Instructional_Use by xiaoyounan


									Integrating Information Technologies Into the Curriculum
Plano ISD has been working diligently since 1988 to fully integrate our district-based
curriculum with appropriate technology tools to facilitate best practices for teaching
and learning in the classroom, to meet group and individual student needs and to
maximize each student’s learning environment. The district follows these general
guidelines and strategies for integrating information technologies in the classroom:

       ♦ focuses on basic skills, content, and higher level thinking skills.
       ♦ encourages lifelong learning.
       ♦ structures learning around meaningful concepts.
       ♦ provides connections among the various curricular disciplines.
       ♦ provides learners opportunities to apply skills they have learned.
       ♦ incorporates a variety of authentic assessments as an integral part of learning.
       ♦ encourages active participation in relevant real-life experiences.
       ♦ captivates, motivates, and challenges learners.
       ♦ accommodates a variety of learning styles and multiple intelligences.
       ♦ provides for deeper understanding of the depth and complexity of content.
       ♦ offers opportunities for whole group, small group and individualized
       ♦ incorporates technology as an integral part of learning


At the elementary school level, a curriculum/technology integration project started in
Spring 1993, provides the framework that enables integration to occur.

While the philosophy and design of the curriculum content and delivery was being
discussed, similar concerns were being addressed in the technology arena as to how a
wide variety of software packages needing different hardware specifications could be
integrated over a networking system. The ongoing challenge is to keep the integration
of curriculum content and design in sync with the integration of various technologies.
The overriding factor of technology integration is to meet the identified needs of the
curriculum. In other words, the instructional
program needs to drive the technology
implementation. At no time should the
technology program restrict what the
instructional program needs to
                                              Curriculum         Integrated  Technology
accomplish. This figure depicts fairly        development       Curriculum   implementation
accurately the overall development of         and design           Project
the integrated curriculum and shows the
close relationship of curriculum and
technology development.

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
The Plano ISD model for classroom technology to support the elementary curriculum
       • a student to computer ratio of 3:1
       • a multimedia teacher computer
       • a 27” television monitor with both cable and computer video connections
       • a videodisc player
       • a videocassette recorder (VCR)
       • ethernet network connections for the delivery of curriculum software
       • local based CD-ROM software
       • Internet connections
       • mobile broadcast carts
       • online library resources such as encyclopedias and digital video streaming
       • wireless laptop carts
       • video image display devices
       • staff development sessions devoted to curriculum and instructional
          technology use
In addition to the above classroom technology, schools are encouraged to provide
production centers in the libraries to enable students to work in small groups using
equipment such as scanners, camcorders and digital cameras which are not found in
individual classrooms. A technology budget is provided at each campus that can be
used to purchase additional technologies and supplies.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE PLAN: This scope of classroom technology implementation
in combination with the integrated curriculum development has occurred over a
number of years as models were tested and funding became available.
      • 1993 - two pilot classrooms in February
      • 1994 - 30 more model classrooms
      • 1995 - 90 more classrooms added
      • 1996 - installed an additional 70 classrooms and equipped three new schools
      • 1996-2000 - completed 880 existing classrooms and equipped six new schools
         - this model is now our standard classroom configuration and is an integral
         part of our educational specifications for new schools
      • 2000-2003 – maintained classroom environments through replacement plan

CURRICULUM INTEGRATION: The technology infrastructure listed above exists for
a single reason - to support the needs of the elementary curriculum. An integral part of
the technology implementation included the development of interactive software for
the Integrated Curriculum project involving sophisticated simulations and multimedia
databases designed specifically to support science and social studies grade level
curriculums. In addition to these custom designed software packages, our elementary
curriculum is supported by a variety of language arts, mathematics, Bilingual, ESL,
special education and other content specific software, as well as several software tools.

