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					Macedon Ranges
Literacy Co-ordinator’s
meeting

Wednesday   4th   May 2011
Visit from Pat
Calendar to be passed around as we work



Afterschool Meeting Focus
P–2-
3- 5 -
5 – 9- Friends and Books (Where)

NAPLAN
• Sampling and analysis of results
• Status of the Loddon
  Mallee Literacy
  Strategy in Schools:
  At A Glance
Complete form at your table write the colour if you don’t
have the coloured pencil or texta!!
       From last time
           Writing moderation
At table discuss what you have tried with moderation.
1. What did you do?
2. What was most useful?
3. What is happening with the information?
Words in 10 Minutes

Discuss at table
What area did you try it with? (Grade Level)
How many times did you do it?
Use the sheet

Positive        Negative          Interesting
GOOD RESOURCE

 Report to rest of group
    Show and Tell
    3 minutes each
Speaking and Listening in
the Classroom
P- 10
Loddon Mallee Region
 Session Outline: Overview of the
 knowledge we need as professionals.

•   Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
•   Knowledge of the Learner
•   Speaking and Listening in the Classroom
•   Partnerships

Note: This professional learning module will be delivered in two
  sessions
Today and 22nd June 2011
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning

 Oral language learning supports learning across
                  the curriculum
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
Speech and Language
• Speech = how you say/pronounce the sounds in
  words with your tongue, lips and teeth
    – “The Sounds of Speech- the ages and stages of children’s
      speech”, Speech Pathology Australia handout
    – References\2.3_The_Sound_of_Speech.pdf


• Language = how you understand/say a series of
  words in a sentence to tell an idea
    – “Learning to speak and listen- what to expect in the first five
      years”, Speech Pathology Australia handout
    – References\2.2_Learning_to_speak_and_listen.pdf
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
Why is Oral Language Important?
• Oral language underpins literacy development
• Making meaning in speaking, listening, reading and
  writing depends on underlying oral language abilities
• Oral language is the primary mode of learning in the
  classroom
• Oral language involves thinking, knowledge and skills
• Oral language is for social interaction and belonging to
  social groups
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
What is Oral Language?
• Receptive/Listening
  Understanding what is said to us

• Expressive/Speaking
  The words we use while speaking

• Social Communication
  The choices that we make about the appropriate use of
  oral language: when to speak, which words to use, how
  to say them
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
Developing Knowledge of Oral Language
By the time students start school they
• Have learned the meanings of many words
• Use their understanding of how words are used
  together to make meaningful sentences
• Know that intonation and body language add meaning
  to the message
                                           9
Children in kindergarten will learn up to __
                                    _____
new words per day to as many as 14 000
words in total by age 6. By Year 1 children
are capable of understanding up to approx
20 000 words.
______
Ref p37 LEP
Betty Hart & Todd Risley, 1995
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
Developing Oral Language Strategies
Processing strategies include
• Attending
• Anticipating
• Checking and confirming

Comprehension strategies are similar for oral language
  and reading and include
• Making connections
• Predicting
• Summarising etc
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
Developing Oral Language Awareness
Metacognition
Students need to learn how to apply and control their
  knowledge and strategies both in their use of oral
  language and their learning.
Eg. Processing skills. During formal talk using eye
  contact, adapting volume to situation, poise/body
  language in different situations.
    Comprehension. Listen to gain information or listening
  critically to a variety of speakers.

What impact does this have for us as teachers?
What are implications for our multicultural society?
                Turn and talk.
Definitions
•  Phonemes: are the individual sounds each letter of
  the alphabet makes.
• Phonics: is the relationship between letters and
  sounds in written word form.
• Phonemic awareness is having an understanding
  that each word is made up of a series of phonemes or
  sounds.
• Phonological awareness is the ability to tune into the
  sound system of our language.
http://www.olsel.catholic.edu.au/
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
What is Phonological Awareness?
Phonological awareness is the ability to ‘tune into’ the
  sound system of language
Phonological awareness includes:
    –   Word awareness
    –   Identifying syllables
    –   Hearing and saying rhyming words
    –   Identifying individual sounds in words
    –   Blending sounds and segmenting sounds
A child’s level of Phonological Awareness is an
  important predictor of their later reading
  development (Love & Reilly)
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning
Developing Phonological Awareness

“The ability to hear sounds within words is essential to
  reading and writing successfully.”
NZ Ministry of Education. Sound Sense


The development of phonological awareness underpins
  the ability to decode and encode print.

