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					                                REFERENCECOPY
                            Do Not Remove from the L.;bmry
                             U. S. Fish and Wildlife fervirz
                              National Wetlands Rese~rchCen+r
Blologlcal Report   82(11.87)    700 Cajun Dome Boule\lard       TR EL-82-4
January 1989                    Lafayette, Louisiana 75535



Species Profiles: Life Histories and
Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes
and Invertebrates (North Atlantic)

WINTER FLOUNDER




                                                   Coastal Ecology Group
Fish and Wildlife Service                    Waterways Experiment Station
U.S. Department of the Interior               U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                                                                            B i o l o g i c a l Report 82(11.87)
                                                                            TR EL-82-4
                                                                            January 1989




Species P r o f i l e s :     L i f e H i s t o r i e s and Environmental Requirements o f Coastal
                            Fishes and I n v e r t e b r a t e s (North A t l a n t i c )


                                             WINTER FLOUNDER




                                           Jack Buckley
                     Massachusetts Cooperative F i s h e r y Research U n i t
                     Department o f F o r e s t r y and W i l d l i f e Management
                               U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts
                                      Amherst, MA 01003




                                                Project Officer
                                                    David Moran
                                 U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Service
                                N a t i o n a l Wet1 ands Research Center
                                           1010 Gause Boulevard
                                             S l i d e l l , LA 70458



                                           Performed f o r
                                       Coastal Ecology Group
                                   Waterways Experiment S t a t i o n
                                   U.S. Army Corps o f Engineers
                                                   S
                                       Vicksburg, M 39180

                                                      and

                                 U. S. Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r
                                        F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e
                                        Research and Development
                                N a t i o n a l Wetlands Research Center
                                            Washington, DC 20240
T h i s s e r i e s may be r e f e r e n c e d as f o l l o w s :

U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Service.  1983-19-.     Species p r o f i l e s :       l i f e histories
  and environmental requirements o f c o a s t a l f i s h e s and i n v e r t e b r a t e s . U. S. F i s h
  W i l d l . Serv. B i o l . Rep. 82(11).    U.S. Army Corps o f Engineers, TR EL-82-4.

T h i s p r o f i l e may be c i t e d as f o l l o w s :

Buckley, J. 1989. Species p r o f i l e s : 1 i f e h i s t o r i e s and environmental r e q u i r e -
  ments o f c o a s t a l f i s h e s and i n v e r t e b r a t e s ( N o r t h At1 a n t i c ) - - w i n t e r f 1ounder.
  U.S. F i s h W i l d l . Serv. B i o l . Rep. 82(11.87).              U.S. Army Corps o f Engineers, TR
  EL-82-4.     12 pp.
                                                      PREFACE

          This species p r o f i l e i s one o f a s e r i e s on c o a s t a l a q u a t i c organisms,
p r i n c i p a l l y f i s h , o f s p o r t , commercial, o r e c o l o g i c a l importance. The p r o f i l e s
a r e designed t o p r o v i d e c o a s t a l managers, engineers, and b i o l o g i s t s w i t h a b r i e f
comprehensive sketch o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and environmental
requirements o f t h e species and t o describe how p o p u l a t i o n s o f t h e species may be
expected t o r e a c t t o environmental changes caused by c o a s t a l development.                      Each
p r o f i l e has sections on taxonomy, 1i f e h i s t o r y , e c o l o g i c a l r o l e , environmental
requirements, and economic importance, i f a p p l i c a b l e .                      A three-ring binder i s
used f o r t h i s s e r i e s so t h a t new p r o f i l e s can be added as they a r e prepared.
This p r o j e c t i s j o i n t l y planned and financed by t h e U.S. Army Corps o f Engineers
and t h e U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Service.

      Suggestions o r questions r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e p o r t should be d i r e c t e d t o       one of
the f o l l o w i n g addresses.

                     I n f o r m a t i o n Transfer S p e c i a l i s t
                     N a t i o n a l Wetlands Research Center
                     U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Service
                     NASA-Slidell Computer Complex
                     1010 Gause Boulevard
                     S l i d e l l , LA 70458



                     U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment S t a t i o n
                     A t t e n t i o n : WESER-C
                     Post O f f i c e Box 631
                     Vicksburg, M 39180  S
                                               CONVERSION TABLE


                                            M e t r i c t o U.S. Customary

                                                         b                          To O b t a i n
m i l l i m e t e r s (mm)                             0.03937                 inches
c e n t i m e t e r s (cm)                             0.3937                  inches
meters (m)                                             3.281                   feet
meters (in)                                            0.5468                  fathoms
k i l o m e t e r s (km)                               0.6214                  statute miles
k i l o m e t e r s (km)                               0.5396                  nautical miles

square meters ( m 2 )                                                          square f e e t
square k i 1ometers (km2)                                                      square m i l e s
h e c t a r e s (ha)                                                           acres

l i t e r s (1)                                                                g a l 1ons
c u b i c meters (m3)                                                          cubic f e e t
c u b i c meters (m3)                                                          acre- f e e t
m i l l i g r a m s (mg)                                                       ounces
grams (g)                                                                      ounces
k i l o g r a m s (kg)                                                         pounds
m e t r i c tons (t)                                                           pounds
metric tons (t)                                                                s h o r t tons

kilocalories (kcal)                                                            B r i t i s h thermal u n i t s
C e l s i u s degrees ( O C )                                                  F a h r e n h e i t degrees

                                            U.S. Customary t o M e t r i c
inches                                                25.40                    m i 11 i m e t e r s
inches                                                 2.54                    centimeters
feet (ft)                                              0.3048                  meters
fathoms                                                1.829                   meters
statute miles ( m i )                                  1.609                   kilometers
n a u t i c a l m i l e s (nmi)                        1.852                   kilometers

square f e e t ( f t 2 )                               0.0929                  square meters
square m i l e s ( m i 2 )                             2.590                   square k i l o m e t e r s
acres                                                  0.4047                  hectares

g a l 1ons ( g a l )                                                           1it e r s
cubic f e e t ( f t 3 )                                                        c u b i c meters
acre-feet                                                                      c u b i c meters
ounces (oz)                                                                    milligrams
ounces ( o z )                                                                 grams
pounds ( l b )                                                                 k i lograms
pounds ( l b )                                                                 m e t r i c tons
s h o r t tons ( t o n )                                                       m e t r i c tons
B r i t i s h thermal u n i t s ( B t u )              0.2520                  kilocalories
F a h r e n h e i t degrees (OF)                       0.5556 (OF    -   32)   Cel s i us degrees
                                                        CONTENTS