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
INSTRUCTIONAL CHANGE: The integration of technology into the curriculum
requires changes of significant magnitude in educational philosophy, classroom
management and curriculum goals. For the technology to be used optimally, teachers
must be comfortable with a constructivist or project-based problem solving approach to
learning. The curriculum and technology integration enables all students to be
successful learners. Often we are asking teachers to integrate new philosophies of
education, classroom management techniques and new ideas about interdisciplinary
and individualized education into their daily practice. Of course, these same types of
strategies and techniques are already part of our integrated curriculum. A typical
classroom configuration as well as specifications for the hardware is found below.
More information on the project can be found on our Internet server at

                                                            Typical Plano Independent School
                                                            District elementary level classroom
                                                            configuration (22 students).

                                                                  Teacher workstation and
       Student computers at                                       multimedia bundle at
       Centennial Elementary School.                              Centennial Elementary School
    Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
Hardware Specifications to Support the Elementary Curriculum

Each classroom is equipped with a 27” TV/monitor capable of multiple video and
audio inputs including SVHS. The function of this monitor is to facilitate large and
small group discussions and presentations. Connected to the monitor for display
purposes are:
       • a multimedia computer
       • a video cassette recorder (VCR)
       • a level 3 videodisc player
       • A and B channel cable TV
       • internal, campus-based video network

                                             In addition to the large group display
                                             options above, each classroom has student
                                             computers at a ratio of 1 computer for every
                                             3 students to facilitate the multitasking
                                             environment. These computers are
                                             connected to a campus local area network
                                             via a 100 Base-T ethernet protocol to allow
                                             for application and program sharing, while
                                             Internet access is provided through the
                                             district wide area network. A laser printer
                                             is provided on the network for every four
                                             classrooms. The teacher workstation is a
                                             multimedia computer connected to the
campus local area network and the district wide area network to allow for application
and data sharing plus email and Internet connectivity. This computer is typically
connected to the large screen monitor to allow for student and staff large group

To fully comply with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), the elementary
curriculum includes the following technology competencies for students. These were
in place for the start of the 1998-99 school year. They include keyboarding specific
competencies as well as general technology competencies. These competencies can be
found in Appendix H.

Future technology implementations at the
elementary school level for 2003-2006 might
• video imaging devices in every classroom
• additional wireless computers for student
• ceiling mounted projection systems
• wireless mice and keyboards
• interactive white boards

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006

In the district’s secondary schools, classroom standards have been implemented for
hardware and technology tools. These technology tools and hardware have promoted
the implementation of many new curriculum initiatives. At the secondary level, these
standards have been developed and implemented by curriculum areas.

Classroom Design
Classrooms are physically designed to promote the integration of technology into the
curriculum. The physical design of classrooms and labs in all secondary schools feature
the following basic components:

All classrooms have
           • multimedia teacher workstation with the Windows 2000 operating system
           • telephone
           • ceiling mounted digital projector or a TV (mounted or on a cart) with a scan
             converter device
           • VCR
           • Access to distributed campus network with 116 in-house channels and
             broadcast video capability
           • Ethernet network connections
           • Internet/intranet access
           • Access to laser and color inkjet printers

In addition to the above, in the middle schools, each:

Language arts, science, health and social studies classroom design includes
        • Eight desktop computers per classroom (laptops are placed in some
          classrooms where physical space is a limitation)

Art classroom design includes
           • four enhanced desktop

ESOL classroom design includes
         • six desktop computers

Speech classroom design includes
         • four desktop computers

Library/multimedia design includes:
         • 2 circulation desk computers
         • 2 barcode scanners and 2 barcode light pens

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
          •   12 public access computers (PAC stations)
          •   3 staff computers (librarian, lib. assistant, and CTA)
          •   laser printer
          •   color DeskJet printer
          •   1 multimedia production cart (computer, printer, scanner, VCR, laserdisc
              player, TV)
          •   ITV head-in (2 racks, 6 VCRs, 2-13" TVs, 4 agile modulators, 1 agile
              processor, 1 UPS)
          •   1 Mobile Broadcast Cart (MBC)