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Foundation
copy

How is this learned or acquired?
What are the implications for our ELL students?
KNOWLEDGE OF THE LEARNER
      Knowledge of the Learner

Students arrive at school with a range of oral language
  experiences. Their ability and willingness to engage in
  classroom talk can be affected by many different
  factors.

• Turn & Talk
•   Video 1
•   Video 2
Knowledge of the Learner cont’

Most students in years 5-10 are experienced users of
  spoken language who have learned to communicate in
  an increasingly complex range of settings and
  situations

They continue to develop an increasing body of
  knowledge, life experiences and awareness of how
  language works throughout their school years and
  beyond.
Knowledge of the Learner cont

• By middle years, students are exposed to an increasing
  variety of oral language contexts, eg. Music, tv,
  electronic games
• Their language and understandings are shaped by
  peers, technology and the media.
  . Movie
   Turn and talk.
   How can teachers bridge the gap between
  conversational competence and academic language
  necessary for school based learning?
Knowledge of the Learner cont.
• Positive, caring relationships
• Knowing each student’s cultural, linguistic and early
  childhood background helps to recognise strengths and
  challenges
• Effective teachers identify individual student needs
  around oral language and are able to differentiate to
  meet individual needs
Oral language underpins all learning.... there must be
  a sense of urgency

What is in place to support teachers knowledge of learners?
Knowledge of the Learner cont.
Formative and Summative Assessment
The garden analogy
If we think of our children as plants …

Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply
  measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyse
  measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth
  of the plants.

Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of
   feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs -
   directly affecting their growth.
Shirley Clarke “Unlocking Formative Assessment” ( 2001
Knowledge of the Learner cont.
Oral Language Assessment Process
1.Know expected learning outcomes
 Lyn Watts scope and sequence, VELS focus statements National curriculum
The Key Characteristics of Effective Literacy Teaching P-6 (PDF - 1.2Mb)
The Key Characteristics of Effective Literacy Teaching 7 - 10 (PDF - 2.7Mb)
2. Gather data (conversation, video, story re-tell, reading
   and writing conferences)
3. Analyse and interpret data
4. Make decisions about goal setting
5. Plan for explicit instruction literacy plan, activity plan
6. Personalise
Knowledge of the Learner cont.
English Online
• Oral language and listening comprehension
• Phonemic awareness and phonics
• Reading accuracy, comprehension and concepts of
  print
• Writing and spelling
• Sample finalised assessment report
    – ..\References\assessment\eoifinasstsamplerpt.pdf
• Other links & demonstrate use
Knowledge of the Learner cont.

Other Oral Language Assessment Tools
    • Language Support Program. DEECD
         • ..\References\assessment\LSP Observation profile.doc
    • Record of Oral Language
    Trish
    • Let’s Talk About It. Mondo. US (instructions)
    • Informal assessment, structured assessment (reading) movie
    • Self assessment and peer assessment
         • Am I being a good listener?
         • Checklists, rubrics
         • Link to Strath self assess.. Reading fluency – simone
         Communication
         http://vels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/support/charts/communication.ht
           ml#listening
Speaking and Listening in the Classroom



Learning occurs in a sea of talk



              James Britton
           English Educationalist
 Effective teachers continually make strategic
 decisions, respond to instructional needs as
  flexible problem solvers, and monitor their
students’ progress. They design learning tasks
 that are carefully aligned with their students’
            identified learning needs.
               Ref p 47 Learning Through Talk
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING
Description
 Quality conversations take place with students daily, using
 focussed dialogue as the catalyst for teaching and learning.

 Oral language requires formal and informal experiences to
 convey and receive meaning.

 It involves the development and demonstration of knowledge
 about the appropriate oral language for particular audience and
 occasions.

 Speaking and listening involves whole class, small group and
 individual instruction, and promotes talk with and by individual
 students.