                                                                                                                         Page
PREFACE ..................................................................                                                iii
CONVERSION TABLE .......................................................                                                  iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...........................................................                                               vi

NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE             ...............................................                                    1
MORPHOLOGY/IDENTIFICATION AIDS             ............................................                                    1
SEPARATION FROM OTHER RIGHT-EYED FLATFISHES ...............................                                                3
REASONS FOR INCLUSION I N SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           3
LIFE HISTORY ..............................................................                                                3
  Spawning ................................................................                                                3
  Eggs ...................................................................                                                 4
  Larvae ..................................................................                                                4
  J u v e n i l e s ..............................................................                                         4
  A d u l t s ................................................................                                             4
GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
  Growth Rate .............................................................                                                5
  Length-Weight R e l a t i o n s h i p s .............................................                                    5
THE FISHERY ...............................................................                                                5
  Commercial and R e c r e a t i o n a l .............................................                                     5
  P o p u l a t i o n Dynamics .....................................................                                       6
ECOLOGICAL ROLE ...........................................................                                                6
  Food H a b i t s .............................................................                                           6
  Feeding Behavior ........................................................                                                7
  C o m p e t i t i o n .............................................................                                      7
  Predators ...............................................................                                                7
  P a r a s i t e s ...............................................................                                        7
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................                                                8
  Water Temperature .......................................................                                                8
  Sal in i t y ................................................................                                            8
  Contaminants ............................................................                                                8
   Disease.................................................................                                                8

LITERATURE CITED ..........................................................                                                9
                                       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


     I am g r a t e f u l f o r reviews by Wendy G a b r i e l , National Marine F i s h e r i e s
Service, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and Arnold Howe, Massachusetts D i v i s i o n o f
Marine F i s h e r i e s , Sandwich, Massachusetts.
                                         Figure 1.          Winter f l o u n d e r .




                                                 WINTER FLOUNDER


NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE                                        MORPHOLOGY/IDENTIFICATION AIDS
S c i e n t i f i c name . .   . .     Pseudo l e u r o -               The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r , one o f t h e
   nectes americanus (Wal baum
P r e f e r r e d common name    .
                                      ?
                                    - - . . . Winter
                                                                   r i g h t - e y e d f l o u n d e r s , i s oval -shaped
                                                                   and thick-bodied; t h e caudal f i n and
   f l o u n d e r ( F i g u r e 1)                                peduncle a r e broader than those o f
Other common names           .       .
                                   . . . Blackback                 o t h e r North A t l a n t i c flounders.           The
   flounder, lemon sole, b l a c k f l o u n d e r                 anal f i n i s h i g h e s t a t i t s m i d p o i n t
Class    .                         .
                . . . . . . . . Osteichthyes                       and i s preceded by a s h o r t sharp
Order . .
Fami l y     .
                 .
                   . . . . .
                             ..
                      . . . P l euronectiformes
                                    . P l euronectidae
                                                                   spine.           The dorsal f i n (60-76 rays)
                                                                   o r i g i n a t e s opposite t h e a n t e r i o r edge
                                                                   o f t h e eye, and i s about equal i n
Geographic range: Winter f l o u n d e r a r e                     h e i g h t along i t s length. The mouth i s
  found p r i m a r i l y i n e s t u a r i n e and                small, n o t gaping t o t h e eye.                   The
  c o a s t a l waters along t h e A t l a n t i c                 l e f t (under) h a l f o f t h e jaw i s armed
  coast            of   North  America          from               w i t h a series o f close-set incisors;
  Newfoundland t o Georgia (Leim and                               t h e r i g h t (upper) h a l f has o n l y a few
  S c o t t 1966), except f o r o f f - s h o r e                  teeth.
  p o p u l a t i o n s on Georges Bank and
  Nantucket Shoal (Figure 2; Bigelow                                   The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r ,           l i k e other
  and Schroeder 1953).                                             f l a t f i s h e s , v a r i e s i n c o l o r , depending
                                                                   ATLANTIC OCEAN
                                                   C o a a t a l dlatrlbutlon
                                                                MILES




