for water sports and
       should be used only when it is expected that
       the rescue can be done quickly.
   Type 4: A life preserver is a cushion or ring and is not worn. It is designed to be
       used in two ways. It can be grasped and held until the person is rescued, or it can
       be thrown to someone in the water. It should not be used by children or by those
       who do not swim. Check the label on the life preserver to be sure it meets US
       Coast Guard or state regulations.

Use only life jackets and life preservers that are tested by the Underwriters Laboratories
(UL) and approved by the US Coast Guard. If they are, they will have a label that
indicates approval. Life jackets are labeled by type (1, 2, 3, or 4) and for whom they are
designed (child or adult).
For the Kids:
     Children should wear life jackets at all times when on boats or near bodies of
        water.
     Teach your child how to put on his/her own life jacket.
     Make sure your child is comfortable wearing a life jacket and knows how to use
        it.
     Make sure the life jacket is the right size for your child. The jacket should not be
        loose. Jackets should always be worn, as instructed, with all straps belted.
     Blow up water wings, toys, rafts, and air mattresses should never be used as life
        jackets of life preservers. They are not safe.

Reprinted by permission from the national Safety Council.



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This spring, motorcycle riding is more popular than ever. Motorcycle sales rose a
remarkable 9.4 percent in 2002, marking the nation's 10th consecutive year of rising
motorcycle sales, according to the Motorcycle Industry Council. And these motorcycle
purchases are being made both by riders brand new to the sport as well as by
motorcyclists whose busy lives had caused them to lose touch with a favored pastime.
Sharing the roadway is where motorist awareness starts. MSF urges all motor vehicle
drivers to expect to see more motorcyclists riding in traffic this spring and to respect that
they rightfully enjoy the same access to the roads as other traffic. Further, MSF reminds
all motorcyclists to be responsible riders, which includes following the four main safety
guidelines listed below.
"Motorists often don't look for motorcyclists on the road," said MSF President Tim
Buche. "In fact, the most common type of collision occurs when a driver pulls out from
an intersection directly in front of a motorcyclist. Afterwards, they usually say they never
even saw the bike. This is why it is so important for drivers to remember to expect to see
motorcyclists on the roadway no matter what time of year."
The Motorcycle Safety Foundation offers these guidelines for motorcyclists:
    Get Trained - Whether you're a new rider or someone with years of experience,
     there's always room for skills improvement. Research has shown that more than
     90 percent of all riders involved in crashes were either self-taught or taught by
     friends. The MSF's newest curriculum, the Basic RiderCourseSM, is available at
     over 1,100 training sites across the U.S. For information on training in your area,
     call toll-free (800) 446-9227 or visit www.msf-usa.org.
    Ride Sober - Recent data confirms that alcohol is involved in almost half of all
     single-vehicle motorcycle crashes. Don't drink and ride. And don't ride impaired.
     Drugs (prescription, over-the-counter, or otherwise) diminish visual capabilities
     and affect judgment. If you think you can't ride without taking a drink, please
     consider that alcohol dependency may be putting you at risk.
    Get Licensed - MSF worked with the American Association of Motor Vehicle
     Administrators and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to update
     an improved motorcycle operator licensing system, now an official national
     standard. Licensing agencies in 31 state use one of four different MSF skill tests.
     MSF's motorcycle operator manual is used in 41 states, and 29 states incorporate
     the supporting knowledge test. For information on licensing requirements visit
     www.msf-usa.org/pages/operatorfs.html.
    Ride Responsibly - Wear riding gear for both comfort and protection. This
     includes a helmet manufactured to meet DOT standards, eye protection, jacket,
     full-fingered gloves, long pants and over-the-ankle boots. Keep your bike well



                                                                                           10
       maintained. Use your RiderRadarSM when riding to scan for hazards. And most
       importantly, know your own skill level and ride within it.
Statistically, automobile drivers are at fault in the majority of auto/motorcycle crashes.
The driver either does not see the oncoming motorcyclist at all or does not see him in
time to avoid the crash. On the other hand, when the motorcyclist is at fault, he has
typically made a bad choice.



Share The Road
Research shows that three-fourths of crashes involving a motorcycle involve a motor
vehicle. Many times the driver of the motor vehicle is at fault. Considering crash statistics
and the increasing number of motorcyclists, the key to a safer traffic mix is learning to
share the road.
Motorcycles are very different from automobiles. Because they are smaller in size than
motor vehicles, motorcycles maneuver more quickly and move in and out of traffic
rapidly at times. Because of their size and maneuverability, car drivers often don't notice
motorcycles in traffic.

Traffic Lane Area
Traffic conditions and road surface can determine the area within the lane that the
motorcycle may use. Oil spills, potholes, gravel or debris may require the motorcyclist to
adjust position within the lane. Although it may seem as though there is enough room in
the traffic lane for an automobile and a motorcycle, remember the motorcycle needs the
room to maneuver safely. Do not share the lane.
Motorcycles have equal rights to a full traffic lane area.

