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					                     Contents

•   Description of Theory
•   Preconventional
•   Conventional
•   Postconventional
•   Which Level Are You? (Heinz Dilemma)
•   Practice
•   Lesson Assessment
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
  Morality is the system one uses to decide
  what is right and wrong; how one’s
  conscience affects choices. Lawrence
  Kohlberg, a psychologist, explored what
  motivates individuals to act the way they
  do. He then devised a theory about how
  people change their views of what’s right
  and wrong as they grow.

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 Stages of Moral Development
He creates six stages of moral development
 divided into three levels.
        Level 1:
    Preconventional
    What Is Good for Self
    Reward & Punishment

Usually young children, Very selfish
               Stage I:
         Punishment Avoidance

• Acts to avoid pain or
  punishment

• Wants to not get
  spanked or get a
  “time out”
              Stage II:
You Scratch My Back; I’ll Scratch Yours

                    • Acts to get a reward

                    • Wants to get a hug or
                      a piece of candy or
                      back scratch


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       Level 2:
     Conventional
  What Is Good for Others

  Majority of adults; Conform to
expectations and are usually loyal
                Stage III:
            Approval of Others




• Acts to gain approval; conforms

• Wants to be a “good girl/boy”; wants others to
  see as nice
                    Stage IV:
                   Law & Order


• Acts because of belief in the law and order

• Wants society to be orderly and understands
  duty/respect for authority


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    Level 3:
Postconventional


  What Is Universally Good

          Minority of adults;
Define moral values on own values
(do not rely on authority’s definition)
               Stage V:
       Social Principles Contract

• Acts for the welfare of
  others

• Wants other people to
  be safe and happy;
  willing to change law
  if necessary
              Stage VI:
  Universal Principles of Conscious

• Acts because of her/his own conscience/set of
  beliefs

• Wants all human beings to be respected for their
  dignity, believes in justice and equality; will
  disregard law if necessary

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 Which level are you?

Read the Heinz dilemma to find
            out…
Heinz’ wife was near death. There was one
drug on the planet that could save her, and it
was only sold in Heinz’ hometown. The druggist
who was selling it, however, was charging ten
times what it cost to make the drug. Heinz
couldn’t afford the drug. He tried borrowing
money from his friends and family, and could
only come up with half of the cost of the drug.
He explained his problem to the druggist, but the
druggist refused to sell him the drug for less
money, and he also refused to let Heinz pay the
second half later. Heinz decided that he had to
steal the drug.
Should Heinz have stolen the
           drug?


A. YES

B. NO
                         Because…
A. he would get in trouble from his family members for not getting help

B. he can risk his life if he thinks he can get away with it

C. no one will respect him if he lets her die

D. it’s his duty to his wife, he should pay later and accept the law’s
   penalty

E. the law wasn’t meant to violate life, the law should be reinterpreted if
   he is caught

F. if he didn’t steal it, he’d be putting another value above that of life;
    respect for property should not be above the respect for life; there
    shouldn’t be private property; it is everyone’s duty to help the dying
                Because…
A. he would go to jail

B. it’s more risk than it’s worth

C. everyone will think he’s a criminal

D. because even though his natural duty is
 to obey the law, it would create
 violence/crime if every store owner were
 charging excessive prices
               You are…
      Stage I: Punishment Avoidance

• Acts to avoid pain or punishment

• Wants to not get spanked or get a “time
  out”

                                     On to Practice
               You are…
                Stage II:
  You Scratch My Back; I’ll Scratch Yours

• Acts to get a reward

• Wants to get a hug or a piece of candy or
  back scratch
                                   On to Practice
                 You are…
           Stage III:Approval of Others

• Acts to gain approval

• Conforms

• Wants to be a “good girl/boy”

• Wants others to see as nice
                                          On to Practice
               You are…
           Stage IV:Law & Order

• Acts because of belief in the law and order

• Wants society to be orderly and
  understands duty/respect for authority

                                    On to Practice
                You are…
     Stage V:Social Principles Contract

• Acts for the welfare of others

• Wants other people to be safe and happy;
  willing to change law if necessary

                                   On to Practice
                 You are…
    Stage VI:Universal Principles of Conscious

• Acts because of her/his own conscience/set of
  beliefs

• Wants all human beings to be respected for their
  dignity, believes in justice and equality; will
  disregard law if necessary
                                         On to Practice
               Practice
Directions:

 Choose the correct level of moral
 reasoning for each example.
                Example #1
 If I make my neighbor a present and give it to
 her, she’ll be very happy.

A.   Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance
B.   Stage 2: You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours
C.   Stage 3: Approval of others
D.   Stage 4: Law and Order
E.   Stage 5: Social Principles Contract
F.   Stage 6: Universal Principles of Conscious
                Example #2
 If I leave my bicycle in the middle of the front
 yard, I will be punished.

A.   Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance
B.   Stage 2: You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours
C.   Stage 3: Approval of others
D.   Stage 4: Law and Order
E.   Stage 5: Social Principles Contract
F.   Stage 6: Universal Principles of Conscious
                Example #3
 In order to stay true to my personal code of
 morals, I need to protest the dictatorship of the
 government.

A.   Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance
B.   Stage 2: You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours
C.   Stage 3: Approval of others
D.   Stage 4: Law and Order
E.   Stage 5: Social Principles Contract
F.   Stage 6: Universal Principles of Conscious
                Example #4
 If I obey the speed limit, the roads will be safer
 for everyone.

A.   Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance
B.   Stage 2: You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours
C.   Stage 3: Approval of others
D.   Stage 4: Law and Order
E.   Stage 5: Social Principles Contract
F.   Stage 6: Universal Principles of Conscious
                Example #5
 If I want to protest a government policy or
 action, the Bill of Rights guarantees my
 freedom to do so.

A.   Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance
B.   Stage 2: You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours
C.   Stage 3: Approval of others
D.   Stage 4: Law and Order
E.   Stage 5: Social Principles Contract
F.   Stage 6: Universal Principles of Conscious
                   Example #6
     If I do the dishes for my father, he will take me
     to the baseball game.

   A.   Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance
   B.   Stage 2: You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours
   C.   Stage 3: Approval of others
   D.   Stage 4: Law and Order
   E.   Stage 5: Social Principles Contract
   F.   Stage 6: Universal Principles of Conscious

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You are correct!
      Great Job

 On to example 1 2 3 4 5 6
             OR
  On to lesson assessment
Oops! That answer is incorrect.



             Try Again.
       Back to example 1 2 3 4 5 6
                    OR
         On to lesson assessment
             Lesson Assessment


• Click on the link below. Type answers, print,
  and hand in.

It's a Dilemma.doc




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posted:12/20/2011
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