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Introduction to Accident Investigation

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Introduction to Accident Investigation Powered By Docstoc
					Accident Investigation


      Prof Ir. Dr. Radin Umar
   radinumx@eng.upm.edu.my
• More than 800,000 World
  Fatalities/year
• 6,000 Deaths in Malaysia per year
  (20 Jumbo Jets Crashed/year)
                                                     Fatalities Road in Some Countries

                         200.00 190.00
                                         185.00
                         180.00

                         160.00
                                            140.00
Fatalities/10,000 Vehs




                         140.00

                         120.00

                         100.00

                          80.00

                          60.00                   48.00

                          40.00                           32.50

                                                                  15.20
                          20.00                                           9.10 8.40 5.44 5.30
                                                                                              5.17 5.07 4.30 2.81 1.90 1.81 1.80 1.80 1.44
                           0.00
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                               E




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                           G
                           fr
                          A
                                   Kematian
                                     Ribu




       0
           1
                           2
                               3
                                   4
                                       5
                                                        6
                                                              7
                                                                  8
                                                                      9
                                                                          10
1972


1974


1976


1978




           Actual Deaths
1980


1982


1984


1986


1988


1990
                                           Karak’s Accident




1992


1994


1996


1998


2000
                       Kematian
                         Ribu


                                                                     10




       0
           1
               2
                   3
                       4
                              5
                                                     6
                                                         7
                                                             8
                                                                 9
1972

1974

1976

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990
                                  Karak’s Accident




1992

1994

1996

1998
                       4950




2000
                       Kematian
                         Ribu


                                                  10




       0
           1
               2
                   3
                       4
                              5
                                  6
                                      7
                                          8
                                              9
1972

1974

1976

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998
                       4950




2000
                  10


                                                                             Forecast (9,127)
                   8                                                                                                 Reduction
                                                                                                                       30%
                   6
Kematian
           Ribu




                                Actual Deaths
                   4
                                                                                                  Target
                                                                                                 (6,389))
                   2



                                                     .00007.Vehicle. Population.Road         .2073 Data Collection
                   0
                                     Death = 2289{exp0                                 } {exp0
                   1972  1974  1976     System
                                     1978   1980
                                              } 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000
                      1973  1975  1977  1979   1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999
                                                           Tahun
   Predictive Model of yearly Traffic Deaths
   (Law and Radin 2000)

16000

14000
                            Original
12000
                            Trend
10000

8000                                       New
6000                                       Trend
4000

2000

   0
    71

    73

    75

    77

    79

    81

    83

    85

    87

    89

    91

    93

    95

    97

    99

    01

    03

    05

    07

    09
  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  19

  20

  20

  20

  20

  20
Fatalities per 10,000 Vehicles Year 2010
                  Target
15


13


11

                                                                                                                            Prediction
9
                                                                                                                            Actual

7


5


3
     1976
            1978
                   1980
                          1982
                                 1984

                                        1986
                                               1988
                                                      1990
                                                             1992

                                                                    1994
                                                                           1996

                                                                                  1998
                                                                                         2000
                                                                                                2002
                                                                                                       2004
                                                                                                              2006
                                                                                                                     2008
• 51% registered vehicles are
  Motorcycles (Work-Based Trip)
• 45% Accident Involvements
• 60% of the Fatalities
• Fatality Risk MCs is 17X higher than
  Car Occupants
      Faktor Kemalangan


• Manusia
                 67%


                        8%   • Kenderaan
                  24%




• Persekitaran
             Accident
             Prevention
             and Reduction
Percentage




                          71.5%
                                           Injury Control

                                                     25.3%
                                                                                   Post Injury
                                                                                   Initiatives
                                                                                3.2%
                                                 Time Period

                Died on the spot   Died within 3 hours of injury   Died within 30 days of admission
       Safety Planning Matrix in Malaysia

