Docstoc

Process-Mapping-Training

Document Sample
Process-Mapping-Training Powered By Docstoc
					Process Mapping - Session One
       Northwest Vista College




                  Marlene Masten, instructor
    Welcome!

       A valuable tool
       An investment by your employer
       4 hours with break(s) – get back on time!
       Instructor-led discussion, audience participation,
        activities, exercises
       Participant’s Guide – left margin for notes
       Glossary and Appendices – back of Guide



2
    Your Instructor

       Marlene Masten
       Former teacher, past and current
        professional education and training
       Industrial engineer, project and personnel
        manager, consultant – more than 21
        industries and 14 countries
       Current local business consultant and animal
        rescue volunteer
3
    Getting to Know You

       Name?
       What department are you with?
       How long have you been with NVC / ACCD?
       What do you want out of this class?




4
    Course Objectives

        After this portion of the class, you will be
                           able to:
       Understand the benefits of process mapping.
       Identify different levels of processes (detailed
        versus high-level).
       Understand how to collect the data necessary
        for basic mapping – no small task!


5
    Course Objectives Achieved Through:

       Your instructor’s skill and experience
       Hands-on experience
       Group and independent exercises
       Guide for reference
       Questions and answers


6
    Course Agenda

                           First Session
       Introduction and overview
       Defining what is a process and what is process
        mapping
       Mapping benefits
       Getting started
       Collecting data



7
    Course Agenda

                  Your Guide continues with:
       Opening the process mapping toolbox
       Choosing the right tool for the task at hand
       Analyzing the process
       Documenting findings




8
    Why Do All This?

       Get a better understanding of your department’s
        processes.
       Focus on core processes and identify ways to improve.
       Enable all departments to use one tool and one
        consistent, continuous process when looking at how
        they provide services to meet their clients’ expectations.
       Focus your attention on wasted time and energy.




9
     Overview of the “Process Approach”


        Enables client satisfaction and consistency
        Formal and disciplined – to identify,
         understand, manage the activities and
         elements required by clients
        Meet requirements 100% of the time



10
     Process Management

              Teams who use this method:
        Understand “who” and “what” and “why”
        Document
        Measure
        Implement and improve




11
     Today’s Focus

        Documenting how work is done
        Allowing focus on core processes, enabling
         identification of opportunities for improvement

         Your Guide continues with more exercises &
          guidelines on two other mapping techniques.


12
     Define “process” (p. 5)

      “A series of actions or operations which lead to an
                    end” (Webster’s Dictionary)



        Example: What process is used to drive a car?
      Open door, sit, close door, foot to brake, seatbelt on,
             insert key, disengage parking brake …

           Are there any alternative steps or methods?
13
     Define “process map” (p. 6)

     “A graphic representation of a process, showing
           the sequence of tasks, using standard
                   flowcharting symbols”

        Standard, so anyone who picks it up can
         understand it.
        Document:
         –   What is really done
         –   What takes time
         –   What uses resources
14
     “Typical” Map                                                                                                    LEGEND


                                                                                                                         Railroad
                                                                                                                         Government Bldgs
                                                                                         High
                                                   Franklin St.                        School                            Schools



                                                                  Post Office

                                City Hall
                    First St.




                                                                                                Thrid St.
                                                  Broadw ay


                                            Elementary
                                            School
                                                                         Winding Way

           Police Station
                                                                                                            Library
                                       Utopia Rd.


                                                                           Middle
                                                                           School




        How can people get to work?
15      Alternate paths possible?
     Benefits of Process Maps (p. 6)

        Objectively describe how activities are done
        Document control points (like intersections)
        Show where variation exists (how many routes are
         possible)
        Investigate where problems may occur
        Highlight “handoffs” (go from one city to another)



16
     More Benefits of Process Maps

        Train others on processes
        Develop process thinking
        Logically identify areas that need to be
         improved (and with proof!)
        Identify best practices
        Monitor and update the process when
         conditions change

17
     Review – Process Maps

       “A graphic representation of a process,
         showing the sequence of tasks, using
            standard flowcharting symbols”

            process map = “flowchart”

          a “visual picture” of a process

18
     Example: Doing the Laundry




19
     Flowcharts show:

        Process as a whole
        Sequence of steps
        Relationship between steps
        Beginning and ending steps – the boundaries
         of the process




20
     Please answer the questions in your
                Guide, p.8-9




21
     Common Types of Flowcharts (p. 10-
     11)


        Basic / Detailed (“Value Stream”)
        Swim Lane (“Deployment”)
        Spaghetti (“Transportation / Work Flow”)




22
     Flowcharting Highlights

        The basic steps are the same no matter what
         type of map you use.
        Strive for a level of detail that is useful to
         your project – no more, no less.

     Example: “sort clothes” isn’t helpful to someone new.
                     You’d get pink laundry.