                                                              KILOMETER




F i g u r e 2.   D i s t r i b u t i o n o f winter flounder i n the North A t l a n t i c
l a r g e l y on t h e c o l o r o f t h e surround-           LIFE HISTORY
i n g substrate.         Most a d u l t s tend t o
be r e d d i s h brown, olive-green,              or           Spawning
blackish.           Smaller f i s h g e n e r a l l y
a r e p a l e r than l a r g e r f i s h .       The              The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r spawns i n coast-
b l i n d s i d e i s w h i t e and, toward t h e              a l waters as e a r l y as December i n t h e
edge,         translucent o r occasionally                     Southern U n i t e d States and as l a t e as
yellowish.                                                     June i n Canada.             T y p i c a l l y , eggs a r e
                                                               deposited over a sandy s u b s t r a t e a t
                                                               depths o f 2 t o 80 m (Bigelow and
SEPARATION FROM OTHER                                          Schroeder 1953).
RIGHT-EYED FLATFISHES
                                                                   Most spawning takes p l ace a t s a l i n -
                                                               i t i e s o f 3 1 t o 32.5 p p t i n inshore
     Compared w i t h t h e ye1 1owtai 1 f 1oun-               waters, and on Nantucket Shoal and
der, Limanda f e r r u g i n e a , t h e w i n t e r           Georges Bank a t s l i g h t l y h i g h e r s a l i n -
f l o u n d e r has a much s t r a i g h t e r l a t e r a l   i t i e s (32.7 t o 33 p p t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ;
1i n e , a l e s s concave dorsal head pro-                    Bigelow and Schroeder 1953). Water
f i l e , and fewer f i n rays.                                temperature d u r i n g spawning i s usual l y
                                                               between 0 and 3 O C b u t may be as h i g h
     The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r l a c k s t h e mucous    as 6 O C (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953).
p i t s t h a t a r e conspicuous on t h e l e f t             The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r spawns a t s l i g h t l y
( b l i n d ) s i d e o f t h e head o f t h e w i t c h       h i g h e r temperatures on Georges Bank
f l o u n d e r (Glyptocephal us cynoglossus) ;                than i n inshore waters (Lux e t a l .
i t a l s o has t h r e e times as manv dorsal                 1970).
                                                   ,
                                                   .
r a y s as t h e w i t c h flounder.
                                                                    The stage o f m a t u r i t y o f t h e w i n t e r
                                                               f l o u n d e r i s l a r g e l y governed by s i z e
    The scales between t h e eyes a r e                        r a t h e r than age.              Flounders grow
smooth i n t h e smooth f l o u n d e r (Liop-                 f a s t e r and mature a t a younger age i n
s e t t a putnami), b u t rough i n t h e win-                 t h e south than i n t h e north. I n New-
t e r flounder.             Between t h e two, t h e           foundland, males mature a t age V I and
w i n t e r f l o u n d e r a1 so has t h e g r e a t e r      females a t age V I I (Kennedy and S t e e l e
number o f anal f i n rays.                                    1971); i n New York, w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
                                                               mature a t age I 1 o r I11 ( P e r l m u t t e r
   Several      morphological c h a r a c t e r i s -          1947).
tics that      d i s t i n g u i s h larvae o f winter
flounder       from those o f t h e o t h e r                      The f e c u n d i t y o f w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
flounders      common i n t h e western n o r t h              r e p o r t e d by B i g e l ow and Schroeder
Atlantic       were given by La Roche                          (1953) ranged from 0.5 t o 1.5 m i l 1i o n
(1980).                                                        eggs          per      female.       Saila         (1961)
                                                               r e p o r t e d t h a t i n Rhode I s l a n d waters
                                                               193,000 eggs were produced by a f i s h
REASONS FOR INCLUSION I N THE SERIES                           249 mm t o t a l l e n g t h (TL) and 1.34 m i l -
                                                               l i o n by a f i s h 428 mm TL.                   I n the
                                                               Weweantic Estuary i n Massachusetts,
     By v i r t u e o f i t s abundance i n estua-             numbers o f eggs ranged from 435,000
r i n e and nearshore waters, t h e w i n t e r                f o r a f i s h 350 mm TL t o 3.3 m i l l i o n
f l o u n d e r i s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t       f o r a f i s h 450 mm TL (Topp 1967).
commercial and s p o r t f i s h e s i n t h e                 I n Newfoundland, Kennedy and Steele
Northeastern             United     States.         In         (1971)         r e p o r t e d a f e c u n d i t y range
Massachusetts,             i t i s considered a                from 99,000 eggs f o r a f i s h 220 mm
major c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e commercial               TL t o 2.6 m ' l l l i o n f o r a f i s h 440mm
and s p o r t f i s h e r i e s (Pierce and Howe               TL (mean = 0.59 m i l 1 i o n eggs a t
1977).                                                         a mean l e n g t h o f 340 mm TL).                    The
f o l l o w i n g equations f o r e s t i m a t i n g        pigment c e l l s d i v i d i n g t h e postanal
f e c u n d i t y on t h e b a s i s o f weight have         p o r t i o n o f t h e bodl. A t a water tem-
been pub1 ished:                                             p e r a t u r e o f 3.9    C t h e l a r v a e were
                                                             about 5 mm TL, and t h e yo1 k sac was
   l o g F = 2.3894 + 1.2403 l o g W                         absorbed i n 12 t o 14 days.              La Roche
       (Kennedy and Steele 1971)                             (1980) provides a d e t a i 1ed d e s c r i p t i o n
                                                             o f 1a r v a l development.
   l o g F = 0.0697 + 1.0659 l o g W
       (Topp 1967)                                               Winter f l o u n d e r undergo a r a p i d
                                                             metamorphosis a t a much s m a l l e r s i z e
   l o g F = 2.6712 + 1.1383 l o g W                         than o t h e r f l a t f i s h e s o f t h e North
       (Sai l a 1961)                                        A t l a n t i c r e g i o n (Bigelow and Schroeder
                                                             1953).          T h e i r metamorphosis i s com-
where F = f e c u n d i t y i n thousands o f                p l e t e when t h e l a r v a e a r e 8 t o 9 mm TL
eggs and W = t o t a l weight i n grams.                     (Laurence 1975) ; t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n
                                                             took 80 days a t a water temperature o f
                                                             5 O C and 49 days a t 8 OC. No metamor-
                                                             phosis was e v i d e n t a t 2 O C (Bigelow
                                                             and Schroeder 1953).
    Winter f l o u n d e r eggs are demersal ,
adhesive, and 0.74 t o 0.85 mm i n diam-                         I n aquaria, w i n t e r f 1ounder 1arvae
e t e r ( B i g e l ow and Schroeder 1953).                  engage i n upward swimming bouts and
They have no o i 1 g l o b u l e when depos-                 then s i n k t o t h e bottom where they
i t e d , b u t a c q u i r e one l a t e r (Breder          remain f o r a s h o r t time ( S u l l i v a n
1924).           I n c u b a t i o n t i m e was 15 t o 18   1915; B i g e l ow and Schroeder 1953).
days a t 2.8 t o 3.3 O C (Bigelow and                        The l a r v a e o f o t h e r f l a t f i s h species
Schroeder 1953), 25 days a t 3 O C , and                     a r e more p e l a g i c .    Winter f l o u n d e r
