DL7_Progress_Report_-_edited

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					Code: DL7
  Wireless Map Server
                     for PDAs
                                     by
                      Fu Kit Yan Yeung Ching Wai


                                Advised by
                               Dr. Dik Lee



                      Submitted in partial fulfillment

                    of the requirements for COMP 395

                                    in the

                     Department of Computer Science

             Hong Kong University of Science and Technology



                                2003-2004

                                Code: DL7




Name of student: Fu Kit Yan, Kian              Signature:     Date:

Name of student: Yeung Ching Wai, Steven       Signature:     Date:
Table of Contents

1. Introduction                              1

2. Objective                                 2

3. Progress                                  3

  3.1. Design Phase                          3

        3.1.1. System Design                 3

        3.1.2. Problem Discussion            4

  3.2. Implementation Phase                  7

  3.3. Testing Phase                         8

  3.4. Evaluation Phase                     10

4. Project Planning                         11

  4.1. Division of Work                     11

  4.2. Gantt Chart                          12

5. References                               13

6. Appendices                               14

  6.1. Hardware and Software Requirements   14

       6.1.1.     On Server-side            14

       6.1.2.     On Client-side            14

  6.2. Database – ER diagram                15

  6.3. Minutes                              16
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                              Page 1

1. Introduction
The demand for PDA software packages is rapidly increasing and map navigation is
one of the most popular packages offers because it offers such convenience.
SINGLE SPACECompared with searching for a place destination from a book index
and then turning to finding the corresponding page, map navigation on the PDA
obviously consumes considerably less time and is far easier.


For map navigation, locations are very important attributes for spatial objects such as
buildings and rooms. In mobile computing, especially location-based applications,
locations play a critical role in storing spatial knowledge. Traditionally, locations are
described by maps, either raster maps or vector maps. However, as PDAs have
limited screens, displaying an entire map is annoying for the user WHY IS IT
ANNOYING – DO YOU MEAN BECAUSE THE SIZE OF THE MAP WOULD BE SO
SMALL?, even if the scaling and panelling functions are supported. Furthermore,
complicated indoor maps often confuse users. Therefore, displaying locations in the
context of the user’s current location, i.e., only displaying a small number of objects
whose locations are “closely relevant” to the user’s current location, is more
advisable.


Location-based applications need a well-formed representation of spatial knowledge.
Current location models suffer from either requiring??? huge amounts of manual
work (symbolic models) or loss of semantics (geometric models).            Our project,
therefore, will be to build a semantic location model, however which that preserves
topology and distance semantics for location navigation and visualization. We will
develop a map navigation tool based on the model in a server-client network.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                            Page 2

2. Objective
In this project, we aim to gain a better understanding of location semantics in the
context of navigation and develop a more user-friendly tool for location navigations,
which are implemented on the server and client side respectively.


Although there exist some map-editing tools in the market, such as AutoCAD and
SmartDraw, they are either too expensive or there is a loss of semantics. If we
import the floor plan created by the existing tools, conversion according to the
semantic location model is required. Therefore, a proprietary editing tool specialized
for this project is desirable. Not only it is more controllable, but also it is a good
opportunity to explore the core components.


In this project, we will develop an editing tool to input data of floor plans with a
semantic location model on the server side. The location model will be based on a
research    paper    presented   by   Haibo   Hu    and    Dr.   Dik   Lun   Lee   [1].


On the PDA client side, we will design a GUI displaying tool to allow users to issue
queries against the floor plans and to display the corresponding context-aware
location map.

The project can be integrated as a guide system. In a large indoor environment (e.g.,
mansions or museums), a user (especially a visitor) who carries a PDA may want to
reach a place (e.g., a room). The guide system installed on his PDA can calculate a
shortest path and continuously direct the user via a dynamically changing map. The
map keeps displaying a (restricted) set of locations according to his current location.
It also displays an arrow showing the next location he should reach in order to reach
the final destination.

Further extending our project, by placing location sensors in the building,
identification can be implemented on top of the project to provide real-time tracking.
A centralized server can integrate information from many resources, such as traffic
and weather conditions, business data (e.g., shop locations), and promotional
information can deliver tailor-made information in an integrated manner.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                                                   Page 3

3. Progress
3.1 Design Phase
3.1.1 System Design

Our system is to build involves building a server-client architecture. A GUI floor plan
editing tool is built to facilitate a human operator to convert the locations in the
physical world into the semantic location model. While, while the database on the
server side stores the attributes of the model and relevant information of about each
location. On the PDA client side, a GUI displaying tool is will be built to allow users
to issue queries against the floor plan. Then requested data and information can be
retrieved from the database server. The PDA displaying tool is responded responds
to reconstruct the data and display the corresponding path information.