23
     What to Map?

        Series of activities or steps contributing to the final
         result or output
        Start and end of a process (boundaries)
        Interfaces / transition points / handoffs
        Inputs & outputs
        “Ownership”

                     Applies to every organization.

                Note that boundaries lead to interfaces.
24
     Process Ownership

        Department?
        Individual?



         Who is responsible and accountable for the
                           results?


25
     Core, Sub, and Activity Level Processes

                              CORE
                             PROCESS
                                     SUB-
                                   PROCESS

                      ACTIVITY

                                 TASK



        Possible to have one owner at each level
        Full definitions in Glossary
26
     Please answer the questions in your
               Guide, p. 12-13




27
     The SIPOC Form

     A process snapshot that captures information that
         will help you determine where that process
                       begins and ends.
                                          Process
            Supplier                                            Client

                                                      OUTPUT




     Suppliers (internal or external, vendors or another dept), inputs,
         process, outputs, clients (internal or external)
28
     Creating a SIPOC Form

        Identify process boundaries and key
         activities at a high level
        Identify key outputs and clients for each
         output
        Identify inputs and suppliers for each input




29
     SIPOC Diagram Format

     Supplier(s)
          Input(s)
                 Core process
                      Output(s)
                            Client(s)




30
      Please answer the questions in your
                Guide, p.15-16.

     Then discuss answers with the person
                  next to you.



31
      GROUP ACTIVITY

     Please close Guides.




32
     Group Activity Wrap-up
        Answer the questions on p. 17 in your Guide.
        How did it feel to wear a blindfold?
        Thoughts and feelings as moved around: navigator
         versus seeing impaired person?
        What did you wish your partner could have said to help
         you: navigator versus seeing impaired person?
        What did the observers notice about the interaction
         between the navigators and the seeing impaired
         persons?
        What could have been done to alleviate the navigator’s
         thoughts and fears?
        What could have been done to minimize the seeing
33       impaired person’s degree of frustration?
     Group Activity Wrap-up

         Navigators had information – their
                  partners did not.

         What does this exercise suggest about
         gathering information? Or even how to
           interview people about their work?




34
     Interviewing

                     Before mapping, you need to:
        Interview and/or watch the people actually doing the
         work
        Interview their supervisors and/or managers

          Leaders clarify scope, involved areas, types of
          measurement, rationale, and related information.

            But remember - NO JUDGMENT ALLOWED!
35
     Data Collection:
     Performing Interviews

        Ride-along – observe an individual and
         probe for more details
                            versus
        Panel – get information from a group of
         people all at once




36
     Data Collection Matrix

        Required in interviewing
        “Process Activity” = work being done
        “Input(s)” = materials, equipment, info, environmental
         conditions required
        “Output(s)” = product(s)/service(s) created or handed
         off
        “System(s)” = digital information accessed or reviewed
         to perform an activity
        “Reference(s)” = manuals, cheat sheets, etc., used to
         understand how to complete steps
37
     Data Collection:
     Ride-along Interviews

                   DO:                             DO NOT:
        Observe                          Make assumptions
        Take notes                       Add detail when it is not
                                           there
        Ask for clarification, more
                                          “Correct” the process
         detail
        Use Data Collection Matrix
        Watch for hidden steps (job
         aids, cheat sheets, etc.)
        Check often for
         understanding


38
     Data Collection:
     Panel Interviews

                     DO:                             DO NOT:
        Use checklist on p. 19            Make assumptions
                                           Add detail when it is not
        Facilitate by asking leading       there
         questions                         “Correct” the process
        Give everyone a chance to         Get too caught up in the
         participate                        format – most people
                                            haven’t been trained to use
        Ask for clarification, more        this technique
         detail
        Check often for
         understanding
        Seek consensus
        Use Data Collection Matrix
39
     Panel Interviews

        Use post-it notes for each person to put on blank
         flipchart, whiteboard, or table.
        Clean up – eliminate duplicates, combine similar ideas,
         agree on wording.
        Use consistent level of detail.

                               Remember:
        You are only collecting information.
        NOT an audit, check for compliance - NO judgment
40
     Data Collection:
     Checklist

        Planning ensures your time and your
         interviewees’ time is best spent.
        Use the checklists (p. 18, 19, & Appendix D)
         to make sure all of your bases are covered.
        Practice inquiry techniques (Appendix C)




41
     Review:
     Apply What We’ve Learned




42
     Review Role Play:
     Apply What We’ve Learned

                             Part One
        Get into pairs and turn to p.20
        Choose an interviewee versus interviewers
        Introduce yourself and the project’s scope
        Use verbal walk-through to get information
        Complete SIPOC Form
        Collect data using Ride-along interview method
         and the Data Collection Matrix
        Check for understanding
43
     Review Role Play:
     Apply What We’ve Learned

                         Part Two
        Record your group’s sub-process steps
         on sticky notes and put on classroom
         wall.
        Present your results to the class.