              Pre-Crash       Crash                Post-Crash
            Education       Compliance of           Skills of
Human       Campaign        safety devices          paramedics
            Enforcement
            Vehicle
            inspection      Vehicle and rider      Ease of
Vehicle                     safety features (air
            Crash                                  Evacuation
                            bags, occupant
            compatibility   restraints, children   Better rescue
            Vehicle         helmet, etc.)          tools
            standards
             Road           Safer road             Rehabilitation
Environment Engineering     furniture              centre
             programs
 Approach and Strategies

•Accident Prevention (Audit)
•Accident Reduction
  •Engineering(Blackspot)
  •Education
  •Enforcement
•Injury Control
•Post Injury Control
                   Crash

      Hospital             Police Station

Mortality   Morbidity
                              24-hours
                            Police Report
                 A&E

Mortuary         Ward         POL 27

 Record Department            MAAP 5
Digital
POL 27 -
Page 13
Simple numerical method for ranking and
comparing injury by severity

 AIS Code   Severity Description
    1       Minor
    2       Moderate
    3       Severe, not life threatening
    4       Severe, life threatening
    5       Critical, survival uncertain
    6       Maximum, currently untreatable
                 Abrasion     28.0%
Integumentary
    47.4%        Laceration   15.8%

                 Contusion    5.6%

Skeletal 35.9%     Limbs


Organ    4.4%
      2.0 m (bus)



       1.38 m (car)
A
    3.6 m
 




                               Tan  = 72 / 154, therefore  = 25.05

                   
     
                       72 cm
         
          154 cm

CDC of 05BDAW9
          Pre-Crash                               Crash Phase                 Post-Crash

                                                                              To Tangkak

Hard       MC1          VC1        VBC (Impact)                 VBC (Split)
Shoulder
Slow     MB1
Lane
                  VB1         MB + MC
    Fast Lane


     Guard Rail

                  To Air Keroh                         39.1 m                              32.8 m


                Bus                     Car
  Road Safety Initiatives in
         Malaysia


Accident Prevention Program
Accident Prevention Program
Five stages Road Safety Audits
1. Planning stage
2. Preliminary design stage
3. Detailed design stage
4. Construction and pre-opening stage
5. Post Opening stage
  Road Safety Initiatives in
         Malaysia



Accident Reduction Strategies
                               Road Safety Research Center



Accident Reduction Strategies
 New Road Transport Act (1999)
1. February 2000 – New act implemented
2. Sections 41,42,43 and 44 RTA-Higher
   penalties – mandatory imprisonment,
   withdrawing driving license and higher
   fines
3. Imposed on those found guilty in fatal and
   injury accidents following litigation
Accident Reduction Strategies

 1. Blackspot Programs
 2. Areawide Measures
 3. Route-based Measures
 4. Mass Action Plan
                Accident                Diagnostic Framework

                 POL 27          Geographical         Exposure
                                    Data                Data

Location                           Digitized/
                MAAP5              Scanned
  Code

Special


           Approach
 Code
Accident       Link, Node,            Cross
 Map          Cell & KM Post        Tabulation                Macro

                                        Analysis
     Blackspot Investigation,                                 Micro
                                         Target
     Analysis and Site Studies
                                        Road Users

     Blackspot Treatments              Safety Interventions

      “Before” & “After”               Statistical Modeling
            Study                      Intervention Model
Step 1: Data Recording

       Accident



         POL 27
POL 27
Page 1
POL 27
Page 2
POL 27
Page 3
Step 2: Computerization of
          Data

• Good Data
• Easy Access       MAAP
• Accurate         GIS

• Up to date
• IT
Step 3: Location ID Codes

              Accident



                 POL 27


Coding for
Node / Link/Cell/Km/Coordinates
• National Node-Link System
  Established (1:50,000)
Node yang ditanda pada Peta
Jalan JKR
Step 4: Retrieval System

           Accident



              POL 27


   Coding for Node / Link



       Update in MAAP5
             Retrieval System
Accident Sketch                       POL 27
 /Map/Photos

                            Key in

                                      MAAP
   Scanned

             Database Key
             field
Scanned images        Linking        MAAP Data



                                     Complete
                                       Data
        Step 5: Prioritizing/Ranking