                                                                    26
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING
Classroom Indicators- Instruction
• Rich, purposeful speaking and listening opportunities, which are
   both spontaneous and intentional, are provided so students can
   formulate and articulate ideas Socratic Circles

•   Students experience a broad range of speaking and listening
    activities e.g. public speaking, individual, group and whole class
    discussion, reports, interviews etc

•   ‘Talk’ is integral to all domains – eg. reasoning, analysing,
    debating, persuading, explaining, and reflecting

•   Vocabulary is intentionally developed to enable students to
    clearly express opinions, understandings and intentions (Movie –
    Year 10 Science)




                                                                         27
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING
Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued)

•   Students are involved in presentations both formal and informal.
    They are aware of the range of contexts, purposes and
    audiences (Movie)

•   Students listen attentively to factual spoken texts and identify
    topics, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions,
    contribute information and justify opinions

•   The best speaking and listening behaviours are modelled by both
    students and teachers e.g. eye contact, intonation, expression




                                                                       28
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING
Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued)

• Students give their own talks and presentations. They
  learn from and build on, the ideas of others
• Students participate in story telling experiences
• Teachers observe and use student experiences to
  initiate and develop further conversations




                                                          29
Communicating and justifying
GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY


 Role of the
  teacher




                         MODELLING                  SHARING                    GUIDING                 APPLYING
                             The teacher         The teacher continues     The teacher provides       The teacher offers
                          demonstrates and        to demonstrate the       scaffolds for students        support and
                         explains the literacy       literacy focus,         to use the literacy     encouragement when
                         focus being taught.     encouraging students          focus. Teacher             necessary
    DEGREE OF CONTROL




                         This is achieved by      to contribute ideas       provides feedback
                          thinking aloud the        and information
                        mental processes and
                        modelling the reading,
                                                                                                      The student works
                        writing, speaking and
                                                                                                       independently to
                               listening
                                                                            Students work with          apply the use of
                                                                           help from the teacher         literacy focus
                                                  Students contribute      and peers to practise
                                                   ideas and begin to      the use of the literacy                      45
                             The student         practise the use of the           focus
                            participates by         literacy focus in
                         actively attending to   whole class situations
                         the demonstrations



                                                                                                               Pearson & Gallagher
 Role of the
  student
GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY
  I’m having a bit of trouble joining
    in today...I wonder what would
                                                       If I’m having a bit of trouble joining
                                                       in...what should I say and do? Do
     happen if I just went and sat                     you think I should ask or should I
         there. What would I do if                     just go and sit there? How would I
 someone just came and sat in my                       ask? Would I ask before i sat down
  group without saying anything? I                                                                        Has this happened
                                                       in the group?                                      to you before?
 would feel a little uncomfortable I
      think. Perhaps I should say                                                                         Remember when
    something...I think I might say
      Role of the                                                                                         we talked about
       ‘Can I join your discussion
        teacher                                                                                           ways to join a
   group?’ and see what happens.                                                                          group? Which
                                                                                                          strategy are you
                            MODELLING                  SHARING                      GUIDING                         try? Did
                                                                                                          going toAPPLYING
                                The teacher         The teacher continues       The teacher provides      that work for you
                                                                                                                  The teacher offers
                             demonstrates and        to demonstrate the         scaffolds for students    last time?support and
                            explains the literacy       literacy focus,           to use the literacy            encouragement when
                            focus being taught.     encouraging students            focus. Teacher                    necessary
       DEGREE OF CONTROL




                            This is achieved by      to contribute ideas         provides feedback
                             thinking aloud the        and information
                           mental processes and
                           modelling the reading,
                                                                                                                  The student works
                           writing, speaking and
                                                                                                                   independently to
                                  listening
                                                                                 Students work with                 apply the use of
                                                                                help from the teacher                literacy focus
                                                     Students contribute        and peers to practise
                                                      ideas and begin to        the use of the literacy
                                The student         practise the use of the             focus
                               participates by         literacy focus in
                            actively attending to   whole class situations
                            the demonstrations                                   Are you happy with the way
                                                                                 you joined the group today?
                                                                                 Why do you think it worked
                                                                                                                           Pearson & Gallagher
    Role of the                                                                  for you?
     student
Research
• In one study of 1 151 classroom discussions occurring
  in over 200 eighth and ninth grade classrooms:
  - 93.31% (1074 discussions) were completely
  monologic in nature. (teacher centred)
  - of the 6.69% (77) that included ‘dialogic episodes’
  (moments when students directed the conversation),
   those episodes lasted for an average of 15 seconds.
                                 (Nystrand et al. 2003)
               LITERACY ELEMENTS

• Read Aloud            SPEAKING &    • Write Aloud
                         LISTENING




• Shared Reading                      • Shared Writing

• Guided Reading                      • Guided Writing

• Independent Reading   OBSERVATION
                             &        • Independent Writing
                        ASSESSMENT
Oral Language in the Classroom cont

• Paper folding activity
  How do we interpret instructions differently?
Oral Language in the Classroom cont

Vocabulary


      One must be drenched in words, literally
     soaked in them, to have the right ones form
    themselves into the proper pattern at the right
                      moment.
                                      - Hart Crane
Oral Language in the Classroom cont


Vocabulary
  Students need a large vocabulary to manage the
  demands of school learning because words are the
  tools we use for thinking as well as communicating.