7 days a t 12 t o 14 O C (Rogers 1976).                      l a r v a e are continuous, v i s u a l , day-
I n c u b a t i o n t i m e was i n v e r s e l y re1ated    l i g h t feeders t h a t cease feeding a t
t o water temperature and s a l in i t y                     n i g h t (Laurence 1977).
(Rogers 1976).
                                                             Juveni l e s
    Winter f l o u n d e r eggs seem t o be most
abundant i n water w i t h a s a l i n i t y o f                 A f t e r metamorphosis, w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
10 t o 30 p p t ; a t s a l i n i t i e s below 5            a r e b e n t h i c and seldom l o s e c o n t a c t
p p t o r above 40 p p t , some embryos sur-                 w i t h t h e substrate.                Most j u v e n i l e s
v i v e , b u t are u s u a l l y deformed (Rogers           spend much o f t h e i r f i r s t 2 years i n
1976).         The optimal s a l i n i t y f o r egg         o r near s h a l l ow n a t a l waters, where
s u r v i v a l i s 15 t o 35 ppt.                           they move i n response t o extreme heat
                                                             o r c o l d (Topp 1967).                    A f t e r meta-
   Many embryos become i n v i a b l e o r ab-               morphosis, t h e j u v e n i l e s p r e f e r a sub-
normal a t temperatures be1ow f r e e z i n g                s t r a t e o f sa,nd o r sand and s i l t
(-1.8 t o 0 O C ) and temperatures above                     (Clayton e t a l . 1978).                     Older juve-
10 O C (Williams 1975).         The optimum                  n i l e s i n e s t u a r i e s g r a d u a l l y move sea-
water temperature range f o r s u r v i v a l                ward as they grow l a r g e r (Mulkana
i s 0 t o 10 O C ( W i 11iams 1975).                         1966).
Larvae                                                       Adults
     I n s t u d i e s by Bigelow and Schroeder                   The seasonal movements o f w i n t e r
(1953) and La Roche (1980), w i n t e r                      f l o u n d e r d i f f e r between populations
f l o u n d e r l a r v a e were 2.4 t o 3.5 mm TI-          n o r t h and south o f Cape Cod. A 5-year
a t t h e time o f hatching.               A major           t a g g i n g study by Howe and Coates
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e newly hatched          (1975) showed t h a t w i n t e r f 1ounder
l a r v a e was t h e broad v e r t i c a l band o f         n o r t h o f Cape Cod moved about o n l y
l o c a l l y i n inshore waters, w h i l e those                   t h e sexes a r e s i m i l a r       (Kennedy       and
south o f Cape Cod dispersed more than                              Steel e 1971).
3 m i o f f s h o r e i n a southwesterly
d i r e c t i o n . A d u l t s from Martha's Vine-                     The growth r a t e a l s o d i f f e r s between
y a r d and coastal p o p u l a t i o n s from                      f i s h from areas r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e geo-
south o f Cape Cod mixed i n Nantucket                              g r a p h i c a l ly.    Lengths o f f 1ounder a t
Sound (Pierce and Howe 1977).                                       t h e same age were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f -
                                                                    f e r e n t among c e r t a i n bays on Long I s -
     Water temperature seems t o be t h e                           land (Lobell               1939;           Poole 1966).
most important environmental f a c t o r                            Flounder grow t o a l a r g e r s i z e i n t h e
determining                 seasonal           distribution         Georges Bank p o p u l a t i o n than i n i n -
(McCracken 1963).                       I n Rhode I s 1and,         shore             populations            (Bigelow      and
a d u l t w i n t e r f l o u n d e r 1i v e d i n c o o l e r      Schroeder 1953).               According t o B e r r y
offshore waters d u r i n g summer and i n                          e t a l . (1965), t h e r e i s no t y p i c a l
shallow inshore waters i n w i n t e r and                          growth r a t e f o r t h e w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
e a r l y s p r i n g ( S a i l a 1961).            I n New-        because t h e p o p u l a t i o n s may be exposed
foundland, w i n t e r f l o u n d e r remained i n                 t o different rates o f exploitation o r
shallow water d u r i n g summer as l o n g as                      1i v e under d i f f e r e n t environmental
food was a v a i l a b l e and water tem-                           c o n d i t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e extended
p e r a t u r e s d i d n o t exceed 15 O C (Van                    spawning p e r i o d (up t o 4 months) can
Guelpen and Davis 1979). Temperature                                make comparisons d i f f i c u l t between age
i s a less important f a c t o r i n the dis-                       groups and 1ocations.
t r i b u t i o n o f ' j u v e n i l e s , which t o l e r a t e
higher           temperatures                than     adults            Lux (1973) gave t h e f o l l o w i n g von
(Pearcy 1962).                                                      B e r t a l anf fy growth equations f o r win-
                                                                    t e r f l o u n d e r from Georges Bank:
     I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t a l o c a l popula-                              -0.37(t-0.05)
t i o n i s d e f i n e d by f i s h i n h a b i t i n g              male 1 = 550 C 1            -
                                                                                         e-O.jl(t-O.Oij)I
several adjacent e s t u a r i e s ( P i e r c e and                female =
                                                                           :I  630 [l e-                  1
Howe 1977). Although a l a r g e percent-
age o f w i n t e r f l o u n d e r i n a t a g g i n g             Length-Weight Relationships
study were recaptured a t o r near t h e
original              tagging locations,               Sai l a        The     length-weight        r e l a t i onships
(1961) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e same breed-                    pub1 ished f o r a d u l t s and l a r v a e a r e
i n g area i s n o t always reoccupied each                         presented i n Table 1      .
season. On a l a r g e r geographic scale,
t h e r e i s evidence t h a t w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
n o r t h and south o f Cape Cod and from                           THE FISHERY
Georges Banks compose t h r e e separate
groups (Lux e t a l . 1970; P i e r c e and                         Commercial and Recreational
Howe 1977).
                                                                        The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r supports v a l u-
                                                                    a b l e commercial and s p o r t f i s h e r i e s i n
GROWTH CHARACTER1STICS                                              t h e coastal waters o f New England.
                                                                    The t o t a l commercial c a t c h i n t h e f i v e
Growth Rate                                                         c o a s t a l New England States was 15,500
                                                                    m e t r i c tons (t) i n 1983 (U.S. Depart-
     The r a t e o f growth o f t h e w i n t e r                   ment o f Commerce 1983).              From 1935 t o
f l o u n d e r i s r a p i d u n t i l age V o r V I               1980, t h e annual commercial 1andi ngs
and then decreases, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n                     i n New England ranged between 6,000
males (Lux 1973).              A f t e r the f i r s t 2            and 15,000 t. The o t t e r t r a w l i s t h e
years, females grow f a s t e r t h a n males                       p r i n c i p a l f i s h i n g gear.
(Briggs 1965; Lux 1973; Howe and
Coates 1975). An exception i s i n New-                               The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r i s a h i g h l y
found1 and, where t h e growth r a t e s o f                        valued s p o r t species because i t i s
Table 1  .        Pub1 ished      length-weight          r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a d u l t and l a r v a l w i n t e r
f 1ounder.