Computer lab (3 per campus) design includes
        • 30 student computers
        • laser printer and
        • ceiling-mounted projection device

In addition to the standard classroom designs
described above, subject areas have tools
specific to their content. The tools accessible
to classroom teachers are consistent from
campus to campus. Each middle school science classroom is provided with:

Science Tools
         • 32 Easy Sense data collection devices including the following probeware:
                • 30 pH
                • 60 temperature
                • 9 sound
                • 15 motion
                • 9 light 0-100,000 lux
                • 9 barometric pressure
                • 9 humidity
                • 3 slow light 0-100,000 lux
                • 3 photogate
                • 1 flex video camera that connects to either a mounted TV or video
                  projection system
                • Video image display (VID) device in each classroom

Math Tools
          • Graphing Calculators
          • Video image display (VID) device in each classroom

          •   1 Video image display (VID) device per campus

    Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
Social Studies
          • Students in 7th and 8th grade social studies use ESRI Geographic
            Information Systems software (GIS). The system is an interactive database
            tied to a spatial location that allows students to work with numerous
            mapping overlays.
          • Video image display (VID) device in each classroom

            • Wacom digitized drawing tablets
            • 1 scanner
            • Color printer
            • Photoshop software

            • AV bundle with stereo
            • MIDI keyboard sequencers
            • Traditional audio stereo system

Foreign Language
         • Boombox type player/recorder for development of students’ listening and
           speaking skills

Industrial Technology
      Industrial technology is a
      computer-driven course using
      peripheral modules.

The module components are:
            •   AutoCAD LT/Rhino
            •   Desktop Publishing
            •   Structural Engineering
            •   Aviation
            •   Meteorology & Weather                           •   Transportation
            •   CNC Lathe                                       •   Car Builder
            •   CNC Mill                                        •   Truck Builder
            •   Aerospace                                       •   Bio-Related
            •   Computer Animation                              •   Laser & Fiber Optics
            •   Robotics (currently                             •   PageMaker 5.0
                upgrading to system                             •   Audio Broadcasting
                compatible with Windows                             (Radio)
                2000)                                           •   TV Broadcasting/Video

      Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
A five-year middle school curriculum project was initiated in the spring of 1998. The
integration of technology into each curricula area is an integral part of the design.
Specific technology TEKS are imbedded and addressed throughout the curriculum.

The promotion of technology competencies is integrated into the middle school
curriculum in the following ways:

Students will:
         • demonstrate appropriate use of software applications including but not
           limited to Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Inspiration, GIS, etc.
         • download and import relevant information from the Internet
         • evaluate information collected from online sources.
         • select and use online search engines to retrieve information.
         • demonstrate proficiency in the use of digital cameras, printers, scanners,
           CD-ROM, video image devices, etc.
         • demonstrate the ability to manipulate data from databases
         • integrate two or more productivity tools into a document including but not
           limited to tables, charts, graphs and graphics
         • demonstrate ability to appropriately organize electronic information into
         • determine the appropriate software and best method of delivery for
           presentation of materials
         • present student created documents through a variety of media
         • demonstrate an understanding of legal and ethical issues related to
           technology law

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT for the Middle School Project
Staff support/professional development is utilized to assist teachers in improving
technology skills both in delivery and designing of curriculum for student instruction.
Support takes place in one or more of the following ways:
          • professional development time through subject area instruction and
          • class offerings through the technology department in technology and
            software application usage
          • personal instruction from curriculum design team
          • availability of Dot Comma notebooks at each workstation for assistance
            with file management, using the Internet, and software instruction using MS
            Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and Inspiration
          • online technology guides and tutorials

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006

Like the middle schools, in the district’s high schools and senior high schools,
classroom standards by curriculum area have been implemented for hardware and
technology tools. Specifically:

Each high school and senior high
school science classroom has 10
student laptops or desktops, laser or
inkjet color printers, laserdisc player,
VCR, ceiling mounted digital
projector and sound system, Video
image display (VID) device, and
Vernier Probeware. Each science
department also has a Flex Cam as
well as a Spec 20 and two electronic
balances with computer connectivity.
Activities include word processing, presentation, Internet, inquiry labs,
experimentation, data collection, lab write up, software simulations and tutorials.

