GM by ajizai

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									  What is Gender
 Mainstreaming?
 And How Do You
      Do It?
Prepared by Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh,
          for UNDP Belarus
   Gender Mainstreaming Training
        October 10-11, 2005
Exercise: What is your development
            problem?
                  PROBLEM                        SOLUTION



      Effect on       Effect on Men   Input by       Input by men
      Women                           women


X



Y
                  Very simple…
►      Make sure the “people” are
    disaggregated sufficiently to gain each from
    the revolution:
     As Agents: Do they participate?
     As beneficiaries: Do they gain?

       ►If   not, WHY NOT?
                     What it is not
►   Evaluate projects not only on the impact they have on the
    people/community/society/state, but also, to how best
    they involve people into the decision making process of the
    project.

►   In mainstreaming gender, we should not limit ourselves to
    looking at some indicators that measure how many women
    participate in the project (as numbers that participated, or
    beneficiaries, etc.,), or to ensure that the project did not
    impact negatively (discriminate) against women, but also,
    to what extend the project itself addressed the need, if
    any, to restore gender balance in that sphere.
           How in Principle?
1.   Knowing the differences from the
     beginning
2.   Having different targets
3.   If necessary, a bit of a push for the one
     that is left behind…. Affirmative action
4.   Institutionalizing it by addressing
     discrimination that may hamper their long
     term partnership in the revolution
    It does have requirements…
► As comprehensive strategy, it addresses the
  environment (corporate, office) in which policies
  and programmes are developed and implemented.
► Working environment is gender-sensitive,
  guaranteeing equal opportunities and treatment to
  both men and women.
► Sufficient technical capacity and human resources
  there to successfully implement gender
  mainstreaming
► Step   by Step Approach
       1) What is the issue?
► What isthe subject of your project or
 policy-making initiative? What is the
 question behind the question

► Does this issue affect men and women
 in different ways?
    2) What is the Goal? What do we
           want to achieve?
►   Does the goal pay attention to both men and women?
     If men and women have different needs, then the goal should be to meet
      both the needs of women and the needs of men.
     If men or women are disadvantaged in the given situation, then the policy
      goal should seek to redress this imbalance.
     These goals are thus “corrective”; they are about meeting the practical
      needs of both men and women.

►   Does the goal include a broader commitment to improving
    gender equality? Or balancing “gender”?
     Perhaps elements of the institutions, structures or underlying principles
      that contextualize the issue fundamentally hinder de facto equality
      between men and women. If so, the goal should be broadened to address
      these elements as well. These goals are thus “transformative”; they are
      about transforming institutions and structures (social, political,
      economic, cultural, etc.) so that full gender equality can be more readily
      achieved. (strategic)
        3) What do we know? Gender
                  Mapping
►   Sectoral or Policy Issues .Gender
    Questions What Do You Know?
       Indicators(quantitative and qualitative)
       Research Reports
       Govt. Programme
       Govt. Policy/LegislationNGO Projects
        Donors’ activities
         Gender Sensitive Statistics
►   Needed to:
      raise consciousness, persuade policy makers, promote change
      stimulate ideas for change
      monitor and evaluate policies
►   Types of Sources of Data
        Household budget surveys
        Population Census
        Time-Use Surveys
        Official Surveys
►   Gender statistics are scarce for:
        Male fertility
        school absenteeism/drop out rates
        access to credit
        Informal Sector
        Unpaid Work
        Time use
        Domestic Violence
        Decision Making in the household
        Resource Allocation within household
        Income and income control.
                 Analyze data
► Press for statisticians to give desegregated data,
  studies on time usage, and time budgeting.
► Know key questions to ask about the Economy in
  a gender analysis, such as:
► Who owns what, Who gets what?, Who does
  what?, How?, Who decides what? For whom?
► Then analyze gender relations in key institutions:
  State, Household, Market, Firms. Question
  ownership of property.
     5) Beware of Assumptions when
               designing
►   -> That participation in projects will of itself ensure that
    women will gain, when in reality it depends on the type of
    participation and the terms on which it takes place;

►   -> Women as an untapped pool of labour that can be
    drawn upon, despite their numerous other commitments;

►   -> The tendency to treat women as a homogeneous
    group, ignoring the important differences between them;

►   ->The simplistic assumption that women's interests, and
    those of men are necessarily the same.
 6) Design true human development
            interventions
► Integrate   that knowledge into:
     Design
     Implementation
     Monitoring
     Impact Assessment
Sectors
      Questions for Mainstreaming
►   What is the Issue? how and why these trends and
    issues are in fact “gender issues.”