                 Accident


                  POL 27

                   MAAP

                 Ranking

Worst    Worst      Worst     Worst      Worst
Link     Node       KM        Cell     Coordinate
Frequency of Accident
Blackspot in Shah Alam
       Ranking by Frequency
       Nodal Analysis on the Top Ten Blackspot in
       Seremban (1991 - 1993)

Node   Junction Name                                 Accident Rank
 225   Yam Tuan / Sheik Ahmad                           88     1
 214   Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Sheikh Ahmad              85     2
 002   Seremban - Tampin F001 / Seremban - P.Dickson    65     3
 215   Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Lee Fong Yee              55     4
 315   Jalan Za'aba / Dato' Wong Yik Tong               54     5
 226   Yam Tuan / Tunku Hassan                          50     6
 313   Jalan Za'aba / Dato' Linggi                      49     7
 047   Jalan Sungai Ujung N38 / Labu Lama               45     8
 216   Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Tunku Hassan              44     9
 218   Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Jalan Krishnan            41     10
            Step 5: Prioritizing/Ranking

                      Accident


                       POL 27

                        MAAP


                     Prioritise

                        Points    Cost     Statistical
Frequency    Rates
        Ranking By Point
      Accident Blackspot in Seremban (1991 -1993)

Node             Junction Name                     Accident Severity       Point Rank
                                           Fatal   Serious Slight Damage
214    Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Sheikh Ahmad   1        4      12      68    41.2 1
225    Yam Tuan / Sheik Ahmad                2        1      11      74    38.6 2
002    F001 / Rasah - Senawang               2        2      12      49    37.4 3
215    Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Lee Fong Yee   0        4      15      36    31.2 4
313    Jalan Za'aba / Dato' Linggi           0        4      13      32    28.8 5
315    Jalan Za'aba / Dato' Wong Yik Tong    0        2      9       43    21.8 6
226    Yam Tuan / Tunku Hassan               1        0      9       40    21.2 7
216    Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Tunku Hassan   0        1      13      30    19.4 8
047    Jalan Sungai Ujung N38 / Labu Lama    0        1      5       39    14.8 9
218    Dato' Bandar Tunggal / Jln Krishnan   0        0      9       32    13.6 10
          Ranking By Cost
   Accident Blackspot in Seremban (1991 - 1993)

Node            Junction Name                    Accident Severity        Cost (RM) Rank
                                           Fatal Serious Slight Damage
002    F001 / Rasah - Senawang              2       2     12       49    1,840,161.00   1
225    Yam Tuan / Sheik Ahmad               2       1     11       74    1,791,738.00   2
214    Dato' Bandar Tunggal/Sheikh Ahmad    1       4     12       68    1,256,634.00   3
226    Yam Tuan / Tunku Hassan              1       0      9       40      888,686.00   4
215    Dato' Bandar Tunggal/Lee Fong Yee    0       4     15       36      470,900.00   5
313    Jalan Za'aba / Dato' Linggi          0       4     13       32      449,952.00   6
315    Jalan Za'aba/ Dato' Wong Yik Tong    0       2      9       43      282,423.00   7
216    Dato' Bandar Tunggal/Tunku Hassan    0       1     13       30      218,162.00   8
047    Jalan Sungai Ujung N38/Labu Lama     0       1      5       39      169,895.00   9
218    Dato' Bandar Tunggal/Jln Krishnan    0       0      9       32      114,160.00   10
Step 6: Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
     •Searching and compilation of
     individual accident record
        •Production of Stick diagrams
          •Site survey and inventory
          •Production of location sketch
            •Production of collision diagrams
Step 6: Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
 Listing of accident
 keyfield


                  ***        E
                            S LECTING A CCIDENT RECORDS      ***

A CCIDENT RECORD FILES            FEDM EI94
             E
CONDITIONS S T :                 ROUTE NO.         = F0001
                                 KILOM ETRE POST     = 123

******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/009243   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/003243   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/003643   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/003243   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/007243   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/003543   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/001243   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/005443   ******
******   JOHOR (09)/01/05/94/004243   ******