Look For Motorcycles
                                          Include motorcycles in your search pattern.
                                          Motorcycles are small and may be difficult to
                                          see. The failure of motorists to see motorcycles
                                          in traffic is the most common cause of crashes.
                                          Car drivers involved in collisions with
                                          motorcycles often do not see the cycle before the
                                          collision, or don’t see the motorcycle until too
                                          late to avoid the collision. Due to fewer
                                          motorcyclists on the road during the winter
                                          driving months, motorists become unaccustomed
                                          to seeing motorcycles in traffic. With spring
                                          approaching, motorcyclists again become a part
                                          of the traffic.




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                       Intersections
                       Intersections are the most likely and frequent place for a
                       motorcycle crash to occur. Most often the motorcycle is
                       proceeding straight when the oncoming vehicle makes a left turn in
                       front of the motorcycle. Watch for motorcycles before turning.
                       Because motorcycles are smaller, drivers tend to underestimate the
                       speed of the motorcycle. Yield the right-of-way and always use
                       your turn signals.
                       Motorcycles have equal rights at intersections and when turning.



Passing
A motorcycle lane is the same size as the automobile lane. Give the
motorcycle the lane area that you would give another vehicle. Do
not share the lane with the motorcycle when passing. To properly
operate a motorcycle the entire lane is used.
When the motorcycle is passing the automobile, maintain lane
position and speed, allowing the motorcycle to complete the pass
and assume proper lane position as quickly as possible.

Following Distance
Allow at least two seconds following distance between you and any
vehicle, especially the motorcycle. Don't tailgate. Dim headlights
when following all vehicles, including motorcycles.

Stopping Distance
In most cases, motorcycles can stop in a shorter distance than a car. However, the
motorcyclist's ability to stop quickly may also depend on the rider's experience and
training. Will you be able to stop quickly if the motorcycle suddenly must stop?

Drive Aware
                                       Illinois crash statistics indicate that approximately
                                       seven motorcyclists are fatally injured per each
                                       10,000 registered motorcycles. In comparison, two
                                       passenger car occupants are fatally injured per each
                                       10,000 registered automobiles. Because
                                       motorcyclists are more likely to be injured in a crash
                                       than other drivers, motorists must be aware of
motorcycles and share the road. More than 160,000 motorcycle riders have taken extra
training in Illinois to develop and increase their skills.




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Most motorcyclists and automobile drivers are interested in courteous and safe operation
of the vehicle they use. For every person to safely enjoy the highways, we must all share
the road.
In Case of a Crash
In the event of a crash, use caution. Do not remove the helmet. Seek emergency medical
assistance immediately. Moving the helmet or the motorcyclist could cause further injury
or death.




Personal protective equipment required by AFI 91-207, The US Air Force Traffic Safety
Program, for motorcycle, motor scooter, and moped operations on Air Force installations
and for operation by military personnel off Air Force installations

Operator and any passenger must wear a protective helmet
      NOTE: Helmets must meet, as a minimum, Department of Transportation (DoT)
      standards and be properly worn and fastened. Helmets may also meet other
      standards such as the Snell Memorial
  {Standard available at: http://www.smforg/standards/m2000std.html)

They are encouraged to affix reflective material to their helmets.




Operator and any passenger must wear impact resistant goggles or a full-face shield
on their helmet. EXCEPTION: Goggles or a full-face shield are not required for the
operator if the motorcycle is equipped with a windshield that is equal in height to or
above the top of the helmet of the properly upright-seated operator


                           Brightly colored or contrasting
                           vest or jacket as an outer upper
                           garment during the day and
                           reflective during the night. Outer
                           upper garment will be clearly
visible and not covered.

Long sleeved shirts or jackets, full-fingered motorcycle
gloves or mittens, and long trousers. Sturdy footwear.
Leather boots or over-the ankle shoes are strongly
encouraged.


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434 ARW / SE, motorcycle PPE requirements dtd 9 Sep 02




Statistics
There are no comprehensive national statistics available on the casualties from fishing
accidents. However, a large number of people are injured and killed each year as a result
of falls into the water, boating accidents, and careless handling of fish.

Drowning is the single greatest cause of death, and hooks inflict the most injuries in
fishing accidents. In 1971, the US Coast Guard’s annual statistical summary reported a
total of 360 fishing accidents resulting in 318 deaths. This included boating accidents in
which the boat was stationary or under water. Because of the many forms of fishing
(from pier, bank, boat, stream wading, ice fishing, and night fishing), the fisherman
should be aware of the hazards of a particular type of fishing.

Safe Practices
EQUIPMENT HANDLING – In general, barbed hooks and fishing rods rank first and
second respectively, as the most dangerous pieces of fishing tackle.

If possible, disassemble all fishing rods when carried to and from the fishing site. When
changing locations, carry rods with the reel and handle first through underbrush. Carry
fishing lines with hooks or plugs secured to a hook keeper on the rod or cover the barbs
with cork. When not in use, fishing hooks and lines are best carried in the reel instead of
dangling exposed from the end of the pole. When fishing, the rod poles or tips should be
pointed toward the water, unless you are casting.