44
45
     Exercise Check

               Inputs:               Outputs:
        •   Pot             •   Mac ready to eat
        •   Stove           •   Empty box
        •   Water           •   Dirty pan
        •   Mac box         •   Dirty spoon
        •   Butter          •   Dirty pot
                            •   Dirty strainer
        •   Milk
                            •   Dirty measuring cup
        •   Spoon           •   Dirty water
        •   Strainer
        •   Plate/bowl
        •   Measuring cup
        •   Sink
46
     When Studying Any Process:

        Define core process using SIPOC Form
        Interview / observe
        Complete Data Collection Matrix
        Map
        Analyze for accuracy




47
     Process Mapping Toolbox

                        CONSISTENCY
        All maps use the same basic steps.
        Flowcharts use symbols to represent
         different kinds of process steps.




48
     Common Flowcharting Symbols

           Direction of flow
           Starting, stopping, or control point

           Decision point

           Processing

           Input or output (optional)
49
     *As a class, review flowchart in
               your Guide.




50
     Decision Diamonds

        Always pose a question – inspection or
         choice
        Lead to two or more paths
        Are best if you can put into yes/no format
        Use objective criteria, not subjective




51
     Basic Flowcharts with Detailed Steps Show:

        Sequence and relationship of steps
        Different types of actions with different
         shaped boxes
        Decision points
        Steps taken when things go wrong

               Most common type of flowchart

52
     Use Basic Flowcharts When You Need To:

        Understand, improve, and standardize a
         process.
        Show sequence and relationships in detail.
        Identify where people are doing things
         differently
        Highlight decision points.

     Use when a SINGLE organization or person is
        responsible for most steps in a process.
53
     Critical Components of Basic Flowcharts

        Process name
        Date of creation or update (version)
        Name of person or group creating it (contact)
        Clear start and end points (boundaries)
        Clear direction flow
        Consistent level of detail
        Numbered steps
        Key of symbol definitions
54
     Basic Flowcharts - Steps

        Clarify purpose
        Decide level of detail
        Write down all steps
        Decide start and end steps
        Arrange steps’ sequence
        Check for completeness
        Identify decision points (diamonds)
        Develop alternate paths for decision points
        Add flow lines and arrows
        Number each step
55
     *Tips for Basic/Detailed Flowcharts

        Walk the process.
        Draw first drafts manually.
        Use numbered reference sheets.
        Always date or provide version #.
        Maintain version control.
        Create a “parking lot” folder.
        Concentrate on process, not symbols.
        Ask lots of questions.

56
     More Tips for Basic Flowcharts

        Avoid confusion
        Identify contact(s) and boundaries
        Follow the flow and spot problems
        Note reference points
        Be sure it is easy to interpret




57
58
59
     *Let’s Practice Once More


      Using the steps in your Guide and examples
       given in class, create a detailed flowchart for
       how to pay your credit card bill with a check
                           (p. 29).

         Follow along in your Guide, using the
           instructions and all forms provided.

60
61
     Detailed Flowchart Activity Debrief

        It’s not easy to maintain a consistent level of
         detail.
        It’s not always easy to show different paths.
        Steps often need to be moved as you get
         clearer about the sequence.
        Numbering the steps is usually arbitrary.



62
     To Remember:

        Selecting the start and end points provides
         boundaries for the flowchart.
        It’s easier to follow when it has a consistent
         level of detail.
        Be sure you make it clear where decisions
         are made in the process.
        Sequence is shown by flow lines and arrows.

63
     How Much Detail?

        The more detail you have, the more
         information you have about how a process
         actually works.
        Lots of detail is necessary when it is absolutely
         critical the process be done exactly the same
         way each time.
        Weigh costs and benefits – detail takes time.
        Don’t get bogged down … or your users!
64
     Analyzing the Process

        Review the categories of:
          Who, what, when, where, why
          People, material, machine, environment, methods
        Map to see where can improve
        Have redundant steps?
        Do things in parallel?
        Reduce customer wait time or cycle time?
        Map to document how things are done here
        Get right level of detail?
        Is it accurate?
65
     All Good Flowcharts Should Have:

        Process name
        Date of creation or update (“version”)
        Name of person or group creating it
        Clear start and end points
        Clear direction flow
        Consistent level of detail
        Numbered steps
        Key of symbol definitions
        “Parking lot” folder
                   See appendix checklist for reference.
66
     Remember the Steps

        Review the process and its boundaries
        Identify chart type to use
        Have participants identify steps
        Use note/card per step, with chosen symbol
        Arrange steps in order
        Eliminate duplicates
        Determine and maintain consistent level of detail
        Number each step
        Transfer flowchart to paper or computer
        Check for completeness
67
     Wrap-Up

        Final thoughts or questions?

        Thanks for coming!




68

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:23
posted:12/20/2011
language:English
pages:68