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					Nuclear Medicine
     Made By: Sarah
   What is general nuclear
   medicine?
Medical Imaging using small
amounts of radioactive materials
to treat diseases and cancers.

Use two kinds of radioactive
materials…
o radiopharmaceuticals
o radiotracers
Different ways it is injected…
The radiotracer is either injected
into a vein, swallowed or inhaled as a
gas and goes to the area of your body
being examined. This gives off the
energy in the form of Gamma rays.
This will measure the amount of
radiotracer that your body absorbs.
This produces special pictures
offering details on both the structure
and function of organs and tissues.
Most Common- Bone Scan
Used to reveal…
 Stress fracture
 Fracture
 Infection
 Cancer in the bone or joints


Scanning can only be performed 2
hours afterwards.
  Cardiac Studies
Several cardiac studies are
found with nuclear medicine.
 Myocardial perfusion scan
to access coronary heart
disease.
 Injection of the tracer is
done while the patient is
exercising on a treadmill
machine.
   Other Studies
Brain Scan- commonly used to   •Parathyroid studies - detect and
diagnose…                      localize parathyroid adenoma in
o Alzheimer's disease          patients with elevated blood
o Strokes                      calcium.
o Brain death
o Tumor                        Lung studies - commonly used to
                               detect blood clots in the lungs.
Thyroid studies-
o Evaluate thyroid nodules
o Function of the thyroid.
                                          How PET works
Positron Emission Tomography(PET)
detects the gamma rays given off at the site
where a positron emitted from the
radioactive substance collides with an
electron in the tissue.
For example, PET can show images of
glucose metabolism in the brain, or rapid
changes in activity in various areas of the
body.
* Good for detection and staging of many
cancers, such as
lymphoma
Does it harm the body?
The radioisotopes used in nuclear
medicine decay quickly, in minutes to
hours, have lower radiation levels than a
typical X-ray or CT scan, and are
eliminated in the urine or bowel
movement.
But some cells are severely affected
by…
 Ionizing radiation –
 Alpha, beta
 Gamma
 X-rays.
   Common Uses

 analyze kidney function                    identify bleeding into the bowel
visualize heart blood flow and function     locate the presence of infection.
                                             measure thyroid function to detect an
scan lungs for respiratory and blood
                                            overactive or underactive thyroid
flow problems                                investigate abnormalities in the brain,
identify inflammation in the               such as seizures, memory loss and
gallbladder.                                abnormalities in blood flow
evaluate bones for fractures, infection,    localize the lymph nodes before
arthritis and tumors.                       surgery in patients with breast cancer
determine the presence or spread of        or melanoma.
cancer in various parts of the body
How is it performed?

 The gamma camera will take a   Actual scanning time for
series of images.                nuclear imaging exams can take
                                 from 20 minutes to several hours
 The camera may rotate around
                                 and may be conducted over
you or it may stay in one        several days.
position.
 The camera may move very
close to your body.


   Nuclear Medicine Technology video
   Benefits
The information provided by nuclear
medicine examinations is unique and
often unattainable using other imaging
procedures.
For many diseases, nuclear medicine
scans yield the most useful information
needed to make a diagnosis or to
determine appropriate treatment, if any.
Nuclear medicine is less expensive and
may yield more precise information than
exploratory surgery.
   Risks

 Radiation Exposure
 Natural Background Radiation =
295 mRem (82%)
 The greatest potential risk from a
procedure using radiation is the
development of cancer.
A little bit of History
1896: Henri Becquerel was the first scientist to discover radiation.
Early 1900s: Georg von Hevesy used radioactive tracers to study the uptake of radioactive lead by plants. Georg
also studied the movement of phosphorous in the human body by using radioactive tracers.
1929: Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron. The cyclotron was the first particle accelerator. With this
invention, radioactive substances could be produced easily. These substances could be used as radioactive
tracers for medical purposes.
1938: Glenn Seaborg along with Emilio Segre, discovered technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a common
radioactive tracer used in nuclear medicine. Because of all the upcoming research at the time, a new
organization was created. Marshall Brucer headed the Society of Nuclear Medicine.
1943: Georg won the Nobel Prize for the development of the radioactive tracer.
1958: Hal Anger invented the gamma camera. The gamma camera absorbs gamma radiation with a crystal. The
absorption produces a flash of light, which is picked up by a computer that constructs an image from these
flashes.
  1896- Henri Becquerel
  discovered radiation

 Born- Paris on December
15, 1852
 1895- He became a
Professor at the Polytechnic.
 Died- August 25, 1908
Georg von Hevesy
 Born- August 1st, 1885
 Discovered the element hafnium
 Studied the effect of X-rays on the
formation of nucleic acid in tumors and
in normal organs.
 1943: Georg won the Nobel Prize for
the development of the radioactive
tracer.
 Ernest Lawrence
 Born- US, August 8, 1901
 Died- August 27th, 1958
 During World War II he made vital contributions
to the development of the atomic bomb, holding
several official appointments in the project.
 Inventor of a method for obtaining time intervals
as small as three billionths of a second, to study the
discharge phenomena of an electric spark.
 Developed precise method for measuring the
e/m ratio of the electron.
Ernest Lawrence- con’t
 1929 he invented the cyclotron- a device for accelerating nuclear
particles to very high velocities without the use of high voltages.
   Glenn Seaborg along with Emilio
   Segre
 Seaborg born- April 19, 1912
 Serge born- February 1, 1905
 Seaborg's research led to the creation
of the isotope iodine-131, which is used
to combat thyroid disease to this day.

 Identified 8 elements…
                                       • americium (95)    •fermium (100)
                                       •curium (96)        •mendelevium (101)
                                       •berkelium (97)     •nobelium (102)
                                       •californium (98)   •Seaborgium (106)
                                       •einsteinium (99)
             Born- May 24, 1920 in Denver, CO
             Died- October 31, 2005
             Developer of gamma camera revolutionized medical
            imaging.
             The first gamma camera report by Anger was published
            in 1952 on the use of a pinhole camera for in vivo studies of
            a tumor.
Hal Anger
Bibliography
http://www.beaumonthospitals.com/radiation-risks-for-nuclear-
medicine-exams
http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/23309/hal_anger_nucl
ear_medicines_quiet_genius/
http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/seaborg.html
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1943/
hevesy-bio.html
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1939/law
rence-bio.html
s/1939/law
rence-bio.html

				
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