FISHING MANEUVERS – Fishing close to other anglers
poses special problems because their movements may endanger
you. For example, some people are careless or get excited when
landing a fish and hook injuries result. Therefore, it is best to
keep plenty of distance between yourself and other fishermen
when possible.

Never cast over anyone’s head and make sure there is ample room for back casting. The
back swing of your cast should be at right angles to anyone nearby. Overhead casting
gives the most effective control, especially when fishing from a boat.

When landing the fish, ease it out of the water into a net or onto the bank. Jerking the fish
out of the water could cause a hook injury because a “sling shot” effect is created when a
taut line snaps back and could possibly drive the hook into the angler. Steer the fish to the
landing point, and lead the fish to you ultimate control through its own actions.

Hold the fish securely while removing the hook. Otherwise, the fish could flop about and


                                                                                          14
drive the hook or cluster of hooks into your hand or spear you with its dorsal fin or gill
cover. Bullheads and catfish require special handling. Their dorsal and pectoral fins have
bony extensions that are extremely tough and sharp. Therefore, you must be careful when
removing the hook to avoid an injured hand.

Large-spined fish should be gripped with the index and middle fingers by one pectoral
spine and the thumb being by the other pectoral spine. The palm should be placed
carefully on the fish’s head to avoid contact with the dorsal spine.
Contrary to their threatening appearance, catfish whiskers, or
barbell are harmless. Large game fish (pike, pickerel, and
muskellunge) have dozens of large sharp teeth as well as
hundreds of tiny ones. Therefore, never reach for the fish until it
has been played out completely.

When landing a fish while in a boat, the safest place to work is from the end of the boat.
A net will facilitate the boating of your fish. When the fish is exhausted, place the index
finger on the top of the fish’s head, with the thumb and middle finger in the gill opening,
expect when landing a pike. Once the fish is gripped, hold it securely until it is unhooked
with pliers or a hook disgorger, and released or strung on a stringer. A special gripping
glove containing small metal rivets in the palm has been designed to aid the angler.
Large game fish may be landed with a gaff hook, which should be used with care, unless
you wish to kill and keep the fish. To be effective, the gaff should be sharp and the point
should be covered when not in use. A gaff hook may be used when the fish is to be
released. In this case, the angler gaffs the fish through the fleshy part of its lower jaw.

                   HOOK INJURIES – The most common form of fishing injury results
                   when the point of the hook and the barb are embedded in the anger’s
                   flesh. If such an injury should occur, keep calm and seek medical
                   attention immediately. In such cases, blood poisoning, tetanus, or other
                   infections are possible.

There are times, however, when a doctor is not immediately available, and a wise
fisherman should be prepared for such emergencies. Safety equipment carried on a
fishing trip should include a pair of wire cutting pliers and first aid kit, which contains a
bottle of antiseptic.

In cases where the barb is not exposed, the hook should never be backed out of the
wound. This action would cause the barb to rip the flesh. Instead push the hook through
the skin in its natural arc until the point and barb protrude. Placing a block of wood over
the exit area will facilitate the breaking of skin. Then, with cutting pliers, cut the barbed
end off the hook. Remove the hook's shank and curve at the original point of entry .Let
the wound bleed for a short time. Then pour antiseptic into the wound and bandage it
with a sterile compress. The injured person should see a doctor as soon as possible.

WADING PRECAUTIONS - Fishing that requires wading needs additional precautions.
Never wade in a stream when you are alone. A slippery rock or a slimy tree limb could
cause an injurious fall.



                                                                                            15
Underwater shelves, holes, or other sudden drops into deeper water are common in
streams, lakes, and ponds. Test each step in advance. A wading staff is a practical tackle
addition. Don't trust flat, underwater rocks -they are usually very slippery. Slippery rocks
encountered below dams and fast-moving stream currents are especially dangerous
because the loss of footing or a twisted ankle could throw the fisherman into deep water
or rapids.

Also be alert for any submerged tripping hazards, such as stumps or roots. Test the
footing ahead by using a shuffle step. Always keep most of your weight on the foot that is
known to be on safe ground. Remember that swimming is extremely difficult (and often
impossible) when hip boots or waders are filled with water. Tread water by using your
arms, letting your legs hang until help comes. Try to slip the waders off, if possible.
Cleated, felt-soled waders, or boots give the maximum traction on slippery rock surfaces.
Pay attention to the "above water" hazards. Steeply- pitched banks or piers are slippery
when wet and only slightly less hazardous at other times. Falls may or may not be into
the water, but physical injury could still occur form an unexpected jar or twist.

