Slide 1 - Clinton High School

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					Angiosperms- Flowering Plants
Phylum: Anthophyta
 First appeared 135 mya during
  Cretaceous period
 Most recent of plant phyla
 Vast majority of living plant species have a
  method of reproduction and development
  that involves flowers and fruits
Flowers and fruit
   Develop unique reproductive organs
    known as flowers
    ◦ They attract animals which transports pollen
      from flower to flower
    ◦ More efficient than wind pollination
 Flowers contain ovaries which surround
  and protect the seeds
 After pollination develops into fruit
    ◦ A wall of tissue surrounding the seed
      Protects the seed and aids in dispersal
      Aids in success of plants
Seed dispersal
   Using fruit to attract animals increases
    the range the plants inhabit
    ◦ Animals eat the fruit, seeds from the core
      enter the digestive tract and leave ready to
      sprout when the animal has traveled some
      distance from the parent plant
Monocots and dicots
 Cotyledon- the 1st leaf or pair of leaves
  produced by the embryo
 Two classes of angiosperms
    1. Monocots
     1. 1 seed leaf
     2. Corn, wheat, lilies, orchids, and palms
    2. Dicots
     1. 2 seed leaves
     2. Roses, clover, tomatoes, oaks, and daisies
Monocots vs. dicots
         Monocots                     Dicots

Seeds    Single cotyledon             Two cotyledon

Leaves   Parallel veins               Branched veins

Flowers Floral parts often in         Floral parts often in multiples of 4 or 5
        multiples of 3

Stems    Vascular bundles scattered   Vascular bundles arranged in a ring
         throughout stem

Roots    Fibrous roots                taproot
Woody and herbaceous plants
   Flowering plants can be subdivided by
    characteristics of stem
    1. Woody
     1. Made of cells with thick cell walls that support
        the plant body
     2. Trees, shrubs, and vines
      1.   Grapes, ivy, blueberries, rhododendrons, and roses
    2. Herbaceous
     1. Smooth and nonwoody
     2. Do not produce wood as they grow
      1.   Dandelions, zinnias, petunias, and sunflowers
Annuals, biennials, and perennials
 The life span of plants is determined by a
  combination of genetic and environmental factors
 There are three categories of plant life spans
    1.        Annuals
         1.        Grow from seed to maturity, flower, produce seeds and die in
                   one growing season
         2.        Garden plants such as marigolds, petunias, pansies, wheat and
    2.        Biennials
         1.        Complete their life cycles in two years
              1.     First year grow roots and short stems and sometimes leaves
              2.     Second year grow new stems and leaves then produce flowers and
                     seeds, once the flower produces seeds the plant dies
              3.     Parsley, celery, foxgloves, evening primrose
    3.        Perennials
         1.        Live for more than two years
         2.        Peonies, asparagus, and many grasses have herbaceous stems
                   that die each winter and are replaced in the spring
         3.        Most have woody stems
         4.        Palm trees, sagebush, maple trees, and honeysuckle

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