Equation                                                                Location                        Source

Adults
        loglow     = 3.138 logloL-5.239                              Georges Bank                    Lux (1969)
                 where W = g, L = mm
        loglow     = 3.1441 logloL-2.072            (female)
        1ogloW     = 2.9833 1ogloL-1. 9041 (ma1 e)                   Newfound1 and                   Kennedy and
                 where W = g, L = cm                                                                   Steele (1971)
Larvae
        1 0 g ~ ~= 4.769 logl0L-1.347
                 W                                                   Laboratory-reared               Laurence (1979)
              where W = mg, L = mm




seasonally abundant i n nearshore areas                          i n one p o p u l a t i o n , and 5 l % f o r males
and e a s i l y captured from boat o r                           and 58% f o r females i n t h e other. The
shore. I n New England t h e s p o r t catch                     instantaneous              mortal it y   rates        of
has been r e p o r t e d t o surpass t h e com-                  w i n t e r f l o u n d e r i n Nova S c o t i a were
m e r c i a l catch i n some years (Deuel                        0.321 ( n a t u r a l ) and 0.475 ( f i s h i n g )
1973).                                                           ( D i c k i e and McCracken 1955).               South
                                                                 o f Cape Cod, Howe e t a l . (1976)
Population Dynamics                                              r e p o r t e d instantaneous m o r t a l i t y r a t e s
                                                                 of       0.1125         (natural )     and      0.2445
     The age and s i z e o f w i n t e r f l o u n d e r         (fishing).
recruited i n t o the fishery varies w i t h
t h e l o c a t i o n and t h e type o f f i s h e r y .             Two important f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g mor-
B r i ggs (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t f 1ounder               t a l i t y are translocation o f larvae out
recruited i n t o the sport fishery a t                          o f t h e e s t u a r y by d r i f t (Pearcy 1962)
South Shore Bay, Long I s l a n d , were                         and p r e d a t i o n ( D i c k i e and McCracken
from 200 t o 260 mm TL.                       I n Nova           1955).           J e f f r i e s and Johnson (1974)
Scotia, r e c r u i t s i n t o t h e commercial                 r e p o r t e d t h a t w i n t e r f 1ounder abun-
f i s h e r y were 3 t o 4 years o l d and                       dance i n Narragansett Bay may be par-
weighed an average o f 363 g ( D i c k i e                       t i a l l y governed by annual o r seasonal
and McCracken 1955).                I n Narragansett             changes i n c l i m a t e .           Because each
Bay, Rhode I s 1and, w i n t e r f l o u n d e r                 p o p u l a t i o n does n o t u s u a l l y disperse
were f u l l y r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e commer-           beyond 1ocal waters, t h e degradation
c i a l catch a t age 111 (250 mm TL;                            o f an estuary may have a d r a s t i c
Sai 1a e t a1 . 1965).                                           e f f e c t on t h e abundance o f r e c r u i t s i n
                                                                 nearby c o a s t a l waters.
    Estimated n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y r a t e s o f
w i n t e r f l o u n d e r ranged from 50% t o 54%
and t o t a l annual m o r t a l i t y ( n a t u r a l           ECOLOGICAL ROLE
and f i s h i n g ) ranged from 72% t o 78%
(Pool e 1969).              T o t a l annual mortal it y         Food H a b i t s
r a t e s estimated by B e r r y e t a l . (1965)
on t h e b a s i s o f age composition f o r                         Larvae begin t o feed 2 t o 3 weeks
two d i f f e r e n t Long I s l a n d populations               a f t e r they hatch. They f i r s t feed on
were 56% f o r males and 65% f o r females                       copepods and phytoplankton, b u t as
t h e y reach metamorphosis, t h e i r d i e t                     remains motionless, p o i n t i n g toward
i s composed o f copepod naupl ii, small                           t h e prey, and t h e n lunges forward and
polychaetes, nemerteans, and o s t r a -                           downward t o c a p t u r e it. I f no p r e y i s
cods.          For d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f     s i g h t e d , t h e f i s h moves t o a new loca-
t h e food h a b i t s o f l a r v a l and juve-                   t i o n , changing p o s i t i o n from f o u r t o
n i l e w i n t e r flounder,               see Pearcy             f i v e times p e r minute ( O l l a e t a l .
(1962).          Laurence (1977), who s t u d i e d                1969).
t h e e f f e c t s o f food d e n s i t y on l a r v a l
growth and s u r v i v a l , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e         Competition
l a r v a e d i e d from s t a r v a t i o n i n 2 weeks
at        prey      (nauplius)          densities          of          The w i n t e r f l o u n d e r has r e l a t i v e l y
<O. l / m l ; c r i t i c a l p r e y d e n s i t y was            few c o m p e t i t o r s f o r food and space.
about 0.5/ml.                Plankton d e n s i t y i n -          I n many e s t u a r i e s i t i s t h e most abun-
f l u e n c e d s u r v i v a l more than i t d i d                d a n t demersal species (Richards 1963;
growth.          Laurence (1977) demonstrated                      O v i a t t and Nixon 1973).                     The h i g h l y
t h a t t h e d e n s i t y o f p r e y was p r o b a b l y        p r o d u c t i v e e s t u a r i n e and c o a s t a l habi-
t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g         t a t s i t occupies, combined w i t h i t s
survival.                                                          omnivorous food h a b i t s , t e n d t o reduce
                                                                   competition.                J e f f r i e s and Johnson
    A d u l t w i n t e r f l o u n d e r f e d l a r g e l y on   (1974) suspected t h a t t h e e a r l y spawn-
organisms o f t h r e e phyla:                    Annel i d a ,    i n g and t h e s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e t o
C n i d a r i a , and Mollusca.              I n t h e study       metamorphosis p e r m i t t h e l a r v a e t o
by Langton and Bowman (1981), t h e p e r -                        reach t h e j u v e n i l e stage b e f o r e po-
centages o f composition (numbers) o f                             t e n t i a l c o m p e t i t o r s e n t e r t h e bays and
p r e y i n f l o u n d e r stomachs were as f o l -               estuaries.
lows: Annel i d a 27% ( m o s t l y p o l y c h a e t e
worms), C n i d a r i a 26%, Anthozoa 25%,                         Predators
Mollusca 16%, and Hydrosoa 4%. The
composition v a r i e d among geographic                              Adult w i n t e r flounder are the prey
locations.              T y l e r and Dunn (1976)                  o f many o f t h e l a r g e r e s t u a r i n e and
r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e maintenance r a t i o                c o a s t a l p r e d a t o r s such as s t r i p e d bass
was 7.9 c a l / g .             Detailed studies o f               (Morone ' s a x a t i 1 i s ) , b l u e f i s h ( ~ o m a t o -
t h e food o f a d u l t w i n t e r f l o u n d e r were          mus s a l t a t r i x ) , g o o s e f i s h
                                                                   -
made' by Langton and Bowman (1981),                                americanus),spiny                  dogfish
Wells e t a l .               (1973),        Kennedy and           acanthias) , o y s t e r t o a d f i s h
S t e e l e (1971), O l l a e t a l . (1969),                      tau),d
                                                                   -                    sea raven
Mu'l kana (1966),                and Frame (1973).                 americanus)              (Dickie
                                                                   1955; G r o s s l e i n and Azarovi t z 1982).
Feeding Behavior
                                                                       P r e d a t i o n i s a major cause o f mor-
    W i n t e r f l o u n d e r p r i m a r i l y feed v i s u -   t a l i t y i n l a r v a l and j u v e n i l e w i n t e r
a l l y and o n l y d u r i n g d a y l i g h t (01 l a e t        flounder.             The l a r v a e were h e a v i l y
a l . 1969; MacDonald 1983). I n t h e Bay                         preyed upon by t h e small hydromedusa
o f Fundy, those i n nearshore waters                              S a r i a t u b u l o s a (Pearcy 1962).         Tyler
u s u a l l y f e d i n t h e i n t e r t i d a l zone             m a )              reported t h a t      the qreat
(Wells e t a l .                1973).          They moved         cormorant ar ha lac roc or ax carbo) ,- t h e
i n s h o r e about 2 h a f t e r low t i d e and                  a r e a t b l u e heron (Ardea herodias). and
r e t u r n e d t o t h e s u b l i t t o r a l zone about         t h e osprey ( ~ a n d i o n h a l i a e t u s j ' a r e
2 h b e f o r e t h e n e x t low t i d e ( T y l e r              a1 so p r e d a t o r s o f w i n t e r f 1ounder.
1971b).