Social Studies
Classrooms are equipped with six computers and/or laptops. Teachers use their
Video image display (VID) device (also referred to as Elmos) to project maps, pictures,
and three-dimensional objects directly to the recently mounted Plus projectors. These
new projectors enable the teacher to maintain a normal classroom environment without
having to dim lights, block windows, etc. The VCRs with cable TV connection, laserdisc
players, and computers can also be connected to the mounted projector via Pelican
boxes. With this arrangement, teachers can project information onto a large screen
enhancing the quality of instruction and student interaction. This connectivity enables
the teacher to introduce video and multimedia resources into the curriculum with great
ease and quality.

Since a color printer is available to staff members and students via network
connections, users can print exceptionally clear color printouts from their CD software,
the Internet, or simply from their Microsoft Office applications. The internal video and
electrical cabling within each classroom allows teachers to show current TV programs
such as CNN or The History Channel, show an appropriate video tape from their
locally based VCR, show a video tape generated from the library, or view a laserdisc

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
Each math classroom from grades 6-12
has received a Video image display
(VID) device and ceiling-mounted
projector. The VID provides many of
the same functions as the overhead
projector, but also allows teachers to
display images without the use of a
transparency. This provides
opportunities to display student work,
manipulative devices, calculator
images, and textbook images. The
ceiling-mounted projector sends these
images to a large screen enhancing the
quality of instruction and student
interaction. In addition, each classroom has a VCR enabling the teacher to introduce
video resources into the curriculum.

All secondary schools have access to TI graphing calculators for instruction and student
use. Each high school received a significant amount of calculators to provide one per
student during standardized testing. These calculators will also provide extensive
support to students in the classroom.

Computer Science classrooms include 30 station labs with mounted video projection
systems. Programming languages are now focused on Java for students.

Both the 9-10 and the 11-12 schools use a combination of labs with additional
workstations distributed in the English classrooms. From 2 to 4 adjacent 30-station labs
(dependent on school size) allow classes larger than 30 to spill over into the next lab or
provide blocks of computers for individuals and small groups from another class to
work beside smaller teacher-directed classes. The networked labs accommodate a
whole class working on major writing assignments while the teacher conferences with
students progressing through the stages of the writing process. Individuals may finish
their writing, or pairs may collaborate on publishing projects at the 6 workstations in
each classroom. Constant availability of a few computers per class encourages teachers
to plan for less teacher lecture and more active student participation. Each high school
and senior high school English lab and classroom has a ceiling-mounted overhead
projector, a VCR, and a Video Imaging Device (VID).

All reading classrooms are equipped with networked computers with headphones and
microphones. A mounted TV with a SVGA signal converter and a VCR allows teachers
to switch among display of computer images, videos, or TV programs. The reading
classrooms at each campus share a Video Imaging Device for displaying pages from

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
books without the use of a transparency. Software includes a word processor, desktop
publisher and reading motivation software that checks reading comprehension of
specific novels. Testing software, which measures academic proficiency, provides an
annual check on student advancement and helps in determining each student’s reading
needs. At the senior high campuses, comprehensive reading software places students
at their current reading level before beginning them on an independent course of study
designed to remediate weaknesses and strengthen skills in reading fiction and non-
fiction materials. The program features an extensive management system that lets
student and teacher monitor progress.

Band, Choir and Orchestra directors currently use their workstations for instructional
and administrative purposes. Teachers have access to a wide variety of web-based
resources on the district Intranet and the Internet that includes departmental guidelines
and procedures, forms, and on-line training support. On-line curriculum resources are
being developed. Each designated music classroom is equipped with a networked
computer, AV bundle with stereo VCR, SVGA scan converter and a TV, a MIDI
keyboard, and sequencers in addition to a traditional audio stereo system. Teachers
use technology for direct and indirect instruction, communication, administrative
record keeping, and research to support their daily instruction.

