1850 (PowerPoint)

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1850 (PowerPoint) Powered By Docstoc
By David R.
Ten Events
 Compromise of 1850:
     A series of measures adopted by the Congress on September 9, 1850, prior
        to the Civil War, to address slavery and territory issues and to avert
        secession by the South.
 The Gadsden Purchase:
     In 1853 President Franklin Pierce sent James Gadsden to negotiate with
        Mexico. The Gadsden Purchase included land in present-day Arizona and
        New Mexico.
 The Female Medical College
        is founded in Philadelphia by a group of Quakers. Eight women enroll in
        the first class. The college remains a women’s institution until 1969, when it
        becomes coeducational
 Fugitive Slave Law passed (September 18)
     Vermont passes a personal-liberty law declaring that fugitive slaves who
        escape to that state do not have to be turned over to federal authorities for
        return to their masters
  Ten Events
 University of Utah opens
 Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter published
    Novel considered to be his best
 President Taylor Dies
    July 9 1850 and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th president
 California admitted as the 31st state (September 9)
 New Mexico territory organized (September 9)
 Dred Scott case of 1857
    The case raised the issue of a black slave who lived in a free state.
      Congress had not asserted whether slaves were free once they set foot
      upon Northern soil.
V.I.P.’s That Changed The 1850’s
                                                     In 1855, Walt Whitman took out a
   Frances Ellen Watkins Harper became               copyright on the first edition of Leaves of
    active in the Anti-Slavery movement in the        Grass, which consisted of twelve
    1850's by using her gift for language as
    lecturer. At one time in her career as a
                                                      untitled poems and a preface. He
    lecturer, she made her home in                    published the volume himself, and sent a
    Philadelphia "at the station of the               copy to Emerson in July of 1855.
    Underground Rail Road, where she                  Whitman released a second edition of
    frequently saw passengers and their melting       the book in 1856, containing thirty-three
    tales of suffering and wrong, which               poems, a letter from Emerson praising
    intensely increased their sympathy in their       the first edition, and a long open letter
    behalf."* Even during the Civil War, she          by Whitman in response. During his
    wrote prolifically, hoping to contribute to       subsequent career, Whitman continued
    the cause of freedom. The writing she             to refine the volume, publishing several
    produced during the Emancipation                  more editions of the book
    Proclamation and Lincoln's assassination
    further reveals her eloquence in expressing
    her hopes and disappointments with the
    progress of the fight for equality. She
    continued arguing for freedom, equality
    and reforms in her lectures and writings
    until her death.
Number of States – Territorial Map
 The population of the thirty-one states in the
  United States is just under 23.3 million
 1850 - California becomes a state
 1858 - Minnesota becomes a state
Millard Filmore 1850-1853                      Franklin Pierce 1853-1857
   Term: 13th President of the United            Term: 14th President of the United
    States (1850-1853)                             States (1853-1857)
   Born: January 7, 1800, Summerhill, New
    York                                          Born: November 23, 1804, Hillsborough
   Education: Six months of grade school;         (now Hillsboro), New Hampshire
    read law in 1822                              Education: Bowdoin College (graduated
   Career: Lawyer                                 1824)
   Political Party: Whig                         Career: Lawyer, Public Official
   Died: March 8, 1874, Buffalo, New York        Political Party: Democrat
   A Life in Brief: Born into desperate
    poverty at the dawn of the nineteenth         Died: October 8, 1869, Concord, New
    century, Millard Fillmore climbed to the       Hampshire
    highest office in the land -- and
    inherited a nation breaking into              A Life in Brief: Franklin Pierce, the 14th
    fragments over the question of slavery.        President of the United States, came to
                                                   office during a period of growing tension
                                                   between the North and South.
              Pioneer women spent much of their time doing household chores. Keeping a one-
              room log house clean wasn't easy! It involved sweeping, scrubbing, dusting, airing
              mattresses, washing windows, and, sometimes, chasing out mice and spiders!

