Burns by pengxuebo


 70%  of burn
 injuries occur
 in the home

   Smoke alarms
   Candles (xmas)
   Pan placement on stoves
   Fire extinguisher
   Care around flammable products
    – (gasoline, kerosene) Nephew
 Appliances off
 Fireplace and wood stoves inspected
    Practice A Family Fire Drill
 Ladder for upstairs
 Baseball bat for windows
 Stickers on windows
 Plan an alternate escape
 Meet outside at a
  designated place
         House Fire Scenario
   You are in a bedroom, the door is closed,
    what do you do?
        House Fire Scenario
 Drop to hands and knees
  (more toxic next to the
 Crawl to door
    – Feel door, knob
      If hot, do not open
   Most deaths are from
    smoke inhalation
    Thermal Burns
 Caused   by :
 – Flames
 – Hot objects
 – Flammable vapor that ignites
 – Steam or hot liquid
     (baby in Texas)
 Thermal Burns:
   What To Do
    Thermal Burns:
    What To Do #2
   Remove smoldering, hot, or burned
 Do not remove “stuck” clothing
 Remove jewelry (necklace burn)
Thermal Burns: What To Do
  Make quick assessment
    – Check ABC’s
  It is appropriate to consider the following but
   don’t waste time
    – Determine depth of burn
    – Determine extent of burn (rule of 9’s
          Head = 9% (18% child & infant)
          One hand and arm = 9%
          Each leg = 18 % (14% child and infant)
          Front torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half)
          Back torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half)
        Thermal Burns:
          What To Do
   Rule of palm = 1%
    – Use for scatter burns
 See physician for burns to face, hands, feet or
 Circumferential burn? See physician
 Does victim have other medical problems?
   Chemical Burns
Caused   by:
 – Acids (batteries)
 – Alkalis (drain cleaners- often
   more extensive)
 – Organic compounds (oil
         Chemical Burns
 If substance is dry:
   – Brush off before rinsing with water
    – Protect yourself
   After brushing off chemical, or after exposure to
    liquid chemical:
     – Rinse with water for 20 minutes or longer
    – Remove contaminated clothing while flushing with
    – Final rinse? Use soap
   Chemical Burns #2
 Callpoison control
 Cover with dry sterile dressing
 Do not try to neutralize a chemical
  – (save label)
 Seek
     medical attention for all
 chemical burns
Chemical Burn to the Eye
   Flush 20 minutes with low
    pressure water
    –   Milk or other non-irritating liquid
    –   Remove contacts
    –   Flush outward
    –   Roll eyeball
 Loosely bandage both eyes with
  cold, wet dressings
 Seek medical attention
   Electrical Burns

 Prevention:
  – Outlet covers
  – Breakers
  – Gadget for checking power
  – Excessive number of power cords
   plugged in
    Electrical Burns
 External burns may not be
 May induce:
    – ventricular fibrillation
      (cardiac problems)
    – Respiration problems
   “Freeze” due to muscle
  – Electricity travels along nerves and
  – Exits body where it is in contact with
  – May have several exit sites
 Surfaceinjury may be “tip of the
 ice berg”
Car Accident Involving Power
 What  should you do first?
 Should you remove victim from the
 What if you feel tingling in your legs?
 Should you try to remove downed
  wires or poles?
 (buried power line)
Someone Has Made Contact
  with Power Inside Your
 What would you do first?
 Then :
    – Check ABC’s
    – Treat for shock
    – Seek medical attention
          What to do for
         Electrical Burns
 Once the power is off, Check ABC’s
 Spinal injury from fall?
 Treat for shock
 Most are 3rd degree
    – Cover with sterile dressing, elevate body part
    – Seek medical attention (burn center)
    – (combine / lift)
   Degree of Burns
Second-degree (partial
Third-degree (full
   First Degree Burns
 Affectsouter layer of skin
 Redness, swelling, tenderness, pain
 Usually heals without scarring
    Care of First-Degree
   Immerse in cold water 10 to 45 minutes
    or use cold, wet cloths
    – Cold stops burn progression
    – May use other liquids
    – Do not apply cold on burn covering >20% of the body
   Aspirin or ibpuprofen
          Acetaminophen will not reduce inflammation
   Bacitracin (no other OTC products)
    – Aloe vera , moisturizer lotion
    – Dressing?
   Drink plenty of water
       First Degree Burns

 Do   not:
 – Cover first degree burns
 – Do not use anesthetic sprays with
   benzocaine (may cause contact
 Second Degree Burns
  (partial thickness)
 Extends   into the inner layer of
 Blisters, swelling, weeping,
  severe pain
           Care of Second Degree
 Immerse in cold water / wet pack
 Aspirin or ibuprofen
 Drink plenty of water
 Apply bacitracin or Silvedene (do not use home
 Cover burn with non-sticking dressing
   If burn is extensive:
    – Treat for shock / seek medical attention
   Do not break blisters
   Hot tar on lip
    Third Degree Burns
 Extends through skin, muscle and
  bone -Nerve endings are destroyed
 Discoloration

 Area    larger than a half-
    dollar requires tissue
    removal and grafting to
    properly heal
    Care of Third Degree
 Usually not necessary to apply cold to areas of
  third degree
 Do not apply ointments
 Apply sterile, non-stick dressings (do not use
 Check ABC’s
 Treat for shock
 Medical help
    – (radiator burn)
   Usually 1st degree, sometimes 2nd degree
   Cool compresses
   Drink plenty of fluids
   Fever / chills
   Use lotions, bacitracin (lake, snow skiing, lips,
   Prevention:
    – Sunscreen: SPF 30 has only 3% > protection than SPF
   Skin cancer
       Respiratory Tract Burns
 All must receive medical care
 Nose to trachea receives brunt of the burn
 Swelling may appear in 2 to 24 hours
 Chlorine
    – Add to water
 Wall paper removers
 Bathroom cleaning agents (chemistry set)
    – Use products in well ventilated area
    – Don’t mix ammonia and bleach
   Toilet bowl flushes
  Other Moderate to
Severe Burns Requiring
     Medical Care
   Under 5 years old / over 55
   Breathing difficulties
   Other injuries
   Electrical injury
   Suspected child abuse (teacher liability)
   2nd degree >20% of body
   Third degree

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