                                                                   Parasites
     When feeding, t h e w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
1i e s motion1ess w i t h i t s head r a i s e d                       The m i c r o s p o r i d i a n p a r a s i t e G l ugea
o f f t h e bottom, braced by t h e d o r s a l                    h e r t w i g i i s most common and may cause
f i n . When a p r e y i s s i g h t e d , t h e f i s h           h i g h m o r t a l i t y among w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
l e s s than 30 mm l o n g (TL) (Mu1 kana                     products (DDT, DDE, heptachl o r , hep-
1966).         K l e i n-MacPhee (1978) provided              tach1 o r epoxide, and d i e 1 d r i n) were
a d e t a i l e d l i s t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l para-   found i n various t i s s u e s o f t h e w i n t e r
s i t e s o f t h e w i n t e r flounder.                     f l o u n d e r (Smith and Cole 1970; Smith
                                                              1973).          Concentrations o f DDT, DDE,
                                                              and heptachlor epoxide were h i g h e s t i n
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS                                    r i p e n i n g ovaries. A g r i c u l t u r a l r u n o f f
                                                              was t h e major source o f t h e con-
Water Temperature                                             taminants (Smith and Cole 1970). Topp
                                                              (1967) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s contami na-
    Winter f 1ounder a r e commonly found                     t i o n caused h i g h m o r t a l i t y i n t h e
 i n water temperatures o f 0 t o 25 O C .                    Weweantic River.
                .
01 1a e t a1 (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t win-
t e r f l o u n d e r f e d a t water tempera-                    I n studies o f the e f f e c t s o f s i l v e r
t u r e s as h i g h as 22 O C , b u t burrow                 on t h e eggs and l a r v a e o f w i n t e r
i n t o t h e bottom a t h i g h e r tempera-                 f 1ounder, K l e i n-MacPhee e t a1 . (1984)
tures.           McCracken (1963) gave a pre-                 found t h a t concentrations o f s i l v e r
f e r r e d temperature range o f 12 t o                      g r e a t e r than 54 p g / l sometimes caused
15 O C .          Huntsman and Sparks (1924)                  h i g h m o r t a l i t y o f t h e eggs and yo1 k-
r e p o r t e d a maximum temperature t o 1 e r -             sac larvae, and t h a t exposure t o 92
ance o f about 30 OC. Under c o n t r o l l e d               p g / l s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased egg mor-
c o n d i t i o n s , w i n t e r f 1ounder can a c c l i-    talities.            I n c o n t r a s t , Voyer e t a l .
mate t o h i g h e r temperature regimes;                     (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t s i l v e r i n con-
f o r example,               Everich and Gonzalez             c e n t r a t i o n s up t o 166 p g / l d i d n o t
(1977)           reported t h a t the c r i t i c a l         increase egg mortal it y .
thermal maximum increased from 26 t o
32 O C as t h e a c c l i m a t i o n temperature             Disease
increased from 4 t o 23 OC. An extend-
ed p e r i o d o f unusually h o t weather                        About 14% o f t h e w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
caused heavy mortal it y i n coastal wa-                      examined from t h e New York B i g h t had
t e r s o f Long I s l a n d Sound (Nichols                   f i n e r o s i o n (Ziskowski and Murchel ano
1918).           Juveni 1e w i n t e r f 1ounder tend         1975). I t i s n o t known i f t h e disease
t o be more t o l e r a n t o f h i g h tempera-              i s i n f e c t i o u s o r noninfectious, but i t
t u r e s than a d u l t s .                                  i s not usually f a t a l .          Although t h e
                                                              p r e c i s e cause o f f i n r o t e r o s i o n i s
Sal in i t y                                                  n o t known, i t s h i g h incidence i n asso-
                                                              c i a t i o n w i t h h i g h sediment contamina-
    A d u l t w i n t e r f 1ounder commonly 1i v e           t i o n suggests t h a t c o n t a c t o f t h e f i n s
i n s a l i n i t i e s o f 5 t o 35 p p t (Bigelow           w i t h t o x i c sediment i s an important
and Schroeder 1953).              Extremes i n sa-            f a c t o r i n t h e development o f t h e
1 i n i t y may lower egg and l a r v a l sur-                disease (Sherwood 1982).
v i v a l and h a t c h i n g success (see t h e
s e c t i o n on eggs and larvae).                                The m i c r o s p o r i d i a n G l ugea h e r t w i g i ,
                                                              found i n t h e d i g e s t i v e t r a c t o f w i n t e r
Contami nants                                                 f 1ounder, was described by Stunkard
                                                              and Lux (1965).                   The incidence o f
  I n a study i n t h e Weweantic River,                      i n f e c t i o n i n samples ranged from 54%
Massachusetts, c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocar-                i n Martha's Vineyard t o zero on
bon in s e c t i c i d e s and t h e i r breakdown            Georges Bank (Stunkard and Lux 1965).
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                                                               p l e u r o n e c t e s americanus) w i t h r e f -
  f l o u n d e r (Pseudopleuronectes ameri-
                                                                erence t o n i c h e over la^ o f n a t u r a l
  canus) from h a t c h i n g t h r o u g h meta-
                                                                populations.              Can.      J.         Zool.
  morphosis a t t h r e e temperatures.
                                                                61(3): 539-546.
  Mar. B i o l . ( B e r l . ) 32(3): 223-229.
                                                              McCracken, F. D.      1963. Seasonal              move-
Laurence, G. C.       1977. A b i o e n e r g e t i c           ments o f t h e w i n t e r f l o u n d e r .   Pseu-
  model f o r t h e analyses o f f e e d i n g                  do 1euronectes ameri canus, o                   nthe
  and s u r v i v a l p o t e n t i a l o f w i n t e r         h.                    J . Fish. Res.            Board
  f 1ounder (Pseudopl euronectes ameri -                        Can. 20(2): 551-585.
  canus) l a r v a e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from
  h a t c h i n g t o metamorphosis.               U.S.       Mu1 kana, M. S.  1966.     The growth and
  N a t l . Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. B u l l .                    feeding habits o f j u v e n i l e fishes i n
  75(3): 529-549.                                               two Rhode I s l a n d e s t u a r i e s . Gulf
                                                                Res. Rep. 2:97-167.
Laurence, G. C.             1979.      L a r v a l 1ength-
  w e i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r seven spe-        N i c h o l s , J.T. 1918.      An abnormal win-
  c i e s o f northwest At1 a n t i c f i s h e s                 t e r founder and           others.   Copeia
  reared i n the laboratory.                          U. S.       55: 36-39.
  N a t l . Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. B u l l .
  76(4) : 890-895.                                            O l l a , B.L., R. Wicklund, and S. Wilk.
                                                                 1969.      Behavior o f w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
Leim, A.H.,     and W.B. S c o t t .            1966.             i n a natural habitat.          Trans. Am.
  Fishes o f t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t o f Can-            Fish. Soc. 98(4): 717-720.
  ada.   Fish. Res. Board Can. B u l l .
  155. 485 pp.                                                O v i a t t , C.A. , and S.W. Nixon.               1973.
                                                                 The demersal f i s h o f Narrangansett
Lobe1 1, M. J. 1939. A b i o l o g i c a l sur-                  Bay:           an a n a l y s i s o f community
  vey o f t h e s a l t waters o f Long I s -                    s t r u c t u r e , d i s t r i b u t i o n and abun-
  land,    1938.         Report on c e r t a i n                 dance.           ~ s t u a r i n eCoastal Mar. Sci.
  fishes.     W i n t e r f l o u n d e r (Pseudo-                  :
                                                                 1 361-378.
    leuronectes         americanus). 28th
  b     .    Y       . Conserv. Dep., P a r t                 Pearcy, W.G.         1962.   Ecology o f an
  I. No. 14:63-96.                                              estuarine         population  of   winter
   f 1ounder Pseudopl euronectes ameri -                        New   York   Bight:     science   and
   canus (Wal baum).           Bull.   Bingham                  management.     Estuarine    Research
   Oceanogr. C o l l e c t . Yale Univ. 18(1).                  Foundation, Columbia, S.C.