The system is divided into four parts: GUI floor plan editing tool, database, Java
Servlet and the PDA displaying tool.

                        Semantic Location
                             Model
    GUI Floor Plan
     Editing Tool                             Database




                                                                    Wired /            PDA Displaying
                                              Servlet
                                                                    Wireless               Tool


The GUI floor plan editing tool is responsible for converting the locations in the
physical world into the semantic location model. The model is based on Hu and
Lee’s “Semantic Location Modeling for Location Navigation and Visualization in
Mobile Environment” and is stored in the database. The semantic location model
requires identification of at least three kinds of entities1: rooms, exits2 and corridors
in order to build Location Hierarchy and Exit Hierarchy3.



1
  Entities are heterogeneously defined as they are in the real world, such as buildings, rooms and corridors.
2
  The location of an entity is a bounded geographic area with one of more “exits”, where an exit is a boundary
from and into which the entity can depart and enter.
3
  Modeling the Semantic Distances: refer to Hu and Lee‟s paper [1]
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                            Page 4

The GUI floor plan editing tool can be used as easy easily as Microsoft Paint. It
provides the following functionalities:
   read an image which can be a floor plan into the program and set as
    background
   draw rectangles and polygons to represent entities
   draw Exits, which is a different icon to intersect between two entities
   rename / move / resize / delete on the entities
   generate and verify the model data
   save / load from files
   export the semantic location model to the database


The PDA displaying tool allows users to get the data model from the database
through the Jave Java Servlet and performs location queries and navigation. It has
the following functionalities:
   load the image of the map
   send request to and get result from the Java Servlet
   perform queries: shortest path, nearest neighbor, etc.
   display the query result:
    - adjust the screen to show the start location with surrounding neighbours
    - point to the next location with arrow sign
    - click on the current location to see next step




3.1.2 Problem Discussion

Corridor detection was one of the challenging problems in the design phase of the
GUI floor plan editing tool. Drawing corridors manually over the room entity was not
a user-friendly way. So we tried to detect the corridor intelligently. Our method was
to find the largest area to subtract the area of the room entities, using the function
subtract(Area rhs) in java.awt.geom.Area. Then it returned a collection of Areas of
the corridors.    The function getPathIterator(AffineTransform at) allowed us to
extract the polygonal corridors one by one. However, the above method did not suit
for the non-singular polygon – there were more than one subpath inside the area, i.e.
there were holes in the corridor. So we revised the algorithm as follows:
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                                Page 5


 BigArea : the resulting area from subtracting the room entities
 AreaList: a collection of the area bounded by each subpath extracted from BigArea

 for each area, Ai, in the AreaList
 {
        Ai subtracts all other area in AreaList

        if( Ai intersects BigArea)      {
                 // Ai is the proper corridor
        }
        else {
                 // Ai is an internal hole of the corridor, reject it
        }
 }




“Exit” was an important role in the semantic location model. On one hand, it
belonged to two entities; on the other hand, it had a physical meaning that the two
entities could go to each other. By using the intersects(Rectangle2D p), if an entity
intersected an exit, then the exit id was added the exit list of the entity, and the exit
added the entity id to its owner list. A constraint that an exit always had exactly two
owners was assumed as in the physical world. In our implementation, this was
monitored when an exit was triggered, i.e. created, moved or resized. The user must
correct it in order to do the next action.


Exits in an entity were reachable to from each other. If a corridor was too large, the
model could not clearly represent its physical relation. Thus, a “wall” object was
imposed to divide the corridor into smaller parts. Then the user could add an exit
over the two separated corridors.


To represent the exit hierarchy and location hierarchy, we had used the JTree in
Java to represent them. However, a child node in JTree could not have two parent
nodes. After doing some searches, a free third-party Java library – JGraph and
JGraphT – were available that to suit our requirements.


To provide save and load functions, the data was stored in ASCII format as it had to
be exported to the database. Moreover, the extraction of points and reconstruction
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                            Page 6

had to be properly ordered. Polygons and corridors which were polygons were had
added an attribute, and sequence number, to record the order of the points.


The PDAs, in fact, had less computational power than a desktop. Also, the power
consumption was a main big concern. The more computations, the more power
consumption. The location model reconstruction and recognition were done in the
server side in order to reduce the computations on the PDA. On the client side, it
handled the navigation and sent requests to the server.