►   What is the Goal? While goals exist at many levels,
    attention here is focused on the policy goal: i.e. what
    policy makers should be striving to achieve.

►   Why Bother? Arguing gender as a case of equity,
    efficiency, etc…

►   Measuring Progress: indicators that could be used to
    measure progress towards your policy goals.

►   Possible Interventions and Entry Points: Every
    situation is unique but s suggestions are meant to
    stimulate your own ideas. Identify Interventions by the
    Govenrment, NGOs, donors, other stakeholders.
                 Poverty
 Concepts:
 Studying Poverty
  ►Who  is poor?
  ►Why are the poor poor? (Structural issues, shocks,
   etc)
  ►How poverty affects men and women differently
  ►How coping mechanisms are different
 Developing indicators
          Economic Opportunities:
        Vulnerability and Opportunity:
►   Is there equity in access to resources? Land ownership, income
    (wages), access to credit?
►   Who dominates in the participation in the shadow economy?
►   Who controls the informal market (production? Trade? Global/regional
    trade?)
►   How equitable has the process of privatization been by policy/law?
►   How, in practice, have men and women participated differently in the
    process of privatization?
►   What has been the gender question in the impact of privatization?
►   In general, can we say who is the most affected by unemployment?
►   Is there a differentiated wage system? Practice?
►   Is the Occupation Market segregated?
►   Is there a gender issue in the restructuring of these fields?
►   Who has been most affected by migration? What is the impact of
    migration?
                   Interventions
► What  should be a good disaggregated,
 targeted policy to alleviate poverty?
   Macro-Economic
   Poverty Eradication strategies: PRSPs
   Social fund
   Micro credits
   Income Generation: Objective should be not to create
   more income, but allow for participation, equity, productivity,
   empowerment, sustainability, etc. For that, other enabling
   environments become key, such as linkages to networks,
   legislation, tax policies, kindergartens, etc.
                                 Poverty
►   Women face a higher risk of poverty than men. Discrimination against
    women in social practices and law result in their over-representation
    among the poor. As a result of their subordinate position, women also
    face greater difficulties than men in surviving and overcoming poverty.
    In addition, responsibilities assigned to women for care of children and
    other family members mean that the experience of poverty is different
    for women than men. This means that:
►   Poverty reduction strategies must take account of differences between
    women and men in resources and opportunities, and include measures
    to address the factors that particularly constrain women. Poverty
    reduction initiatives that do not pay specific attention to the situation of
    women will not necessarily reach or benefit women.
►   Longer-term strategies for women’s empowerment (including removal
    of the factors that particularly constrain women) are essential for
    poverty elimination.
►   The eradication of poverty cannot be achieved through anti-poverty
    programmes alone but will require democratic participation and
    changes in economic structures in order to ensure access for all women
    to resources, opportunities and public services. The need for gender
    perspectives in formulating policies on macroeconomic stability,
    structural adjustment, external debt, taxation, employment and labour
    markets – all these affect the conditions under which women and men
    work, and all must be examined to ensure that they have an equitable
    impact on women and men.
             Poverty Reduction:
► Women are frequently more severely affected by extreme
  poverty as they must allocate increasing amounts of time to
  ensuring household survival while continuing to be involved
  in economically productive activities.
► There is also increasing awareness that conventional survey
  methods do not adequately capture the gender dimensions
  of poverty and that they must be combined with
  participatory evaluation methods
► Dramatic progress has been made in increasing the access
  of women entrepreneurs and women's community
  organizations to finance and technical support services.
  Credit has proved one of the most effective ways to
  increase women's economic productivity and empowerment,
  and the repayment and loan utilization rate for women is
  frequently much higher than for men.
► There are still major challenges to ensure the sustainability
  of these programs and to improve the performance of public
  sector micro-credit programs
                  Macro-Economic
►   What issues:
      Privatization
      Liberalization
      Fiscal Policies
      Investments
      Inflation
      Trade
      Land reforms
      New Technologies
      Banking sectors
      Safety nets

►   ALL HAVE GENDER DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT: HOW IT IMPACTS MEN AND
    WOMEN, AND HOW IT IMPACTS THEIR RELATIONSHIP
              Macro-Economics
►   Is there a gender issue in macro-Economic planning?
►   Shouldn’t the overall goal of structural adjustment
    policies and practices be to eradicate social inequalities,
    particularly but not exclusively those based on gender?
►   Is the budget segregated to account for the gender
    differences both in numbers and in needs?
►   Should it be?
►   Do you think unpaid labor (reproductive labor) has a
    direct impact on the productive labor in Armenia?
►   Do you think the unpaid labor should be accounted for in
    the GNP?
►   Will there be an impact in the overall economic
    indicators of the country?
             What to do?
► What to do:
   Studies on impact
   Social safety nets
   Emphasis on human cost of macro-
    economic changes for UNDP:
    ►Inlinkage with HD mandate
    ►Sets different role than IFIs
    ►Render much needed advise
Does Decentralization increase women’s
  Representation and Participation?