The Music Theory Labs at the Senior High
School level include 18 student workstations
consisting of Macintosh computers, MIDI
keyboard, and Roland sound modules. The
student workstations are monitored by the
teacher workstation, connected to a Macintosh
G4 server. The labs employ specialized
music software to deliver instruction in music
theory, music notation, piano keyboard
proficiency, and aural skill development.

Music Department resources include an extensive Internet site that provides public
information regarding music programs at all levels, a regularly updated performance
calendar, staff lists and e-mail links to all music staff. A newly developed Intranet site
provides ready access to departmental guidelines and procedures, forms, curriculum
documents and on-line training support for staff and administrators. District-wide
adoption of “Sibelius” music notation software gives teachers the capability to
develop their own instructional materials, adapt materials to the skill level of each
group, create customized practice and assessment materials, and assist students in
compositional activities. This implementation was supported by an improved and on-
going training practice to provide teachers with the necessary skill to make full use of
this instructional resource.

Future initiatives will include the continued upgrade of classroom technology to keep
music classrooms on a par with other instructional areas, the continued development of
     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
web-based resources for students, teachers, parents and administrators, and the
addition of “Superscope” audio CD technology to music classrooms at every level.

Secondary Art classrooms are equipped with three networked computers, a mounted
TV with a SGVA scan converter, a VCR, a color printer, a scanner, and Wacom drawing
tablets. Additionally, ninth through tenth grade Art
Departments have a digital camera. Software includes Microsoft
applications and Adobe Photoshop.

Technology usage is a required part of the Secondary Art
curriculum. This is important to prepare our students for career
opportunities in the area of art. Adobe Photoshop is utilized
with a scanner or digital camera to create original works of art.
Microsoft Power Point is used to make slide portfolios of works of art. Microsoft Photo
Editor is manipulated as an entry-level program for sixth and seventh grade students.
Art teachers currently use their workstations to access the district’s network and the
Internet. Email is the primary means of communication between the teachers. Teachers
use the workstations to support their day-to-day activities.

Foreign Language
Technology in the Foreign Language classroom is used as a tool to prepare students to
achieve an intermediate language
proficiency through a proficiency based
curriculum. Each foreign language
classroom at the high school and senior
high school levels are equipped with a
multimedia workstation, a mounted TV
with an SVGA scan converter and access
to cable and closed circuit television,
and a VCR.

At the high school and senior high
school levels, a 31-station state-of-the-art
language laboratory is used on a
rotation basis by all language classes.
This technology allows the teachers and students to participate in the following:
          • stereo audio program transmission
          • group pairing
          • recording
          • bilingual operation
          • five video input sources
          • expandable random 4-way video switching
          • call buttons for students and teachers
          • multiple model voice capability

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
Laserdisc players, VCRs, CDs, and textbook ancillaries are available for use with this

For this program, the teachers have written a comprehensive lab manual including
basic lab operation of the equipment, drill and practice activities for students using the
equipment, and evaluation methods for each activity.

Career Education
The career education classes are held in computer labs. All computer labs are
equipped with 25-30 computers, a laser printer and a mounted digital projector or TV.

BCIS, Intro to Business, and Keyboarding
Students use computers every day in the business classes. Students use Microsoft
Office and the Internet to display their understanding of today’s implementation of
technology. Automated accounting software is also used at the Senior High level for
students to gain experience with electronic accounting.

Use of technology in the high school business
classroom is to prepare students for
production level ability in the use of word
processing, spreadsheet, database, and
presentation software. As a part of their
daily class activity, students create
documents and reports simulating personal
and business projects. Many of the students
extend this knowledge base into competitive
events in business contests using their skills
in document preparation, proofreading, and
formatting. A number of our students are also going directly into the office workplace
employing the skills gained through the business program.