                                                             Smith, R.      1973. P e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e s
P e r l m u t t e r , A. 1947. The blackback                  as a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r i n l a r v a l win-
   f l o u n d e r and i t s f i s h e r y i n New            t e r f 1ounder m o r t a l ity. Pages 173-
   England and New York. B u l l . Bingham                    180 i n Proceedings o f a workshop i n
   Oceanogr. C o l l e c t . Yale Univ. l l ( 2 ) .           egg, T a r v a l , and j u v e n i l e stages o f
   92 PP.                                                     f i s h i n A t l a n t i c coast estuaries.
                                                              NOAA Tech. Publ. No. 1            .
P i e r c e , D. E. , and A. B. Howe. 1977. A
    f u r t h e r s t u d y on w i n t e r f l o u n d e r
                                                             Smith, R.M.,           and C. F. Cole.                1970.
    group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f Massachu-
                                                              C h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbon i n s e c t i c i d e
    setts.         Trans.         Am.    Fish.     Soc.
                                                               r e s i d u e s i n w i n t e r f l o u n d e r , Pseudo-
    106(2): 131-139.
                                                                 1euronectes americanus, f r o m t h e
Poole, J.C. 1966. Growth and age o f
                                                                beweantic R i v e r Estuarv. Massachu-
                                                               setts.
                                                                                                      3 "
                                                                                J. F i s h . Res. Board Can.
  w i n t e r f l o u n d e r i n f o u r bays o f Long
                                                              27(12) : 2374-2380.
  Island.                 N.Y.           Fish      Game
  13(2): 206-220.
                                                             Stunkard, H.W., and F.E. Lux. 1965. A
                                                               microsporidian       infection o f the
Poole, J.C.      1969. A s t u d y o f w i n t e r
                                                               digestive t r a c t o f the winter floun-
  flounder m o r t a l i t y r a t e s i n Great
                                                               der,    Pseudopl euronectes          ameri -
  South Bay, New York.                Trans. Am.
  F i s h . Soc. 98(4):611-617.
                                                               canus.   Biol        .
                                                                                   B u l l . (Woods Hble)
                                                               m71-387.
Richards, S.W.              1963.   The demersal
  f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s o f Long I s l a n d         Sul 1 i v a n , W. E. 1915. D e s c r i p t i o n o f
  Sound. B u l l . Bingham Oceanogr. Yale                      t h e vouna staaes o f t h e w i n t e r
  Univ. 18(2).            1 0 1 pp.                            f 1o u n i e r ~ ~ s e u d ~ ~ l e u r o n e c t e s
                                                                                                            ameri-
                                                               canus Walbaum).             Trans. Am. Fish.
Rogers, C.A.        1976. E f f e c t s o f temp-              E 4 4 : 125-136.
  e r a t u r e and s a l i n i t y on t h e s u r v i -
  v a l o f w i n t e r f l o u n d e r embryos.             Topp, R.W.           1967. An e s t i m a t e o f f e -
  U.S. N a t l . Mar. F i s h . Serv. Fish.                    c u n d i t v of t h e w i n t e r f l o u n d e r .
  B u l l . 74: 52-58.                                         ~ s e u d o p l e u r o n e c t e s americanus.   J:
                                                               Fish. Res. Board Can. 25(6):1299-
S a i l a , S.B.      1961.   Study o f w i n t e r
   f l o u n d e r movements.   Limn01 . Ocean-
   ogr. 6: 292-298.                                          T y l e r , A.V.    1971a. P e r i o d i c and r e s -
                                                                i d e n t components i n communities o f
S a i l a , S.B.,     D.B. Horton, and R.J.                     A t l a n t i c fishes.   J. Fish. Res.
   B e r r y . 1965. Estimates o f t h e t h e -                Board Can. 28: 935-946.
   o r e t i c a l biomass o f j u v e n i l e w i n t e r
   f 1ounder , ~ s e u d oeuronectes ameri-
                              ~l                             T y l e r , A.V.   1971b. Surges o f w i n t e r
   canus (Walbaum).           reauired f o r a                - flounder      ~ s e u d o p l e u r o n e c t e s ameri-
  fl'shery ' i n ~ h o d e ' 1slahd. J. Fish.                   canus i n t o t h e i n t e r t i d a l z o n e 1
   Res. Board Can. 22:945-954.                                  Fish. Res. Board Can. 28(11): 1717-