In the preliminary design, J2ME was chosen as the programming language for the
PDA displaying tool. However, during testing, we could not execute J2ME programs
through Java Virtual Machine on PocketPC 2003.            We further searched on the
Internet and found that there were not much many J2ME resources for PocketPC
2003. Therefore, we decided to use eMbedded Visual C++ to program the PDA
displaying tool, as it is more common used for in developing applications for
PocketPC 2003. Also, we had successfully executed some simple eMbedded Visual
C++ programs on PocketPC 2003.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                       Page 7

3.2 Implementation Phase
During the Implementation Phase, we had been implementing the system according
to the Design Phase. Our strategy was to get the basic structure functioneding and
then grow more details on it.


   GUI floor plan editing tool
    We have implemented it using Java to provide drawing functions and location
    model recognition. We have used third-party Java class library JGraph and
    JGraphT to represent the hierarchical graph. Then we have used the MySQL
    Connector/ODBC to connect to the database.


   Database
    We have used MySQL 4.0 Database Management System, which is provided by
    CS System, to store the location model details.


   Java Servlet
    We have used Tomcat to run Java Servlet to act between the client and the
    database.


   PDA displaying tool
    We have used MS eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 and Pocket PC 2003 SDK to
    implement the graphical user interface on MS Pocket PC 2003. We used HP
    iPAQ h2210 and the Pocket PC 2003 Emulator to test it.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                              Page 8

3.3 Testing Phase
The Testing Phase is carried out during the entire development process. We test the
smallest parts and ensure each part works, and then they are integrated into a larger
part. Finally, the whole system will be tested by inputting different sets of data.


We tested the For GUI floor plan editing tool firstly, we tested it by drawing arbitrary
shapes in order to design the drawing constraints, such as, unique entity name and
an exit over exactly two entities. After implementing the constraints, we tested the
tool with a physical world map. The figure below is the result of modelling the CS
laboratory.




For the semantic location model, i.e. location hierarchy and location hierarchy, we
first generated it with a simple floor plan. Then we drew the floor plan with different
cases, and fixed the errors one by one. The following two figures are the semantic
location model of CS laboratory presented in JTree form.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                           Page 9




The following two figures are the semantic location model of CS laboratory
presented in a tree graph.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                            Page 10




After the semantic location model was built, we exported the attributes of the entities
to ASCII format and checked data consistence consistency. Once the data was
correct, we exported the attributes of the entities and relations between them (i.e. the
semantic location model) to the database.


To ensure data consistence consistency between server side and client side, we
have compared the console??? consolidated?? result, the data stored in database,
and the data retrieved from the Java Servlet. Once all data were consistent, we
reconstructed the entities in the Java Servlet and inspected the response of the Java
Servlet by sending some requests. After implementing the PDA displaying tool, we
will compare the result on the PDA screen or emulator.




3.4 Evaluation Phase
The GUI floor plan editing tool and the semantic location model were are finished
and had demonstrated to the supervisor and TAs, Through the demonstration, the
supervisor and TAs who gave their comments and opinions. The friendliness of the
GUI floor plan editing tool had has been improved based on their comments. Also,
the output of the semantic location model had has been changed to a visualised tree
form which could be more easier can be easier to read.


In the next months, we will analyze the overall performance and user friendliness. A
software demonstration will be carried out. We will ask other people, such as our
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                      Page 11

supervisor, TAs, our classmates and friends to give their comments and suggestions
about our system. Improvements and changes will be based on the evaluations.
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                               Page 12

4. Project Planning

4.1 Division of Work

                                                         Kian   Steven

Requirement analysis and information research             X       X
GUI floor plan editing tool                               X       X
Construct the semantic location model                     X       X
Set up MySQL                                                      X
Proposal report                                           X       X
Design Database                                           X       X
Export the semantic location model to database            X       X
Set up Tomcat                                             X
Progress Report                                           X       X
Design and implement the Servlet                          X       X
Reconstruct the semantic location model in the Servlet    X       X
GUI displaying tool on the PDA                            X       X
Queries against the floor plan                            X       X
Test and debug the system                                 X       X
Evaluation                                                X       X
Final report and project poster                           X       X
Presentation and demonstration                            X       X
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                       Page 13

4.2 Gantt chart
                                        Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
Requirement analysis and
information research
GUI floor plan editing tool

Construct the semantic location model

Set up MySQL database server

Proposal report

Design Database
Export the semantic location
model to database
Set up Tomcat Servlet Server

Progress Report

Design and implement the Servlet
Reconstruct the semantic location
model in the Servlet
GUI displaying tool on the PDA