Vocabulary is highly correlated with general language
 ability and is considered to be a predictor of academic
    success and competence in reading and writing
Oral Language in the Classroom cont.
Vocabulary
Considerations for teaching
• Know which words to teach
• “Knowing” a word
• Developing word consciousness
• Learning about word families
• Understanding Grammar
• Developing Question structures
• Replacing with Pronouns

Activity: Up
Word Consciousness
To deliberately build word consciousness, teachers
  should:
• Emphasise learning new words - using elaborate and
  extended language throughout the day
• Draw attention to specific words, their meanings, and
  their use
• Use interactive Read Aloud and good literature –
  EVERY DAY!
• Communicate their own appreciation and love of words
• Have fun with words and language (word play)
LOVE & REILLY – Expanding vocabulary
• Vocabulary is crucial to comprehension.
• All words can activate a huge schema of meaning.
  Try these:
   – Restaurant                        the menu, past
                                    experiences, cuisine,
   – Fine                         service, company, chefs,
                                  location, transport, wine,
                                   expenses, celebration,
                                         babysitting

                      weather?,
                      penalty?,
                       health?,
                      success?
                         size?
                       texture?
Oral Language in the Classroom cont

Vocabulary
It should never be assumed that students understand the
    language of learning.

There are many words across the curriculum that can be
  confusing to students because they have multiple
  meanings and can require different responses, eg
  illustrate can mean draw but it can also mean describe
  in words.
• Words with unfamiliar meanings in new contexts
  volume, property, solution Movie
• Words that sound similar but have different meanings
  symmetry/cemetery accept/except
• Words or concepts that are unfamiliar
   syndicate, permission, safety
• Different ways of giving instructions.
Oral Language in the Classroom cont

• “Educators and researchers have commonly argued
  that the core difference between the language used
  outside the classroom and the language required in
  school activities is one of contextualisation”
   Learning Through Talk p20

• Teachers need to be explicit and to make logical
  connections because they cannot rely on familiarity to
  convey meaning
Building Academic Language
• Academic language often demands higher-level
  thinking skills about abstract concepts and draws on
  deeper and more subtle knowledge of analysis and
  problem solving.
• Think about the more academic language associated
  with more formal learning contexts – discussions,
  investigations, debates, presentations
• Abstract concepts – conversation, justice
• Language structures – introduction, syllable, metaphor
• General Academic Vocabulary – success criteria,
  identify
• Specialised vocabulary of subject areas
Selecting Vocabulary To Teach
Words can be divided into three tiers.
Not all words require instruction equally


                             Tier 3 words are low frequency of use and limited to
                             one domain – teach on need basis

                             Tier 2 words are high frequency and found in a variety
                             of domains. They have a high impact on verbal function

                                 Tier 1 words usually. do not have multiple meanings
                                 and include sight words
Tier 2 words

•   Importance and utility–words that are characteristic of mature language
    users and appear frequently across a variety of domains.

•   Instructional potential–words that can be worked with in a variety of ways so
    that students can build rich representations of them and of their connections
    to other words and concepts.

•   Conceptual understanding–words for which students understand the
    general concept but provide precision and specificity in describing the
    concept
•   Beck, McGowan, et al (2002)
4. Partnerships
•   Teacher, student, parent
•   Student, student
•   School teams and leadership
•   Regional level supports
•   Student Support Services- psychologists, social
    workers, speech pathologists, visiting teachers
•   Community and Education- Early Childhood providers
•   Community libraries
•   Cultural and sporting groups
•   Government Initiatives eg Best Start
What am I going to do with this next tomorrow...next week... Next month?
“Now, now
Billy…How could
you have seen a
monster if you
can’t even
describe him”
References
• Victorian Essential Learning Standards
• Learning Through Talk. Ministry of education New
  Zealand
• Language Support program. DEECD
• Love & Reilly newsletters
• Lyn Watts Only The Brave Should Teach
• Australian Curriculum. DRAFT
• http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachle
  arn/student/keycharliteracyp6.pdf
• http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachle
  arn/student/keycharliteracy7-10.pdf

				
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