FISHING FROM A BOAT - Many small boats are too powerful for the operator’s boat
                                   handling skills. Fast stops and starts, sharp turns, and
                                   high-speed operation, when moving from one fishing
                                   spot to another, are particularly hazardous practices.
                                   Capsizing and falls overboard account for the majority of
                                   boating and fishing problems. Boats and motors should
                                   be matched for their combined safe use. For example,
                                   high speeds are not necessarily desirable for trolling. Do
                                   not leave the shore area in a boat unless you are
thoroughly acquainted with the craft and can handle it in a sudden squall or storm. Don't
use a boat if it leaks or has any other defects. Watch and heed the weather reports. US
Coast Guard approved life saving devices for each person are required by law to be in the
boat. Provide the boat with an extra oar or paddle and bailing can.

Overloading the boat is dangerous because it reduces freeboard (the distance from the
gunwale or the edge of the boat) and the area per angler needed for casting. Load the boat
properly, keeping the center of gravity as low as possible. Improper loading makes the
boat unstable. The best place for the load (fishing tackle and supplemental equipment) is
in the middle bottom of the boat. A similar rule applies to passengers. Fishing partners
should never stand on the bow when traveling. However, the bow seat may be used if the
boat is balanced. When landing a fish, don't lean over the gunwale or stand in the boat;
maintain a low point of gravity.

One at a time is the rule for getting into and out of or moving around in the boat.
Attempting to change places in a boat when in deep water is courting disaster. Instead,
come into shore or bring the boat to shallow water first. When entering, leaving, or
moving around in a boat, hold both gunwales, bend low, and step along the keel. Do not
jump, leap, or lunge. Transfer your body weight smoothly in the boat from dock to boat,
or boat to dock, while your companions handle the weight changes. To facilitate these
movements, poles and gear may have to be moved out of the way temporarily.

If the boat should capsize or swamp, keep calm and hold onto some part of the boat. Most
boats will support several persons even though it is filled with water. A swamped boat,
right side up, will support about as many people as it will carry. These people should hold
on lightly to the outside of the boat, letting the water support most of their weight.



                                                                                          16
If a fishing partner falls overboard, help him grasp the edge of the boat. Guide him back
to the boat with an oar or a fishing pole if he is out of arms' reach. Then balance the boat
until the victim can climb aboard. The bow or stern (with the engine turned off) is the
safest point for climbing back into the boat.

Remember that anything that floats can be used as an emergency lifesaver or flotation
aid. A full gas can will prevent a dry tank in the middle of the lake or pond. Running
lights and slower speeds are required for safe boating at night, especially if you do not
know the waters. Anglers should also have marker lights on their boats to signal their
position.

PERSONAL PROTECTION -Insect repellents or head
nets are necessities for personal comfort when fishing on
some lakes at certain times of the year. Carry a compass
and/or maps of the area in which you are fishing. Make a
note of the landmarks around your departure site,
including those that can be seen at night as well as in the
day.

Reprinted with permission from the National Safety Council.



A camp, by definition, is a place in the country for vacationers or children, where tents,
trailers, or other temporary shelters are maintained. Federal, state, local, and private
campgrounds provide areas where the individual, family, or organization can find
facilities for recreation that are often organized and supervised such as swimming, riding,
boating, and hiking. Accessible roads leading to every corner of our great land, distance
shrinking automobiles, and mass-produced outdoor equipment has contributed to a vast
movement in camping.

Camping does not fall into a nationally organized category for classification; therefore,
no national accident statistics are available. Fatalities are grouped by the activity in which
the accident occurred. For example, drowning relates to swimming, falls relate to hiking
and climbing, and water transport relates to boating.

Accidents
The newcomer should familiarize him/herself with knowledge about animals, poisonous
plants, or violent storms at night. Some dangers can be eliminated; others can be avoided.
Any camper can make sure that a campsite is safe and that no fire or water hazards exist.
Dangers that cannot be removed, such as a dangerous undercurrent in a nearby stream,
can be recognized and avoided.

For unorganized camping groups, the American Camping Association recommends that
one adult should accompany every four child campers, and further advocates a maximum
of eight campers under one adult's supervision.

Pre-planning
In the beginning, the camper must know where he/she is going and the campsites
available in that area. If at all possible, the camper should make an advanced reservation
for the site. It becomes the camper's responsibility to know the layout, the rules, and what



                                                                                            17
is supplied at the site. Campground guidebooks are available from national and state
parks and from many private facilities.

Once the facilities are known, the camper must select the type of shelter (tent or trailer),
sleeping equipment (sleeping bags, cots, or blankets), and camping equipment (stoves,
lanterns, cooler, and eating utensils) to be used. Everything brought to the campsite
should be in good operating order and should function properly.

The time to make adjustments on equipment is before you start out. Thus, it is advisable
to take a "shakedown" trip in your backyard or any nearby area open to the camper. This
is especially recommended for the new camper or an experienced camper with new
equipment. This will give you a chance to set up a tent, try some cooking, and test all
equipment. Try it near home, where additional supplies are at hand, instead of in a
desolate place.

