Webinar aug 18 11 volpe simulation final

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					    Selected Volpe Human Factors
         Simulation Activities



          RITA Webinar
         August 18, 2011




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                         Webinar Topics
    • Aviation Simulation
       1. Realistic Radio Communications for Airline Pilot Flight Simulator
          Training and Evaluation
           Andrea Sparko
       2. Configurable Air Transport Simulator (CATS) Flight Simulator
           Andrew Kendra

    • Rail Simulation
       3. FRA’s Cab Integration Technology Lab (CTIL)
           Gina Melnik

    • Discussion




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                           Communication
                         Training Needs in a
                               NextGen
                            Environment

   Realistic Radio             August 18, 2011


Communications for            Presented by:
                            Andrea L. Sparko
Airline-Pilot Training   Human Factors Research &
     & Evaluation          System Applications
 NextGen…
• “Next Generation Air
  Transportation System”
   – Satellite-based air-traffic
     management
   – Increased capacity & efficiency
• Analog voice  digital data
  communications
• Changing roles &
  responsibilities

Will affect training
 requirements…
Communications
Line Operational Simulation

                   • Represents actual flight
                   • Technical & Crew Resource
                     Management

                   FAA recommends:
                     • “Strong illusion of reality”
                     • Routine communications
                        » Outside ↔ Cockpit
                        » Pilot ↔ Pilot
    AC 120-35C          » Cockpit ↔ Cabin
                     • “Credible & realistic”
     (9/2004)
Currently, instructors role-play radio comm

A challenge because…
• Divides instructor
  attention
•  Instructor workload

As a result,
•  Pilot workload
• Pilots not prepared
  for “real world”

                          More information at
                                    http://www.volpe.dot.gov/hf/pubs.html
Error Types in 67 IOE ASRS Incident
Reports where Radio = Primary Factor
(N=93)
  Altitude & Crossing Restriction Violations
  Course Deviations
  Runway Incursions
  Unauthorized Landings
  Approaches/Landings on Wrong Runway
  Separation Losses
  Approaches/Landings on Wrong Airport
  Lost Communications
  Unauthorized Takeoffs
  Other
Data Comm: Benefits

 • Information does not disappear
 • Read at pilots’ convenience
 • Select clearances directly loadable to
   (some) FMS
 • No problems w/ accents & speech rate
 • No problems w/ radio
Data Comm: Challenges
 •   Heads-down time
 •   Party line loss
 •   Passive readback
 •   No information from tone of clearance/readback
 •   Visual information overlooked?
     – Incoming Data Comm on FMS requires paging
         • away from current activity
         • to get full message
     – Aural alert may be insufficient & indistinguishable from other alerts
 • Mixed voice/Data Link may distract from one other
 • Controller must track multiple comms w/ delayed response
   times
Summary

 • Radio communications simulation is important
   for safety
   – Will likely remain for clearances requiring immediate
     action
 • Data Comm will solve some & bring new
   training challenges
 • Simulators & instructors must be ready for
   them (both for pilots & ATC)
 • Challenge for FAA, industry, airlines
Where we are now…
•   Industry has developed automated radio comm systems
      – Fully coordinated traffic & ATC
      – Voice-recognition software
•   ICAO Doc. 9625 specifies requirement for radio comm
•   Training practices will need to incorporate radio & Data Comm
Thanks & Contact
                         Principal Investigator:
                          Judith Bürki-Cohen

                 Contact: judith.burki-cohen@dot.gov
 •   Volpe

      – Drew Kendra, Kim Cardosi, Andrea Sparko
 •   FAA

      – Eleana Edens, Tom Longridge, Dan Herschler
 •   NASA Ames

      – Barb Kanki
          Configurable Air Transport Flight Simulator
                 Upgrade to 737NG (CATS II)
     Task: Upgrade CATS flight simulator from manual flight
        part task cockpit to full scale Boeing 737NG flightdeck

      •   Simulator upgrade provides platform:
           •   Human-In-the-Loop (HITL) experiments
               Investigation of new technologies, automation   Original
                                                               CATS I



      •   Simulator supports two-crew simulations:
           •   Adds realistic functional automation
           •   Replicates crew workload and procedures on
               airport surface and in all flight phases

                                                                New
                                                               CATS II




14                    14
        CATS II - Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS)
                     + Custom HW/S
      •Dimensionally accurate 737NG panel and flightdeck
     • Wide Out-the-Window view
     • Functional overhead systems panel
     •Functionally complete controls
     •Motorized auto-throttle feedback
     •Updatable navigation database
     •Instructor control station




                                             Workload Environment for HITL Experiments
                                             With Face Validity