Queries against the floor plan

Test, debug and evaluate the system

Final report and project poster




YOU NEED TO REWRITE YOUR REFERENCES BELOW IN THE CORRECT
„CHICAGO‟ STYLE FORMAT PREFERRED BY THE CS DEPT. YOU DO NOT FOR
INSTANCE GIVE 2 DATES FOR YOUR WEBSITES (PAGE CREATION AND LAST
ACCESS). SEE THE LINK ON cs.ust.hk/ct/ FOR HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                          Page 14

5. References
[1] Haibo Hu, Dr Dik-Lun Lee, “Semantic Location Modeling for Location Navigation
   and Visualization in Mobile Environment”
[2] The JavaTM Tutorial, <http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/>
[3] Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE), <http://java.sun.com/j2se/>
[4] Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME), <http://java.sun.com/j2me/>
[5] Java Servlet Technology, <http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/>
[6] The Design Patterns Java Companion,
   <http://www.patterndepot.com/put/8/JavaPatterns.htm>
[7] MySQL Reference Manual,
   <http://www.mysql.com/documentation/mysql/bychapter/index.html>
[8] MySQL Connector/J Documentation,
   <http://www.mysql.com/documentation/connector-j/index.html>
[9] MSDN Homepage
   < http://msdn.microsoft.com>
[10]   The Tomcat 4 Servlet/JSP Container
   < http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-4.0-doc/index.html>
[11]   Boling, Douglas McConnaughey, ”Programming Microsoft Windows CE .NET”,
   3rd Edition 2003 <ISBN 0735618844>
[12]   JGraph
   < http://www.jgraph.com/ >
[13]   JGraphT
   < http://jgrapht.sourceforge.net >
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                            Page 15

6. Appendices
6.1 Hardware and Software Requirements
6.1.1 On Server-side:

   -   CPU: Pentium III 500MHz or faster
   -   RAM: 256MB RAM
   -   Hard Disk: 500MB free disk space
   -   Network: 10/100Mbps Ethernet / IEEE80211b WLAN
   -   Operating System: Windows 2000/XP
   -   Software Used:
         J2SE 1.4.2 SDK
         MySQL 4.0 Database Server
         Tomcat 4 Servelet/JSP Container


6.2 On Client-side:

   -   Platform: PocketPC (HP iPAQ h2210) or PocketPC 2003 Emulator
   -   NIC: CF Ethernet / IEEE802.11b WLAN
   -   Operating System: Windows for PocketPC 2003
   -   Software Used:
         MS eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0
         MS Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit with PocketPC 2003
             Emulator
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                                                        Page 16

6.2 Database – ER Diagram


                                                        y
                                            x                     width

                                       ID                               height                distance



                                                                    source
                    Belongs                            Exit                                   ExitPath
                                                                   destination



    ID
                      map                        Ownership
  name


                                                                        source
                    Belongs                       Location                                    LocationPath
                                                                       destination



                                                       ISA




             Rectangle                            Polygon                                      Corridor



                                            ID                     y                 ID                          y
   ID                         height
                                                 seq          x                           seg_no             x
         x               width
                y                                                                                  seq
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                          Page 17

6.3 Minutes

Minutes of the 3rd FYP Meeting

Date:        17 October 2003
Time:        2:30 p.m.
Place:       FYP Lab
Attending:   Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Steven



   1. Report on progress
      Fu Kit Yan reported that the interface of GUI floor plan editing tool had been
      improved by adding some buttons and fully implementing the move and
      resizeing functions.

   2. Problem discussion
      Yeung Ching Wai and Fu Kit Yan compromised on the interface of the GUI
      floor plan editing tool.

   3. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   4. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 3:30 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                          Page 18

Minutes of the 4th FYP Meeting

Date:        14 November 2003
Time:        2:30 p.m.
Place:       FYP Lab
Attending:   Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Kian



   1. Problem discussion
      Fu Kit Yan pointed out that the corridor could not be drawn manually since it is
      too inefficient. Yeung Ching Wai agreed and suggested to use using some
      area subtraction methods to generate the corridor. Miss Fu agreed to the
      suggestion.

      We compared some exiting Java Virtual Machines for PocketPC 2003 and
      downloaded the available Java Virtual Machines to testing purposes.

   2. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   3. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 3:30 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                    Page 19

Minutes of the 5th FYP Meeting

Date:        18 November 2003
Time:        2:30 p.m.
Place:       FYP Lab
Attending:   Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Kian



   1. Report on progress
      There are so few resources for J2ME on PocketPC 2003 and the JVMs, which
      we downloaded, could not run successful. that they could not be run
      successfully.