The Site
CAMPFIRE -Keep it safe; keep it clean. Use a designated fireplace when possible. If
you must devise a fireplace, select an area that is sheltered from the wind. Scrape away
the leaves and litter until you are down to bare soil, or better still, down to a rock
foundation. The amount of space to be cleared depends upon the size of the fire -be sure
the fire is a safe distance from campers, bedding, and woods. A cleared circle ten feet in
diameter is adequate space for a large fire. For a small fire, dig a shallow pit.

Do not build a fire near tree trunks, fallen trees, or overhanging
branches; they may smolder and catch fire in the middle of the
night or after you have left the camp. Be sure that you extinguish
matches! Break them in two before you throw them away -and
even then, do not throw them into dry leaves or grass.

When extinguishing your campfire, first let it die down. Then break up the coals (or
logs), spread the partly burned pieces, soak them again, stir, and soak once more; then
cover area with dirt or sand. Unless properly extinguished, fire can travel underground,
feeding on dry materials, and break out days later.

                                     WATER- Unless water supply sources are known or
                                     certified safe by a competent authority, a camper
                                     should bring along sufficient drinking water for the
                                     camping party. Cooking requirements should also be
                                     kept in mind. Widespread water pollution has
                                     rendered most natural sources unfit for human
                                     consumption.

GARBAGE - The safest way to dispose of garbage, cans, and bottles is to place them in
a trash can at the campground, or carry them out of the woods with you to a community
facility, gas station, or roadside refuse barrel.

SANITATION - The established campground provides toilets and washhouse facilities.
Explain unfamiliar facilities to the younger campers. Those who plan on camping in areas
without toilets should familiarize themselves with the techniques and tools to prepare a
field facility.




                                                                                           18
Equipment
FOOTWEAR- Shoes, sandals, or moccasins should be worn at the campsite. Bare feet
can become sore or cut from glass, cans, sharp rocks, or embers.

AXE- A small hand axe will help split kindling. Handle it with care and keep it sheathed
and away from children. The sharper the hand axe, the safer it is. A dull edge will bounce
and deflect, while a sharp axe sticks where it strikes.

KNIFE- A knife is often useful to a camper. A strong pocketknife will handle most of
your camp needs. A sheath knife is dangerously tempting to children.

FLASHLIGHT- Make sure the batteries are in good
condition. This piece of equipment is handy for
emergencies on the road, around the campsite, and for
signaling in the dark.

COOKING UTENSILS - Pans containing hot water or food should be hung or set
securely over the fire so that jarring will not upset them and scald campers.

Activities
SWIMMING - Swim in officially designated areas. If you are unfamiliar with the water,
avoid swimming unless someone who knows the area can assure you that the water is
uncontaminated and free from rapid currents, whirlpools, deep holes, rocks, and other
hazards. Never swim alone or when tired.

BOATING -Training children in the operation of small craft, before allowing them out
alone, is essential. Responsible supervision is necessary in this activity. Approved Coast
Guard life preservers should be worn by youngsters and non-swimmers.

Before leaving shore, check the boat for leaks, defects, and an approved life preserver for
each passenger, as well as for capacity rating of the boat.

                    HIKING -Before setting out, check with the ranger or custodian to
                    find out about places of interest. Proper equipment, footwear, and
                    clothing are advisable. The terrain and climate will help you evaluate
                    the situation.

                    Follow trails and trail markers. Don't try to establish new trails unless
                    you are experienced in hiking and have a map and compass. Travel in
                    groups of three or more; stay together, check up on each other, rest
                    often, and don't risk taking on too much.

FIREARMS- Most camp areas prohibit the use of firearms. If a firearm is brought into
your site, keep the gun locked in your car or in a safe place.

If You become Lost
It is no disgrace to get lost, but don't become frightened and stay lost. You will be
missed. Sit down and try to figure out where you made your mistake. If you think you
missed a turn, backtrack a short distance. If you can't be sure of your bearings, wait for
someone to find you.




                                                                                             19
The universal distress signal is a group of three shots, three blasts on a whistle, three
smoky fires, etc. The simplest precaution is to carry a compass, a map of the area, and a
shrill whistle; you soon run out of wind and voice if you shout to attract attention.

                   Animals and Plants
                   FAMILY PETS -Many campground casualty reports show that the
                   greatest bite danger is from other camper's pets. Teach your children
                   not to rush up to the dog at the neighbor's camp. Consider leaving your
                   pet at a home kennel while vacationing.


WILD ANIMALS - Obey the signals and verbal warnings of rangers and guides. Before
going into an isolated area, ask a local responsible source about any wildlife you might
encounter. If chances are that you'll be camping with grizzlies and black bears nearby; try
to find a different spot for your sleeping bag.

Enjoy watching wildlife from a distance. Hungry and curious raccoons, possums, skunks,
and porcupines often visit campsites. A flashlight, fire, beating on a pan, or yelling
usually will scare them away. Keep food in a closed car so it cannot be smelled.

SNAKES- Snakes are not aggressive; they try to move
away as you approach, so you'll seldom see one.
Nonetheless, first aid knowledge and a snakebite kit should
be included in planning trips into areas known to have
snakes.