         ***      END OF FILE * * *
Step6: Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
     •Searching and compilation of
     individual accident record
Step 6:Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
     •Searching and compilation of
     individual accident record
        •Production of Stick diagrams
Production of Stick diagrams
Step 6:Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
     •Searching and compilation of
     individual accident record
        •Production of Stick diagrams
          •Site survey and inventory
Site survey and inventory
Step 6:Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
     •Searching and compilation of
     individual accident record
        •Production of Stick diagrams
          •Site survey and inventory
          •Production of location sketch
   Production of Local Sketch

Blackspot at J alan Bechor Gonchar J unction

                                                       Masjid
                             Jalan Behor Gonchar




                ms
                     ms

                             ms



                                                   T




Problem:
Conflict at MC track
                                bicyclists
Pavement too wide for Pedestrian/
Right-turning traffic not protected
Step 6:Preliminary Accident Investigation

    •Listing of accident keyfields
     •Searching and compilation of
     individual accident record
        •Production of Stick diagrams
          •Site survey and inventory
          •Production of location sketch
            •Production of collision diagrams
Step 7: Interpretation of
   Collision Diagram
QUESTIONS TO ANSWER
       1. Where?
       2. When?
        3. Who?
        4. How?
        5. Why?
Step 8: Preliminary Diagnosis

        Primary Factor (s)
      Associated Factors (s)
           Perhaps…..
     Step 9: In - depth investigation
     and diagnosis of blackspots
  Traffic volume         Pedestrian flow
  /Composition



                            Headways and
Speed
                            gap available
measurements
                            Skid resistance
Conflicts

                       Lane balances
Geometric features



 Timing/Phasing
          Step 10: Final Diagnosis and
               Countermeasures

Carry out in - depth
investigation and diagnosis
of blackspots
                 Conceptual/functional
                 design of countermeasures
Step 11: Detailed Design
STEP 12: TREATMENT
Typical view of Exclusive Motorcycle Lane
Initiatives in NEMCL

      Paved Shoulder
       Programs
      Junction Treatment
       Measures
Step 13: Evaluation
Step 13: Evaluation
                              30
                                                                                  Step 13: Evaluation
Motorcycle Accident / month                                                                       Motorcycle lanes
                                                                             Accident
                              25                                                                  opened to public
                                                                             modelled
                              20

                              15

                              10

                               5
                                                                      Before period                     After period
                               0
                                   1

                                        4

                                             7

                                                 10

                                                       13

                                                            16

                                                                 19

                                                                        22

                                                                             25

                                                                                  28

                                                                                        31

                                                                                             34

                                                                                                  37

                                                                                                        40

                                                                                                             43

                                                                                                                   46
                              Jan '91                 Jan'92             Jan '93              Jan '94             Dis '94



                                                 Link Motorcycle Accidents
                                            =4.2 x 10 -8 Q 3.314 exp. - 0.471 LANE
                       Step 13: Evaluation

 Motorcycle Lanes: Our Experience
• 39% less Accidents
• 600% less Fatality
• Benefit:Cost = 5
                                 Step 13: Evaluation
Motorcycle Accidents/year =

0.0059294 QNMm0.2188 QNMn0.0665
QMm0.132 QMn0.1808
EXP (0.02279 SPEED – 0.0969 LWm – 0.0706 LWn –
0.00738 LNm – 5 SHDW + 6 LU)
5 = 0.0, 0.00903 and 0.02099 for SHDW = 1, 2 and
3, respectively,
6 = 0.0 and 0.00755 for LU = 1 and 2
Injury Reduction Strategies

Application of appropriate
safety policies, vehicle and
road engineering approaches
to reduce injury during crash
phase.
  Injury Reduction Strategies
Appropriate Programs:
1. New helmet standards (MS1:1996)
2. Campaign on proper usage of safety helmet
3. Data collection on real-world motorcycle
   crashes – hospital, vehicle and police
4. Development of motorcycle safety helmets
   specially designed for children
                                      Road Safety Research Center




   Post Injury Management
Survival and extent of recovery depend on
initial care given at roadside
Correct and efficient management system is
vital for survival of critically injured victims

The establishment of paramedic teams, trauma
centres and after-care services (rehabilitation
facilities)
Road Safety Research Center

				
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