15                    15
     CATS - Configurable Base for HITL Experiments


     • Functional / accessible automation for Captain and
     First Officer (FO) position
            Mode Control Panel (MCP)
            Flight Management System (FMS)
            Flight Displays

     •Custom Displays/Auxiliary Displays
          Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI)
          Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)
          Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
          Aircraft Communications Addressing and
         Reporting System (ACARS)
                                                            EFB

             Currently Addressing : Procedures; charting issues, displays




16                     16
      CATS II
     A Few Thoughts about RNAV and RNP and
        NEXTGEN, Human Factors Domain




17                 17
     Other Activities
     Flight tests




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     FRA’s Cab Technology
     Integration Lab (CTIL)
     Gina Melnik, Ph.D.
     Behavioral Safety
     Research & Demonstration
     August 18, 2011




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     Overview

     •   Background
     •   “Tour” and features
     •   Research tools
     •   CTIL Research




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     CTIL Background

     • CTIL is a full-size SD-70 locomotive cab simulator
     • Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) resource
     • Housed at / supported by Volpe Center




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     CTIL Background

     • FRA determined a need:
        • Human factors causes are cited for ~33% of all rail accidents
        • Demands on rail operators are increasingly complex
               (e.g. emerging technologies, high speed rail)
        • Limited ability to study human interface and human performance
          in the cab
        • Refits of new technologies, cab configurations and operating
          practices result in higher costs

     • FRA conceptualized an approach to address this:
        CTIL – a robust, high-fidelity locomotive simulator




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     CTIL Background


     • First and only locomotive simulator in the U.S. designed primarily for
       human-factors research (as opposed to training)

     • Intended to allow broad collaboration with stakeholders on
       fundamental problems of operator performance in the locomotive
       cab – particularly with regard to integrating new cab technologies
       and configurations.
        • Enable both government and independently-funded research
           projects
        • For use by railroads, AAR and other industry groups, academia,
           government, and other industry researchers




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     CTIL “Tour” & Features

     • Fully self-contained and portable
     • Two components: researcher workstation and locomotive cab




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     CTIL “Tour” & Features

     • Researcher workstation




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     CTIL “Tour” & Features

     • Locomotive cab




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     CTIL “Tour” & Features

     • Drop-down rear wall
     • Built-in HVAC system




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     CTIL “Tour” & Features
     Cab Interior




         • High-resolution, panoramic out-the-window views.
         • Connections for up to 16 video recording channels.
         • Audio recording channels




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     CTIL Research


     CTIL is open to those that want to pursue basic human factors
       research questions, e.g.
             • Methods to improve locomotive operator performance;
             • Ergonomic issues related to cab design and layout;
             • Guidance for the integration of crew-supportive technology
             • Assessing the impact of new locomotive cab technologies,
             displays, controls and configurations.




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      CTIL Research

     • Research Tools
        • Scenario authoring
        • Noldus Observer 9.0 XT (data visualization and analysis)
        • Head and eye tracking system
        • RAMSIS (human figure anthropometric modeling)
        • Statistica (statistical analysis)
        • Locomotive Analysis Tools (LOCAT) (human performance modeling)
        • Post-run analysis (performance review)




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     CTIL Research Projects




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      CTIL Research Projects
     Cab Workspace Ergonomics (QinetiQ)

        Video kinematic and workspace
          ergonomic data was collected at the
          Engineer’s workstation in CTIL as
          part of a larger study on whole body
          vibration in locomotive cabs.

        Goal: to give the FRA an indication of
          the effectiveness of the workspace
          associated with a typical AAR
          control stand.




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     CTIL Research Projects
     Cognitive Distraction and Attentional Error (Veolia)

     High speed rail is putting increased pressure on engineers to
        process information faster and more efficiently and to sustain
        their attention

     Goal: Develop and test a sustained attention training program
       aimed at teaching engineers how to better attend while
       operating trains in order to reduce the incidence of major rule
       violations.




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     Volpe CTIL Contact:


                            Gina Melnik
                   Engineering Psychologist
                    CTIL Program Manager
       Volpe Behavioral Safety Research & Demonstration

        Volpe National Transportation    Phone: (617) 494-3935
               Systems Center            Fax: (617) 494-6622
           Behavioral Safety R&D         Gina.melnik@dot.gov
                55 Broadway             Web: www.volpe.dot.gov
            Cambridge, MA 02142




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     FRA CTIL Contact:


                           Michael Jones
       Program Manager Human Systems and Technology
         FRA Office of Railroad Policy and Development

        Federal Railroad Administration
                                           Phone: (202) 493-6106
              Office of Railroad
                                            Fax: (202) 493-6333
           Policy and Development
                                          Michael.e.jones@dot.gov
                 Mail Stop 20
                                           Web: www.fra.dot.gov
          1200 New Jersey Ave., SE.
            Washington, DC 20590




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