INSECTS - To lessen the torment from insects, spray clothing and the inside of the tent
with repellent. Avoid getting it in the eyes. A breezy campsite is more likely to be free of
bugs. A smudge fire or netting is helpful in infested locations.

Certain flies, hornets, and bees are attracted at mealtimes by sweet foods and fruits.
Placing rinds and bits of food well away from the table may divert them from your plate.

POISONOUS PLANTS - Avoid poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. The itching
blistering, and infection they cause can spoil an entire trip. The best means of preventing
skin injury from poisonous plants is to learn to recognize these plants and avoid them.
Wear socks pulled over trouser legs to keep plants from touching ankles. Wear gloves to
protect hands. Take care in removing garments because poison may be transferred from
infected clothing to bare skin. If plants are known to have touched the skin, wash with
soap as soon as possible after contact.




                                                                              Poison Sumac
        Poison Ivy                       Poison Oak
                                                                                        20
Seasonal Exposure and Weather
SUMMER- Sunburn is excessive exposure to the sun's rays. Sunstroke, a condition
produced by overexposure to the rays, is marked by convulsion, coma, and high skin
temperature. Sunburn may occur even on a cloudy day, and reflection of the sun's rays on
water and sand increases the intensity of the burn. Gradual exposure to the sun and
application of sunscreen (liquid or cream) will result in a protective tan.

WEATHER- Before you leave camp, turn on your car radio or portable radio for local
weather warnings. If caught in the open during a lightning storm, never seek shelter under
a lone tree or beneath the tallest tree in the woods. In an open area, get into a ditch or low
place and wait it out. Flash floods and overflowing creeks also are hazards.
Reprinted with permission from the National Safety Council.



Cooking outdoors was once only a summer activity shared with family and friends. Now
more than half of Americans say they are cooking outdoors year round. So whether the
snow is blowing or the sun is shining brightly, it's important to follow food safety
guidelines to prevent harmful bacteria from multiplying and causing food borne illness.
Use these simple guidelines for grilling food safely.

From the Store: Home First
When shopping, buy cold food like meat and poultry last, right before checkout. Separate
raw meat and poultry from other food in your shopping cart. To guard against cross-
contamination -- which can happen when raw meat or poultry juices drip on other food --
put packages of raw meat and poultry into plastic bags.

Plan to drive directly home from the grocery store. You may want to take a cooler with
ice for perishables. Always refrigerate perishable food within 2 hours. Refrigerate within
1 hour when the temperature is above 90 °F. At home, place meat and poultry in the
refrigerator immediately. Freeze poultry and ground meat that won't be used in 1 or 2
days; freeze other meat within 4 to 5 days.

Defrost Safely
Completely defrost meat and poultry before grilling so it cooks more evenly. Use the
refrigerator for slow, safe thawing or thaw sealed packages in cold water. You can
microwave defrost if the food will be placed immediately on the grill.




                                                                                           21
Marinating
Meat and poultry can be marinated for several hours or days to tenderize or add flavor.
Marinate food in the refrigerator, not on the counter. If some of the marinade is to be
used as a sauce on the cooked food, reserve a portion of the marinade before putting raw
meat and poultry in it. However, if the marinade used on raw meat or poultry is to be
reused, make sure to let it come to a boil first to destroy any harmful bacteria.

Transporting
When carrying food to another location, keep it cold to minimize bacterial growth. Use
an insulated cooler with sufficient ice or ice packs to keep the food at 40 °F or below.
Pack food right from the refrigerator into the cooler immediately before leaving home.
Keep the cooler in the coolest part of the car.

Keep Cold Food Cold
Keep meat and poultry refrigerated until ready to use. Only take out the meat and poultry
that will immediately be placed on the grill.

When using a cooler, keep it out of the direct sun by placing it in the shade or shelter.
Avoid opening the lid too often, which lets cold air out and warm air in. Pack beverages
in one cooler and perishables in a separate cooler.

Keep Everything Clean
Be sure there are plenty of clean utensils and platters. To prevent food borne illness, don't
use the same platter and utensils for raw and cooked meat or poultry. Harmful bacteria
present in raw meat and poultry and their juices can contaminate safely cooked food.

If you're eating away from home, find out if there's a source of clean water. If not, bring
water for preparation and cleaning. Or pack clean cloths, and wet towelettes for cleaning
surfaces and hands.

Precooking
Precooking food partially in the microwave, oven, or stove is a good way of reducing
grilling time. Just make sure that the food goes immediately on the preheated grill to
complete cooking.

                                          Cook Thoroughly
                                          Cook food to a safe internal temperature to
                                          destroy harmful bacteria. Meat and poultry
                                          cooked on a grill often browns very fast on the
                                          outside. Use a food thermometer to be sure the
                                          food has reached a safe internal temperature.
                                          Whole poultry should reach 180 °F; breasts, 170
                                          °F. Hamburgers made of ground beef should
                                          reach 160 °F; ground poultry, 165 °F. Beef, veal,
                                          and lamb steaks, roasts and chops can be cooked


                                                                                           22
to 145 °F. All cuts of pork should reach 160 °F.