Trade and Industry
CAD Drafting hardware and software are available in the senior high schools. These
classes are taught in labs equipped with a mounted TV and a VCR.

Advertising Design
Each lab has enhanced student desktop PC’s or Macintosh workstations, a mounted
digital projector, a color deskjet printer, access to a laser printer, a scanner and a VCR.

Family and Consumer Science
Career Studies and an EDS mentoring project are accessible online.

Agriculture and Canine Science
Classrooms are equipped with a multimedia workstation, a mounted TV with SVGA
scan converter, a VCR, and a microscope.

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
Health Sciences
These classrooms are equipped with eight desktop workstations, a Video image
display device (VID), a mounted TV with SVGA scan converter and a VCR.

Technology Applications
                                         Plano’s high schools and senior high schools
                                         offer courses in Desktop Publishing,
                                         Multimedia and Webmastering. Each course is
                                         taught in a networked computer lab. Each lab
                                         contains a ceiling-mounted projector,
                                         integrated stereo sound system, VCR and
                                         scanner. A digital camera and video camera
                                         are provided for use in these courses.
                                         Microphones and headphones are available for
                                         each workstation. Students participate in
                                         hands-on training. They work individually and
                                         collaboratively in these project-based
technology courses. Students plan, research, prepare, and assemble electronic media
into various skill and/or theme-based projects designed for a variety of target uses.
Students utilize software, hardware, classroom reference books, Internet resources, and
server-based materials.

Software that is used by these courses includes:

Desktop Publishing – Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Photo Editor, Microsoft Publisher,
Microsoft Word, Adobe PageMaker

Multimedia – HyperStudio, Microsoft PowerPoint, QuickTime, ImageBlender, Adobe
Photoshop, Spin Panorama/PhotoObject, Sound Companion, VideoWave, Macromedia

Webmastering – Macromedia Dreamweaver, Macromedia Fireworks, Macromedia
Flash, Adobe Acrobat

Each Speech classroom in grades 9-12 is equipped with four networked computers, a
video camera and tripod, a ceiling mounted projector and a VCR. Students use
computers extensively for research of speech presentations and for tournament
preparation. Additionally, students receive training in preparing and integrating
PowerPoint presentations into their speech performances. Projectors are used by
teachers for classroom instruction and by students in their speech presentations.
Cameras and VCRs enable classroom analysis and critique of students’ projected

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
Theater classrooms each have a mounted video projection system and a VCR, a video
camera with a tripod and a Video image display (VID) device.

Each ESOL classroom in grades 6-12 is equipped with six networked computers and a
mounted TV with a VCR. Students use computers extensively for enhancing their
English speaking skills. All schools have 6 copies of The Rosetta Stone software, a
basic English language acquisition software program that runs directly from a CD.

Each classroom was also provided the Ellis Academic software program, which is a
comprehensive solution for every level of English training. The software runs directly
from our networks with no need of a local CD. The Ellis program provides thousands
of hours of instruction. It is a complete multimedia package designed to teach learners
of varying ages and levels to speak and understand English. The Ellis curriculum
combines graphics, full motion video, digitized sound and voice recording, animation,
and support for over 60 native language users.

To facilitate instruction in the secondary schools, all teachers have electronic access to:
           • The Middle School online curriculum-Curriculum is delivered in math,
             language arts, science, social studies, and health to 11 middle schools via
             the Intranet. Teachers have the ability to retrieve student lessons and
             assessments, teacher instructions, PowerPoint presentations, streaming
             video, specific Internet sites, resource lists, subject and technology TEKS
             correlations, database searches, calendar functions, and personal teacher
             notes. Curriculum guides in other middle school, high school and senior
             high school curriculum areas are available through online curriculum
             guides via the district’s Intranet.
           • Internet access and district-provided Internet resources
           • Email
           • Digital video library
           • Cable television programming
           • EdSoft assessment application for recording and retrieving student data
           • Online electronic gradebook

I believe that the ability of children to have more of an interactive education through the use of
technology is the greatest benefit of technology in the school. Being able to adapt programs to each
child's individual learning style and pace will greatly increase retention and understanding of
materials. – parent survey comment

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
In grades K through 12, technology is integrated into the instruction for students who
receive special education services in the following domains:
speech/language/communication, cognition, daily living, fine/gross motor, and
social/emotional. Technology plays a vital role in the support of curriculum for
students with disabilities.