Sherwood, M.J.              1982.   F i n erosion,
  l i v e r c o n d i t i o n , and t r a c e con-           T y l e r , A.V. , and R. S. Dunn.         1976.
  t a m i n a n t exposure i n f i s h e s from                 R a t i o n , growth, and measures o f
  t h r e e c o a s t a l regions.          I n G.F.            somatic and organ c o n d i t i o n i n r e l a -
  Meyer, ed. E c o l o g i c a l s t r e s s a n d t h e        t i o n t o meal frequency i n w i n t e r
  f 1ounder , Pseudopl euronectes ameri-                canus exposed t o m i x t u r e s o f cadmium
  canus, w i t h hypothesis r e g x g                   and s i l v e r i n combination w i t h se-
  m a t i o n homeostasis.     J. Fish.                 l e c t e d f i x e d s a l i n it i e s . Aquat.
  Res. Board Can. 1 :933-953.
                    1                                   Toxic01 . 2: 223-233.

U. S. Department o f Commerce.              1983.     Wells, B.,      D.H.    Steele, and A.V.
   Fishery s t a t i s t i c s o f the     United      T y l e r . 1973. I n t e r t i d a l feeding o f
                                                       winter         f 1ounder ,           Pseudo leu-
   States. Washington, D. C.
                                                       ronectes ameri-canus, i n             &
                                                                    J. F ~ s h . Res. Board Can.
Van Guelpen, L.,           and C.C.        Davis.      30: 1374-1378.
  1979.        Seasonal movements o f t h e
  w i n t e r f 1ounder ( P s e u d o ~euronectes
                                       l              Williams, G.C.       1975. V i a b l e embryo-
  americanus) i n two c o n h a s t i ng i n -         genesis o f t h e wi n t e r f 1ounder
  shore l o c a t i o n s i n Newfound1and.             (Pseudopleuronectes ameri canus) from
  Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 108(1): 26-37.                 -      to       "C.    Mar. B i o l . (Berl.)
                                                         :)
                                                          i
                                                        3;:    71-+54.
Voyer,         R.A.,   J.A.    Cardin,     J. F.
  Heltsche, and G. L. Hoffman. 1982.                  Ziskowski , J. , and R. A. Murchelano.
  V i a b i 1it y o f embryos o f t h e w i n t e r     1975. F i n e r o s i o n i n w i n t e r f l o u n -
  f l o u n d e r Pseudopl euronectes ameri-            der. Mar. Pol l u t . B u l l . 6(2): 26-29.
    50272 -101
     REPORT DOCUMENTATION 1
            PAGE
    4. Title and Subtitle
                           .          NO.
                          ~ i o l o g i c a lReport 82(11.87)*                      1       2.                                  3, Recip~ent'sAccession     NO.




         Species P r o f i l e s : L i f e H i s t o r i e s and Environmental Requirements
         o f Coastal Fishes and I n v e r t e b r a t e s ( N o r t h A t l a n t i c ) - -
         W i n t e r Flounder
    7. Author(s)
                   Jack Buckley
                                                                                                                            I
    9. Petformin# Organization Name and Address                                                                                 10. PrnioctlTaskIWor* Unit No.


                                                                                                                             1.
                                                                                                                            1 1 contract(c) or Grant(G) No.



                                                                                                                                (G)
                - -
    12. Smnsorina Oraanizatlon Name and Address

         U.S. Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r                 Coastal Ecology Group                                        13. TYW 01 aport L Period Covere
         F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e                 Waterways Experiment S t a t i o n
         Research and Development                                  U.S. Army Corps o f Engineers
         N a t i o n a l Wetlands Research Center                  P.O. Box 631
         Washington, D 20240 C                                                 S
                                                                   Vicksburg, M 39180
    15. Supplementafy Notes

         *U.S.                                          R
                   Army Corps o f Engineers Report No. T EL-82-4
     L
    1 Abstract (Limit: 200 words)

    Species p r o f i l e s a r e l i t e r a t u r e summaries o f t h e taxonomy, l i f e h i s t o r y , and environ-
    mental requirements of c o a s t a l f i s h e s and a q u a t i c i n v e r t e b r a t e s . They a r e designed t o
    a s s i s t w i t h environmental impact assessments.                             From 1935 t o 1980, t h e annual commercial
    l a n d i n g s o f w i n t e r f l o u n d e r i n New England ranged from 6,000 t o 15,000 t ;                                   the sport
    c a t c h exceeded t h e commercial c a t c h i n some years. W i n t e r f l o u n d e r a r e found i n waters
    w i t h temperatures o f 0 t o 25 O C and t h e y u s u a l l y spawn a t 0 t o 3 O C .                                               ~e~orted
    f e c u n d i t i e s a r e 0.5 t o 1.5 m i l l i o n eggs p e r female. Metamorphosis from l a r v a t o j u v e n i l e
    i s complete i n 49-80 days, depending on temperature. J u v e n i l e s remain i n o r near shallow
    n a t a l waters f o r much o f t h e i r f i r s t 2 years. A d u l t s o f some p o p u l a t i o n s move more than
    3 m i l e s o f f s h o r e t o c o o l e r waters i n summer. These a d u l t s l i v e i n s h a l l o w i n s h o r e waters
    i n w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g .       A d u l t w i n t e r f l o u n d e r feed l a r g e l y on a n n e l i d s , c n i d a r i i d s ,
    and mollusks.




    17. Document Analysis         a. Descrlpton

         Estuaries                                Fishes                       Salinity
         Fisheries                                L i f e cycles               Contaminants
         Feeding h a b i t s                      Temperature
I        b. IdentlRenlOpan-Endad Terms

          Winter flounder,                                              Environmental requirements
          Pseudopleuronectes americanus                                 Ecological r o l e


         c. COSATI FieldlGroup

                                                                                                                                                                    I
I   la   Availeblllty Statement

         Release U n l i m i t e d
                                                                                        1
                                                                                        1
                                                                                        I
                                                                                             19. Secuntv Class (This R e m a )


                                                                                                 m
                                                                                                     unclassified.
                                                                                                      ~   a   s his Pam)
                                                                                                                 s
                                                                                                                                        I 21.   No. of P u e S


                                                                                                                                        I m. ~ ~ r l c e
                                                                                    I                Unclassified                       I                           I
(See ANSI-239.18)                                                                                                                       OPTIONAL FORM 272 (4-72)
                                                                                                                                        (Forrmrly NTI-5)
                                                                                                                                        h p a a m e n t of Comme-
                         TAKE PRIDE      A


                           212 Amerzcd
                   DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                        U.S. FISH AND WllDLlR SERVICE
   As the Nation's principal conservation agency. the Department of the Interior has respon-
sibility for most of our .nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This includes
fostering the wisest use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife,
preserving thsenvironmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places,
and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The Department as-
sesses our energy and mineral resources and works to assure that their development is in
the best interests of all our people. The Department also has a major responsibility for
American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under
U.S. administration.

				
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