MGNREGS (PowerPoint)

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					a presentation on
Rights-Based Approach to Development
                                   By SNTripathi IAS
Mahatma Gandhi NREGAct of 2005 is for enhancement
of livelihood security in rural areas by providing -
 at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment
    in a financial year to every household
    whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled
    manual work and
 creation of durable assets by management of
  natural resources
    Prevention of rural-urban migration of labourers.
         MGNREGA –features.
1.   Right based framework
2.   Time bound guarantee
3.   Permissible works
4.   Labour intensive works
5.   Payment of wages
6.   Work site management facility
7.   Women empowerment
8.   Transparency & Accountability
9.   Use of Information Technology
Trend in Performance under MGNREGS ( Cr )
Trend in Performance under MGNREGS (Persondays in Lakh)
 Evolving Act-Amendments to the ACT by notification
02.04.08 Schedule II para-2 Job card with photo
18.06.08 Schedule I para-1 no machinery & contractors
11.09.08   Schedule II para-34 - natural calamity- job card at temporary
31.12.08 Schedule-I para-3,13,16 pro-active disclosure & social audit
31.12.08 Schedule II para-35 - disposal of complaints
01.01.09 Minimum wages of MGNREGA not less than agricultural
19.02.09 Schedule II para 31 32 - bank account & insurance cover
04.06.09 Address of Hon’ble President of India - Ombudsman and
22-07-09 Individual Benefit Schemes
11-11-09   Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendra (BNRGSK)
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee ACT 2005
                     A five ‘Acts’ Play
                     Catalyzing other legislations
1. Minimum Wages Act 1948
2. Right to Information Act,2005
3. Panchayati Raj Institutions (73rd constitution amendment 1992)
4. The Scheduled Tribe and other traditional forest dwellers Act
   2006: Resources to develop land
5. Right to Education Act 2009: reduce migration and enhance
   school participation
6. Panchayat (Extension to Schedule Areas) Act of 1996
Voice -vs-Choice
•    Voice through Gram Sabha- Palli to Dilli
•    Choice through Wage and Self Employment –both in farm & non-
     farm sector
•    Shift from “welfare to entitlement”

     Independent Impact Assessment of MGNREGA
Studies conducted by: NFIW, NIRD, Delhi University, IIM Lucknow, ASCI
States of study : Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Main findings
1. Women’s new found identity & social and economic empowerment.
     Taking the wages directly through their accounts.
     Increased spending of earnings from NREGA on food, consumer
        goods, education of children and offsetting debts.
2. Work participation of women and gains would be greater, if SHGs are
   entrusted with provision of mandatory worksite facilities.
3. Effective targeting of marginalized groups SC/ST/BPL and women
4. Work availability in villages increased post NREGA.
5. Decision-making power for women increased post NREGA with additional
6. Fixed working hours an incentive, work easily available.
7. Breaking caste and community issues, socio-economic benefits.
8. Easy access to credits.
NSSO survey, 2007-08: There was no gender differential in wage rates for
MGNREG works. Considerable wage disparity in other types of work
    Independent Impact Assessment of MGNREGA and LWE districts

Study conducted by: Council for Social Development
States of study: Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh
Main findings
(i) Increase in income: In LWE areas of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand
    and Andhra Pradesh, income of rural labour households has gone up
    as a result of this programme.
(ii) Increase in agricultural wages: In LWE areas of Chhattisgarh, Orissa,
     Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, wages in various agricultural
     operations have gone up as a result of implementation of MGNREGA.
     This has lead to an increase in fertilizer use, and quality seeds
iii) Reduction in distress migration: In village the incidence of out-migration
     from the village to distant places for manual works had come down as a
     result of MGNREGA works.
              MGNREGA: Positive Trends & Findings
•   Increase in Agriculture Minimum Wages and wage earned per day and annual income.
    (Source: IIM Lucknow, NDUAT Faizabad) Bargaining power of labour has increased
•   Earnings per HH has increased from Rs 2795 in 2006-’07 to Rs 3150 in 2007-’08 to Rs
    4060 in 2008-’09, Rs 4800 in 2009-’10
•   NSSO: corroborates wage data: Rs 79 per person day for 2007-2008; MGNREG data: Rs
    75 per person day
•   Financial Inclusion: 24 lakhs accounts opened
•   Distress migration has reduced in many parts
•   “Green Jobs” created as nearly 70% works relate to water conservation, water-
    harvesting, restoration, renovation and desilting of water bodies, drought-proofing,
    plantation & afforestation
•   Effective targeting of marginalized groups SC/ST/BPL (Source: IIM Ahmedabad, IIM
    Lucknow, Administrative Staff College of India
•   NREGA is used as a supplementary income source during non-agricultural seasons
    (Source: IIM Ahmedabad)
•   Productivity effects of NREGA reported
     - Improvement in ground water (Source: ASCI)
     - Improved agricultural productivity & cropping intensity (Source: ASCI, IIT Roorkee)
     - Livelihood diversification in rural areas (Source: IIM Shillong)

             Implementation Challenges
• Lack of awareness about rights and entitlements and Workers’ inability
  to submit written applications and demand
• Non-maintenance of records like job cards, dated receipts, Muster
• Non placement of dedicated personnel affecting critical tasks like
• Delay in wage payments
• Poor coverage of Banks and Post Offices
• Conduct and quality of social audits
• Slow/no grievance redressal
• Making assets more durable and productive without disturbing the
  60:40 ratio through convergence
• Low work completion rate