Students with multiple disabilities typically have limited response repertoires,
sensory and motor impairments, and highly individualized instructional (curriculum)
needs. Individually determined supports and services (including assistive and
instructional technology) enable the student to receive instruction with his non-
disabled peers and become a part of the community of learners at his campus. This is
true for students from pre-school through Beyond High School services.

This description also includes students with mental retardation, who may or may not
be considered as having multiple impairments.
          • Speech/Language/Communication
          • Communication devices enable students to participate in learning activities
            in the classroom.
          • Communication devices assist students in communicating with friends and
            other familiar or unfamiliar partners.
          • Speechviewer software is available to each speech/language pathologist.
          • Cognition
          • Switches and scanning software are required for accessibility to curriculum
            software by students with physical impairments.
          • Software is provided that supports students’ instructional levels; i.e., cause
            and effect, basic concepts, one-to-one correspondence, matching,
            discrimination activities, etc.
          • Student workstations loaded with specialized software enable the student
            to focus on the most relevant, functional skills of the curriculum.
          • Student workstations loaded with software especially selected to support
            literacy initiatives for students with mental retardation support the
            students as they become independent readers and writers. This software is
            an essential support in the specially designed language arts curriculum
            (Strategic Reading).
          • Activities of Daily Living
          • Switches and switch access devices enable students to make choices
            regarding eating, dressing, or daily hygiene.
          • Students who are in supported employment (VAC) and who are non-verbal
            or have limited verbal ability use communication devices on the job. This
            provides critical support for continued employment.
          • Fine/Gross Motor
          • Assistive technology devices provide adaptive access to students with
            physical disabilities.

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006
           •   Dedicated devices can include those that provide environmental control so
               that students can transition from class to class independently or/and can
               participate in, at a minimum, some large group instruction.
           •   Social/Emotional
           •   Behavior is a communicative intent and students with little or no verbal
               ability require the technology to communicate basic wants and needs.
           •   Adapted peripherals enable students to participate in classroom activities
               during both large and small group instruction.
           •   The computer allows students with short attention spans, low frustration
               tolerance, and so on, the opportunity to work on tasks at a rate and in a
               manner that fosters success.

Technology enables students with learning disabilities access to the curriculum by:
         • providing talking word processors and word prediction programs for
           proofreading and editing,
         • providing software for instruction and reinforcement of the curriculum at
           an instructional level different than that of peers (IEP driven),
         • providing independent learning activities such as extended practice,
           tutorials, simulations, etc. that are critical to mastery of instructional
         • providing specialized software intended to increase study
           skills/organizational abilities,
         • providing step-by-step development of computer skills which are often at a
           slower rate or different rate than that of non-disabled peers,
         • providing laptops or other dedicated devices for those students whose
           disability impedes the successful completion of writing assignments,
           research papers, and/or note-taking tasks, and
         • providing the opportunity to synthesize and analyze new information via a
           non-judgmental tool.

Technology enables students with visual impairments access to the curriculum by:
         • providing screen enlargers for visual access,
         • providing screen readers to enable the student to “read” information on the
           screen for access to most general education software applications, and
         • providing an Internet web browser (pwWebSpeak) specifically for
           individuals with visual impairments.

Technology enables students with auditory impairments access to the curriculum
(TEKS) by:
         • providing software with visual instructions in lieu of auditory instructions,
         • providing assistive listening devices so that students can participate in
           classroom instruction, follow-up activities, labs, and performance based

     Plano Independent School District Technology Plan 2003-2006

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