Family Life
              Many families settling in Iowa did not bring wood burning cook stoves because
              there was no room in their wagon. As a result, families had to relearn how to cook
              over open hearths.

              The majority of tools used by pioneer men in 1850 were handmade and had
              wooden handles. A wooden shaving horse was used to shave down handles,
              shingles, or tools like the "goad" used for oxen. The shaving horse had a large clamp
              in the middle that held the tool in place. The "brace and bit" was used to drill holes
              in wood.

              Keeping a log house air-tight was not an easy task, though important for keeping
              pests out and warmth in. In 1850, most pioneers used a two-step process to fill in
              the gaps between logs in their notched log homes. They first filled in as many gaps
              between logs as possible with rocks and pieces of wood, a process called chinking.
              Next they made daubing, a mixture of sand, clay, water, straw, lime, and manure to
              insulate the homes. They applied the daubing over the chinking to fill in any
              remaining gaps.
Fashion Statements
        In the 1850s, the domed skirts of the 1840s
        continued to expand. Skirts were made fuller by
        means of flounces (deep ruffles), usually in tiers
        of three, gathered tightly at the top and stiffened
        with horsehair braid at the bottom.
        Early in the decade, bodices of day dresses
        featured panels over the shoulder that were
        gathered into a blunt point at the slightly
        dropped waist. These bodices generally
        fastened in back by means of hooks and eyes,
        but a new fashion for a [jacket] bodice appeared
        as well, buttoned in front and worn over a
        chemisette. Wider bell-shaped or pagoda
        sleeves were worn over false under sleeves or
        engageantes of cotton or linen, trimmed in lace,
        broderie anglaise, or other fancy-work. Separate
        small collars of lace, tatting, or crochet work
        were worn with day dresses, sometimes with a
        ribbon bow.
Bad Times & Good Times
 More than eighteen thousand homeless people are
  living in the cellars of buildings in New York City.
  By 1856 the construction of tenement apartment
  houses has helped to ease this problem
 Delegates from nine states meet in Worcester,
  Massachusetts, for the first national women’s
  rights convention. Among the participants are
  Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth, and Lucretia
  Mott. The delegates call for the right to vote and
  equal rights “without distinction of sex or color
 From the 1850s through the 1860s, Americans,
 eager to mine silver, copper, and then gold in New
 Mexico, emigrated to Apache lands and settled
 there. War with the Apache ensued and the U.S.
 army moved in to protect the settlers. After the
 Civil War, the U.S. government decided to move all
 Indians living in Arizona and southwest New
 Mexico, including the Apache
  the distant ancestor of today's tuba,
  and was popular around 1600 to
  1850. It forms the natural bass to the
  cornett family, having a conical
  wooden bore and finger holes, with
  a brass-style cup mouthpiece.

                                           American Joel Houghton invented the first
                                           dishwasher in 1850. He made it out of wood,
                                           and gave it a hand-turned wheel that
                                           splashed water on the dishes inside. It didn't
                                           really work, but it did get the first
                                           "dishwasher" patent.
   Texan Gail Borden,      12 Aug 1851. Isaac
    who had been               Merrit Singer is
    experimenting s with       awarded a patent for
    methods for preserving     his continuous-
    milk and other             stitching sewing
    perishable foods,          machine, the first such
    applies for a patent on    machine that is
    his sweetened              practical for home use.
    condensed milk. The
    patent is finally issued
    on 19 August 1856.
Trends & word phrases
 The traditional cowboy look didn't come about
  until after the Mexican-American War in the 1850s.
 In the good ol' days the cowboy was the glue that
  held the West together. Ranchers would hire
  cowboys to keep a watchful eye over the herds on
  the wide open range.
 Some phrases of the 1850’s
   Do as you would like to be done by
   Live so that you may be loved
   Never do evil that good may follow

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