NEVER partially grill meat or poultry and finish cooking later.

Reheating
When reheating fully cooked meats like hot dogs, grill to 165 °F or until steaming hot.

Keep Hot Food Hot
After cooking meat and poultry on the grill; keep it hot until served - at 140 °F or
warmer.

Keep cooked meats hot by setting them to the side of the grill rack, not directly over the
coals where they could overcook. At home, the cooked meat can be kept hot in a warm
oven (approximately 200 °F), in a chafing dish or slow cooker, or on a warming tray.

                                          Serving the Food
                                          When taking food off the grill, use a clean
                                          platter. Don't put cooked food on the same
                                          platter that held raw meat or poultry. Any
                                          harmful bacteria present in the raw meat juices
                                          could contaminate safely cooked food.

                                          In hot weather (above 90 °F), food should never
                                          sit out for more than 1 hour.

Leftovers
Refrigerate any leftovers promptly in shallow containers. Discard any food left out more
than 2 hours (1 hour if temperatures are above 90 °F).

Safe Smoking
Smoking is cooking food indirectly in the presence of a fire. It can be done in a covered
grill if a pan of water is placed beneath the meat on the grill; and meats can be smoked in
a "smoker," which is an outdoor cooker especially designed for smoking foods. Smoking
is done much more slowly than grilling, so less tender meats benefit from this method,
and a natural smoke flavoring permeates the meat. The temperature in the smoker should
be maintained at 250 to 300 °F for safety.

Use a food thermometer to be sure the food has reached a safe internal temperature.




                                                                                          23
Pit Roasting
Pit roasting is cooking meat in a large, level hole dug in the earth. A hardwood fire is
built in the pit, requiring wood equal to about 2 1/2 times the volume of the pit. The
hardwood is allowed to burn until the wood reduces and the pit is half filled with burning
coals. This can require 4 to 6 hours burning time.
Cooking may require 10 to 12 hours or more and is difficult to estimate. A meat
thermometer must be used to determine the meat's safety and doneness. There are many
variables such as outdoor temperature, the size and thickness of the meat, and how fast
the coals are cooking.




    Wash hands before, during, and after
     handling any food, especially raw meat
     and poultry.
    Preheat the barbeque before starting to
     cook and thoroughly clean the grill using a
     wire brush.
    Keep raw foods away from cooked foods
     and do not use the same plate or tray for
     uncooked and cooked meats.
    Keep meats, salad, and perishable foods in
     the refrigerator until you are ready to use
     them.
    Use a meat thermometer to ensure that all
     meat and poultry has reached a safe internal cooking temperature:
         o Poultry 75° C / 165° F
         o Ground meat 68° C / 155° F
         o Beef 60° C / 140° F
         o Pork other than ground 66° C / 160° F
    Clean all cooking and eating surfaces and utensils with warm water and soap
     followed by a mild bleach and water solution.



                                  Pack perishable or potentially unsafe food in a
                                    cooler packed with ice or freezer packs. Cold drinks
                                    in cans or cartons also help to keep food cold.
                                  Transport coolers in the passenger area of the
                                    vehicle, not in the hot trunk.
                                  At the picnic, remove the cooler from your vehicle.
                                    Keep the covered cooler in the shade. Remove food
     just prior to serving and return perishable foods to the cooler as soon as possible.
    Ensure that raw foods are cooked thoroughly. Burgers should be cooked until they
     are gray-brown in color and the juices run clear. Chicken should be cooked until it


                                                                                        24
     is no longer pink and juices run clear. Steaks can be cooked rare, but be sure that
     the outside is seared.
    Discard perishable leftovers at the end of the day.
    Wash your hands often using soap and warm water, being sure to apply friction.
     Rinse and sanitize dishcloths often.
    Use of tablespoon of bleach in one gallon of water to create a solution to sanitize
     surfaces.




According to the National Safety Council, during the past 37 years, an average of 90
people per year have been struck and killed by lightning. Florida, Texas, and North
Carolina consistently rank as the top three states for lighting related deaths.

May 3, 1998, CNN broadcasted that one soldier was killed and five more were hurt after
lightning hit Fort Dix. "Early morning lightning struck tents holding National Guardsmen
participating in weekend training Sunday, killing one and injuring five others -two
critically. The lightning struck in a remote, wooded area of Fort Dix where three small
sleeping tents were grouped together," said post spokesman, David Moore. "The men
were either sleeping or just getting up,"
When camping this season, please use the following guidelines and have a safe and
enjoyable camping experience:
    Prior to setting out on any camping trip, ensure that you have an operating battery
     powered radio in your possession.
    Let someone know where you will be camping, when you are leaving, and your
     anticipated return day and time.
    Check the radio station in the local area for advance weather as well as daily
     weather reports. If the skies start to darken, tune in to the local station and keep
     the radio on for weather updates.
    If thunderstorms or high winds are predicted, do not stay in your tent or camper.
     Evacuate the area if possible.
    If you are caught in a sudden storm, get into your vehicle and move away from
     the campsite. An
     enclosed vehicle is one of
     the safest places to be in
     an electrical storm.
    If high winds or tornado
     activity is forecasted, try
     to find a depression or
     ravine to get into. If you
     are leaving in your
     vehicle and spot a
     tornado, do not try to
     outrun it. Get out of
     your vehicle, lie in a
     depression, ditch, or
     ravine and wait for the
     tornado to pass.
    Stay away from power lines during any storm.