►   Governance Process is not gender-neutral
►   Fallacies of Decentralization and Gender (That it increases grassroots (and
    women’s) representation.
      that centers of local power automatically allow for the participation of marginalized
       groups, or ensure their representation.
      That women’s interest, needs, perspectives and demands are in fact equal to that of
       men within the community
      That the process by which governance decisions and actions are taken at the local
       level automatically represent women’s interest without taking into account the basis
       of the male-biased concept of the process of governance.
      Bad practices of practice of patronage,
      rather than open opportunity, as basis of nomination for candidates, for example
       can leads to discrimination.
      Informal contribution of women
      Local elite groups more hostile to marginalized groups
      Cost of specific policies versus national decrees
      Such types of “top down” or “outside-in” pressure is felt in fact, more genuinely than
       bottom up pressure,
      local government officials were more likely to be linked to clan politics
          Issue of Gender is an issue of
                   participation
►   Instead, the conditions that challenge unequal access to participation or
    ensure representation must be examined. These conditions depend on:
        the structures of participation in place and new ones created
        available resources and competition over them
        control over means of participation
        the nature of local power structures
        The degree of organization and political visibility of women locally
        education and functional literacy
        access to information and IT
        decision making within the household
        Stereotypes promoted through the education system, the media, etc.
        traditions of mobilization


      1) The Cost-Cutting theory
      2) The corruption Theory
      3) The Social Issues Theory
         What is governance?
► governance   refers not only to formal public
  decision-making structures and processes
  (i.e. national and local government), but
  includes decision-making within the family,
  community and private sector as well.
► Mainstreaming: addressing the ways in
  which both genders participate in and are
  affected by various systems of governance,
  as well as the interaction between these
  various systems.
                    Issue and Goal
►   A gendered analysis of governance immediately highlights the issue
    of participation and representation.

►   Participation for Equal Ops to develop their capabilities

►   Representation: because not necessarily “Common Interest”


►   Goal is therefore twofold:
    1. to ensure balanced participation between men and women in
       national governance, which includes removal of structural and
       systemic barriers to women’s participation;
    2. to ensure that gender issues are integrated into decision-making,
       implementation, monitoring and evaluation of national governance
       initiatives.
      Why Participation and
        Representation?
► Justice
► Credibility and Accountability
► Efficiency: men elected to executive
  and legislative not familiar. Brain
  drain.
► Chain Reaction: Role models
        How to restore balance

► Criticalmass: a presence of not less than 30% is
  necessary.
► Capacity Building: training and capacity-building
  are essential – for both women and men
► National Machinery


   But not dealt with LAWS, DECREES, QUOTAS
   Have to deal with systemic barriers that prevent.
                    Participation
► Participation is one area where the gender segregation is
  widening. Political parties and the Parliament are mostly
  men, NGOs and associations have outnumbering
  representation of women. All the answers show a variety of
  methods to ensure a more balanced access to the decision
  making process, and most stress the evolutionary one, not
  through quotas etc.
► Public awareness and education of three target groups
  could be part of the “Democracy and Good Governance”
  Project. These are: 1) voters in general, about the merits
  of voting for a more balanced representation, 2) women
  candidates for good presentation, advocacy, mass media,
  etc, and 3) men and women political leaders on elaboration
  and implementation of gender policy for an equitable and
  efficient society.
       Water Supply and Sanitation

► Women   and Men different roles and
  responsibilities in rural areas
    Who does cash generating activities, irrigation, cattle
    Who collects, uses and manages water in the
     household?
    Who plays role in disposing of household waste?
    Who educates about hygiene
► Tailoring project design to recognize such
  considerations helps ensure that project facilities
  will be used by both sexes and that women's
  contribution to agricultural production and
  household income can be maximized.
     Health, Nutrition and Population

