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									 Starters

 Starters:
    fulfil a wide range of purposes, in particular using prior knowledge
     to introduce new topics;

    develop early levels of engagement and motivation;

    help to get all pupils quickly on task and to inject a sense of pace
     and challenge;

    are an alternative to commencing with a whole-class question-and-
     answer routine;




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                     Starters   OHT 7.2a
 Starters

 Starters:
    create a level of challenge which is dependent upon:
     – prior learning;
     – level or order of thinking;
     – management of pupil response;
    create an expectation that pupils will think and participate in the lesson;

    create a climate of interaction and involvement;

    create a sense of purpose in a part of the lesson which can be derailed
     by administrative and organisational tasks.




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                     Starters   OHT 7.2b
 Overcoming problems with starters

 Problems can be overcome by:

    careful planning and preparation;

    establishing a clear focus and dealing decisively with distractions;

    rigorously adhering to planned timings;

    using a variety of starter activities over time;

    using activities and routines which latecomers can quickly assimilate
     and join (for example, the initial task in the starter is explained briefly
     on a card which can be picked up and read by each pupil as they
     enter the classroom even if they arrive late);




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                         Starters   OHT 7.3a
 Overcoming problems with starters

 Problems can be overcome by:

    skilful teacher questioning, coupled with an insistence on thinking time;

    providing additional support for some individual pupils (for example, use
     of classroom support);

    adding extra challenge for some by, for example, increasing the
     complexity or sophistication of the activity.




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                     Starters   OHT 7.3b
 Some keys to successful starters
    Plan the starter as a discrete element of the lesson.
    Ensure that each element contributes directly to the overall lesson
     objectives.
    Choose a type of starter that best meets those lesson objectives.
    Take account of the range of learning needs of the group.
    Plan for the activity to be brief and keep to your planned timings.
    Make sure that your starters show progression over time.
    Keep instructions clear and concise.
    Deal with diversions and red herrings decisively.
    Use varied and unusual routines to create motivation.
    Plan for a brief conclusion at the end of the starter to consolidate the
     gains made.
    Talk to colleagues in other subjects to exchange ideas.

Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                      Starters   OHT 7.4
 Ready for more?

    Trial three different types of starter that you have not used before.
    Use your experience as a basis for a detailed departmental
     discussion about the possible inclusion of starters in the next unit of
     Year 7 work to be planned.
    Ensure that the discussion includes active sharing of strategies that
     teachers already use or that they have heard other teachers talk
     about. (Module 8 ‘Plenaries’ also contains ideas that can be used as
     starter activities.)
    In a department meeting in about eight weeks’ time, discuss the
     starters that team members have tried and the responses from
     pupils.
    Add a list of potential starters to your departmental planning
     documentation.

Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                      Starters   OHT 7.5
                                Plenaries




Key Stage 3 National Strategy
 Objectives

    To develop an understanding of the value and significance of plenary
     sessions

    To promote the use of a range of plenary sessions as a vital and
     integral element of all lesson types




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                  Plenaries   OHT 8.1
 Characteristics of plenaries

 Plenaries:
    draw together the whole group;
    summarise and take stock of learning so far;
    consolidate and extend the learning;
    direct pupils to the next phase of learning;
    occur at strategic moments in the teaching sequence;
    often occur at the end of lessons but can occur at other points in
     the lesson;
    highlight not only what pupils learn, but how they learn;
    help determine the next steps in learning.


Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                    Plenaries   OHT 8.2
 Purposes of plenaries

 Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range
 of purposes. In particular they:

    help pupils to crystallise, understand and remember what has
     been learned;

    refer back to the learning objectives;

    create a sense of achievement, gain and completion;

    take stock of where the class has reached in a task or a sequence;




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                  Plenaries   OHT 8.3a
 Purposes of plenaries

 Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range
 of purposes. In particular they:

    take learning further and deeper;

    provide an opportunity for the teacher to assess learning and plan
     accordingly;

    recognise and value the achievements of individuals and the class;

    prompt deep thinking by pupils about how they have learned.




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                  Plenaries   OHT 8.3b
 Other uses of plenaries

 Plenaries can also help teachers as they seek to:
    develop and instil a habit of reflection about/on learning;
    stimulate interest, curiosity and anticipation about the next phase of
     learning;
    help pupils to change what they have learned into a form which they can
     communicate;
    draw out applications of what has been learned;
    highlight and change misconceptions which have developed;
    highlight progress made and revise personal or group targets;
    develop assessment for learning;
    help develop pupils’ perception of themselves as learners.



Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                      Plenaries   OHT 8.4
 Video analysis

 How does the teacher help pupils to:

    plan, monitor and reflect on their learning?

    appreciate the value of their thinking?

    summarise their learning?

    make good progress?




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                       Plenaries   OHT 8.5
 Ready for more?

    In a departmental meeting view the two video sequences from this
     module and use handout 8.5 as an agenda for discussion.

    Discuss the strategies illustrated and share ideas about how they can be
     applied in your subject. You may find it helpful to use module 7 ‘Starters’
     for other ideas that can be used in plenary sessions.

    Agree on five strategies that you will trial and introduce them over a four-
     week period.

    Discuss how each of those strategies can be used to maximise pupil
     progress.

    Share the pupil responses with colleagues in a further meeting.




Key Stage 3 National Strategy                                     Plenaries   OHT 8.6

								
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