                                                                                       25
The sunshine, warmth, and long days of the coming season provide a wealth of
opportunities for recreation and relaxation, but, when mixed with alcohol, these activities
can turn dangerous and even deadly.

"Alcohol consumption results in a gradual dulling of reactions of the brain and nervous
system, turning normal situations into potentially dangerous ones," says Dr. Nicholas A.
Pace, M.D., a board member of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug
Dependence, Inc. in New York City. "It causes a loss of inhibitions, which leads to
aggressiveness, poor judgment, and reckless movements in the water while boating,
swimming, and diving. It can cause faulty coordination and disorientation in the water,
and impair a person's swallowing and breathing reflexes --both of which are essential to
swimming.
The following statistics underscore the negative consequences of alcohol consumption:
    Drinking may be a factor in 80% of boating fatalities, says the National
     Transportation Safety Board. According to the National Safety Council, boating
     accidents are this country's second-largest cause of transportation injuries.
    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is
     involved in an estimated 38% of drowning deaths. Data assembled recently for
     the Surgeon General shows that this number rises to between 40 and 50% for
     young males.
    40-50% of all diving injury victims consumed alcoholic beverages, according to
     the same report.

For heavy drinkers, alcohol consumption during the summer months can contribute to
heat prostration. This dehydration also can increase your chances of having a stroke,
particularly for individuals with high blood pressure. Hypoglycemia and heart rhythm
irregularities are additional dangers of drinking on a hot, sunny day.

With so much fun to be had, why let alcohol put a chill on your summer? People under
the age of 21, drivers, and people planning water-related recreational activities should
stay away from alcohol. Even those who observe the Federal government's
recommendations for moderate drinking (two drinks per day for men, one for women)
should bear in mind that alcohol may affect them differently during their favorite
summertime activity.



One activity often associated with the summer season is lawn care.
Your eye doctor wants you to follow these safety precautions when
mowing your lawn this summer:
    Alwavs wear eye protection when lawn mowing. Many
     objects that are projected from lawnmowers are often unseen
     before starting the task. Please check with your eye doctor to
     obtain polycarbonate eye protection. Polycarbonate goggles
     are available at reasonable prices, can be designed to offer


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  UV protection, and accommodate prescription lenses.
 Regular eyeglasses, sunglasses, and contact lenses are NOT adequate protection
  against debris from lawnmowers.
 Twigs, mulch, and flying rocks thrown from lawn mowers, weed and edge
  trimmers, and other garden tools can cause serious eye and body injuries. It is
  wise to check your yard first (before lawn mowing) for projectiles and clear them
  away yourself; even if you are wearing eye protection.
 Keep children indoors when mowing the lawn, and teach them to stay away when
  you are handling yard tools.
 Keep children away from all lawn mowers, both
  push and riding mowers. Each year, children
  are injured or killed due to lawn mower
  accidents. Never allow a child to ride or operate
  a lawn mower.
 Before refueling gasoline-powered equipment,
  turn off the machine and let it cool first.
 Refuel outside and wipe up any spills
  immediately. Move the mower at least 10 feet
  away from the fueling area before starting the
  engine again.
 Do not smoke when using gasoline or gasoline-
  powered equipment.




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     1. Read the warning or caution label carefully and follow all directions.
     2. Always buy from a reliable dealer.
     3. Always light outdoors away from combustible material, buildings, and plants.
     4. Water.
     5. Light only one firework at a time.
     6. Never try to re-light a firework.
     7. No
     8. Wait for 15-20 minutes and then dump the firework in a bucket of water and let it
        soak,
     9. If at all possible, don't store fireworks. If you have to store them, store them in a
        cool, dry place and keep them out of the reach of children.
     10. Soak them in a bucket of water before disposing of them in a trashcan.
     11. Carry fireworks in their original bag or box.
     12. No part of your body should be over the firework while lighting it.
     13. Eye protection should be worn when lighting fireworks.
     14. Illegal explosives are really dangerous and should never be used.
     15. It is never safe to point or throw fireworks at other people or animals.
     16. Ask a reliable seller or your local police or fire department.
     17. Close adult supervision is always needed.
     18. One. All other fireworks should be kept at a safe distance so they don't
         accidentally become lighted.
     19. Except for sparklers, a punk* should be used to light fireworks. A match or lighter
         is required for sparklers.
     20. No. Have a designated person to light them.




* Punk – any prepared soft material that will smolder and can be used to light fireworks.




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