   2. Problem discussion
      Since we could not use the JVM, we needed to change the programming
      language for the PDA displaying tool. So we decided to eMbedded Visual
      C++ as it is a more common programming language for developing
      applications of on PocketPC 2003.

   3. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   4. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 3:30 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                          Page 20

Minutes of the 6th FYP Meeting

Date:        3 December 2003
Time:        2:00 p.m.
Place:       Room 4212
Attending:   Hu Haibo (TA)
             Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Steven



   1. Report on progress
      A GUI floor plan editing tool had been built and a semantic location model,
      which is in text form, can be automatically generated after drawing the floor
      plan.

   2. Demonstration
      We demonstrated the GUI floor plan editing tool to Hu Haibo.

   3. Problem discussion
      Hu Haibo He suggested that the semantic location model should be presented
      as in graphic form and asked us to improve it.

   4. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   5. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 3:30 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                        Page 21


Minutes of the 7th FYP Meeting

Date:        5 December 2003
Time:        2:00 p.m.
Place:       Room 3534
Attending:   Dr. Lee Dik Lun (Advisor)
             Hu Haibo (TA)
             Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Kian



   1. Report on progress
      A GUI floor plan editing tool had been built and a semantic location model,
      which is displayed as a JTree, can be automatically generated after drawing
      the floor plan.

   2. Demonstration
      We demonstrated the GUI floor plan editing tool to Dr. Lee and Hu Haibo.


   3. Problem discussion
      Both Dr. Lee and Hu Haibo pointed out that the JTree is not clear enough for
      displaying the semantic location model and suggested us to we display the
      model by drawing some nodes and edges.

      Dr. Lee suggested that the PDA displaying tool should display the picture but
      not the graph generated from the GUI floor plan editing tool.

      Yeung Ching Wai said that we would focus on the PDA client side in the next
      stage.

   4. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   5. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 3:15 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                      Page 22

Minutes of the 8th FYP Meeting

Date:        20 December 2003
Time:        1:00 p.m.
Place:       Room 4212
Attending:   Hu Haibo (TA)
             Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Kian


   1. Demonstration
      We demonstrated the updated GUI floor plan editing tool to Dr. Lee and Hu
      Haibo.

   2. Problem discussion
      Based on the demonstration, Hu Haibo gave the following suggestions and
      asked us to implement:
      1.    save and load the floor plan
      2.    display the semantic location model in tree form
      3.    allow user to change the entity name
      4.    update the semantic location model once the floor plan is changed
      5.    implement drawing constraints among entities
      6.    allow users to select root exit and root location

   3. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   4. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 2:30 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                          Page 23

Minutes of the 9th FYP Meeting

Date:        23 December 2003
Time:        2:30 p.m.
Place:       FYP Lab
Attending:   Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Steven




   1. Problem discussion
      Fu Kit Yan pointed that JGraph might be useful for display the semantic
      location model in tree form. Therefore, we will try to search for resources
      about for JGraph.

   2. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   3. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 3:30 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                        Page 24

Minutes of the 10th FYP Meeting

Date:        13 January 2004
Time:        4:30 p.m.
Place:       FYP Lab
Attending:   Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Kian




   1. Report on progress
      The GUI floor plan editing tool was finished and the semantic location model
      could be displayed in tree form. Also, some simple eMbedded Visual C++
      programs could be executed on the PDA.

   2. Problem discussion
      We discussed and designed the ER diagram of the database. Yeung Ching
      Wai agreed to export the semantic location model to the database and Fu Kit
      Yan agreed to write the Java Servlet.

   3. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   4. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 6:00 p.m..
Wireless Map Server for PDAs (DL7)                                      Page 25

Minutes of the 11th FYP Meeting

Date:        25 January 2004
Time:        4:30 p.m.
Place:       FYP Lab
Attending:   Fu Kit Yan, Kian
             Yeung Ching Wai, Steven
Absent:      None
Recorder:    Steven




   1. Report on progress
      Yeung Ching Wai reported that the semantic location model had been
      exported to database. Fu Kit Yan reported that the Java Servlet program
      could connect to the database and retrieve data.

   2. Problem discussion
      Fu Kit Yan pointed out that we needed to find resources for eMbedded Visual
      C++ about for the HTTP request.

   3. Date and time of next meeting
      To be confirmed.

   4. Meeting adjournment
      The meeting was adjourned at 6:00 p.m..

				
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