                          Initiatives taken
Vision Plan Strategy Framework
 (i) Stepping up IEC
(ii) Strengthening Monitoring Systems
• Performance Output Matrix
(iii)Strengthening Resource Support & Capacity at District/ Block, GP level
• Fund Flow systems
• Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendra as village knowledge resource centre
• Dedicated Personnel
• Energize Gram Sabha for Planning & Social Audit
(iv) Increasing transparency and public accountability
• District level Ombudsman –out of 12 candidates 9 engaged
• State Grievance Redressal Rules- in process
• Social audits being conducted in campaign mode. Online reporting
• Measures to check delay of payments
(v) Enlarging scope of work, improving quality of works and productivity through
• Strengthening Expansion of scope of works to include works on the land of small and
     marginal farmers
• Convergence
(vi) Six working groups set up for recommendation on strengthening implementation by
                   Streamlining Fund Flow
(1) Labour Budgets
      -Drillable to the level of the Gram Panchayats on MIS
      -In consultation with State Government
      -First Tranche upto 50% of the total LB
      -Subsequent releases based on 60% utilization
      -Monthly Progress Reports, including physical and financial performance indicators
(2) State Funds set up to provide flexibility to States in management of Mahatma
    Gandhi NREGA funds
          (Status: 9 states including Orissa have already set up State Funds and 6 are
          in the process of setting up)
(3) Online Financial Proposals

(4) Core accounting systems being examined

     Transaction-based MIS for Transparency
Web enabled Household based database in public domain @
•   Workers’ entitlements:
    Registration, Job cards, Employment demanded and allocated, Days worked, Muster
    rolls, Unemployment allowance, Payments and compensations due.
•   Work data:
    Sanctioned shelf of works, Work progress, Measurement, Inventory of works/assets
•   Financial data:
    Online Financial Proposals, Funds available/spent, Amount paid as wages, materials
    and administrative expenses, Track transfer of fund to various implementing
    agencies, Online processing of Labour Budgets
•   Grievances:
     – Register grievances of workers and Track complaints and action taken
     – Monitoring and Corrective Action: alerts for corrective action, Social Audit findings.
•   59 lakhs Job Cards and their Muster Rolls are in public domain. Drillable to job
    card, work muster roll level.
•   Best Government website award: Orissa is the leader

  Public Grievance Redressal: The Ombudsman
• Instructions under Section 27 issued on establishment of district
  level Ombudsman to States
• Expenditure booked under contingency
• Will be an agency independent of the central or state government
• Receive complaints from NREGA workers and others on any
  matters, consider such complaints and facilitate their disposal in
  accordance with law
• 9 Ombudsman appointed by the State Government on the
  recommendation of the selection committee
• Ombudsman will also issue directions for conducting spot
  investigation, lodge FIRs against the erring parties, initiate
  proceedings suo motu when required and look into direct
  redressal, disciplinary and punitive actions
Innovation in AP

Convergence with SERP – CMSA

• Community Managed Sustainable
  Agriculture (CMSA) is a pro-poor
  agricultural initiative to ensure that
  highest income shall be obtained from
  the smallest holding.
• Pilots on CMSA are taken up in 121
  villages and it was found that on half-
  acre land, farmers have got Rs. 20,000
  income using this technology.
    MG NREGA: 2010-2011
•   Labor budget form 6234 GP to GoI-MoRD for            1908 crores to provide job to about 20
    lakhs households for at least 60 days
     – 2009-10 :       932.58 Crores for 13.86 lakhs HH for average 40days
•   Complete BNRGSK in 314 Blocks and 6234 GP with an estimated cost of                702crores
•   Capacity building of 100866 elected PRIs and 15000 PR Officials thorough 3days
•   Gram Rozgar Sanjojak system –Rajasthan Pattern with work-order and training for
    “preliminary measurement” and adhoc transfer of wages –pending fortnightly
    „measurement by JE/GPTA
•   VIII Format accounting for 3-tier as prescribed by 13th FCA and CAG –PriaSoft-new
     –   PAMIS 2010-a Web-based accounting of 6234 GPs in addition to 314 PS and 30 ZP/DRDA in
         double-entry format with technical assistance from IIIT-Bhubaneswar & OCAC
8167 nos. of Farm Ponds with an expenditure of Rs. 19
Cr. have been made in Mayurbhanj District under
MGNREGS since inception. Beneficiaries are being
benefited by taking up pisciculture, duck rearing &
vegetable cultivation.

 Farm pond of Sri Bajai Pingua   Farm pond of Sri Bhutal Majhi
 Baidyanath GP, Block - Raruan     Raihari GP, Block- Bijatala
 Awards & Recognition at central level
• 2007-08 Sri VK Pandian IAS DM Ganjam
  and Sri SK Vashistha IAS DM Mayurbhanj
  got award among 22 Collectors of 605
• 2008-09 Sri VK Pandian IAS DM Ganjam
  and Dr PK Meherda IAS DM Mayurbhanj
  got award among 31 Collectors of 619
• 2009-10 NREGA MITRA –State Level
   – DM Ganjam
   – DM Kandhamal
   – DM Mayurbhanja
• DM Sonepur presented Pua Experiment at
  Vigyan Bhawan & DM Ganjam presented
  PIM Initiative at LBSNAA

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