►   Gender issue is clearer, however
►   Planning and budget allocations often give priority to
    expensive, modern urban based hospitals and health
    services which are less accessible to women (particularly
    rural women) than to men.
►   Lack of capacity for training for women medical
    professionals
►   Cultural factors continue to maintain inequities in access to
    and use of services and also contribute to inequitable
    allocation of food within the household.
►   Gender based violence also has important health, as well
    as economic and political, implications.
             Rural Development

► Women    farmers currently under-perform due to a
  lack of access to credit, information, extension
  services and markets and because household
  duties and child-care limit the time they have
  available.
► Removing these constraints can significantly
  increase agricultural productivity - particularly in
  regions where women play an increasingly
  important part in farm management and
  production.
Transport, Energy and Infrastructure

►   Route planning frequently constrains women's economic productivity
    by not responding to their needs to combine work related travel with
    travel relating to their household responsibilities in the fields of
    education, health and marketing.
►   The failure to consider the gender dimensions of transport demand
    imposes high monetary, physical and temporal costs on female users.
    It also results in sub-optimal economic and time-allocation decisions by
    the household and particularly women.
►   Women's access to transportation also determines their utilization of
    existing health, education and other services.
►   Women's insights can also mitigate negative impacts of project design
    in areas such as the impacts on child safety, access to markets,
    women's time-burden etc.
►   Finally, increasing women's ownership of projects can significantly
    contribute to maintenance and sustainability.
                        Environment
►   How are women and men impacted differently by the environment?
►   How do men and women participate differently in environment protection
    practices?
►   How are men and women consulted separately on environment policies?

►   By nature of the different jobs and duties (in society, in household) that men
    and women do, the impact of the environment is different on them, and men
    and women, if consulted separately, would have different solutions to
    environment problems seen from their angles. This is more felt at the
    community/household level, and to a lesser degree at the national level.
    Projects that work on environment policies might want to consider that and
    those that work with communities might want to study/monitor this question.

►   Here, as in elsewhere, the different gender impact and gender participation
    has implications for planning efficiently (both in order not to aggravate the
    situation for one or the other gender by mistake, and to use the opportunities
    presented by the different approaches for a more realistic and holistic
    approach.
►   Both women and men have productive roles in relation to
    natural resources, and the (usually different) roles of each
    must be taken into account for effective programme design
    in initiatives for environmental sustainability
►   Unequal access to assets and resources results in
    insecurity of access to land by women, with consequences
    for their ability to adopt environmentally sustainable
    practices, which has implications for policy on land tenure
    and programmes related to agriculture
►   women and men are often differently affected by
    environmental degradation because of different work
    patterns and tasks of women and men in both the
    workforce and the household
►   Degradation of the environment has specific implications
    for women – negative effects on income possibilities,
    health and quality of life.
►   Women remain largely absent from formal policy
    formulation and decision-making, even though they have
    taken a leadership role in promoting an environmental
    ethic.
                       Education

►   Is there a discrepancy in equal opportunity to education?
►   Is there a difference in access to education, higher, lower,
    urban, rural?
►   What is the education occupation segregation? Who does
    what?
►   Is the drop-out rate a gender issue?
►   What is the impact of the drop-out trends on gender
    relations in the future?
►   Is the enrollment rate at higher education differentiated?
►   Is there an impact on enrollment rates in higher education
    on gender relations in the future?
► Studies  have shown that the economic rate
  of return of investing in girls education is at
  least as high, and usually higher than the
  return on investing in boys education.
► Social returns on girls education (improved
  health and education levels of children,
  lower population growth rates etc.)
► The   introduction of paid education, conscription
  into the army, the involvement of girls/boys into
  family agriculture, etc., would probably mean
  that some families might have to make choices
  between the future education of their boys or
  their girls.
► When women don’t have job possibilities, they
  continue higher education, which might explain
  the higher numbers of educated women than
  men
► However, the spheres of education is also
  gender specific. This means that some
  professions, in the future, will be the domain of
  men or women and that may not be good for
  efficiency, and the different “wealth” (assets and
  incomes of men and women), etc.
                               HEALTH
►   Is there a difference in the access to paid services?
►   Is there a difference in the impact of paid health services?
►   What is the health occupation segregation? Who does what?

► The health sector, especially in terms of participation, is a
  segregated field
► Women seem to be more generalists (low pay, low
  mobility) and men more high tech (more pay, more
  decisions).
► Low pay jobs are more vulnerable to restructuring. High
  tech jobs are more rare in a “de-professionalized”
  environment.
► In addition, of course, the entire family care policy and
  practice of the government has also implications for the
  growth of healthy generations, etc.

								
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