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Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1
The name of this Film is Dogme 95 .............................................................................................. 2
Lars Von Trier => imdb ............................................................................................................................ 2
Tomas Vinterberg => imdb....................................................................................................................... 3
Copenhagen .................................................................................................................................... 4
Dogme 1: FESTEN. ............................................................................................................................................. 4
Anthony Dod Mentle => imdb.................................................................................................................. 5
Peter Aalbæk Jensen => imdb .................................................................................................................. 6
Dogme 2: THE IDIOTS ....................................................................................................................................... 7
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen => imdb ................................................................................................................ 7
Dogme 3: MIFUNE ............................................................................................................................................. 8
London ............................................................................................................................................ 9
Kristian Levring => imdb ......................................................................................................................... 9
Dogme 4: THE KING IS ALIVE .......................................................................................................................... 9
Jean-Marc Barr => imdb ......................................................................................................................... 11
New York ...................................................................................................................................... 15
Harmony Korine => imdb...................................................................................................................... 15
Kelly>>I’m a writer, and I report on the wide, wide worldf
motion pictures. I’m here to talk about filmmaking phenomenon.
And it’s Danish.
The Independent Film Channel and channel for Television
Present A Minerva Picture Production
>> Do I feel lucky?
The name of this Film is Dogme 95
Kelly>>Dogme 95, you know, these crazy films made by Danes running around with camcorders, full of damaged
people, first fights, hard sex, and general mayhem.
So where the hell did it come from?
In 1995, the centenary1 era of the cinema, director Lars Von Trier decided it was time to start a revolution. Von
Trier had already earned a reputation as the great ENFANT TERRIBLE of European cinema, hugely acclaimed for
complex Art films like ZENTROPA.
Kelly >>Made in 1991, it established Von Trier as incorrigible stylist and innovator.
International success came with BREAKING THE WAVES, winner of the Gran Prix in the 1996 Cannes Film
Together with another Danish director Tomas Vinterberg, he wrote a MANIFESTO OF DOGME 95.
Lars Von Trier => imdb
Lars Von Trier >> I remember calling Tomas and asking him if he
wanted to—to start a new wave with me. You know, that was the
words, I remember.
Kelly >>The manifesto railed against how shallow and crass movies
had become. It propose ten restrictive rules for making simple, more
truthful film using minimum equipment. And with a mischievous nod
to catholic piety, these rules were branded THE VOW OF
CHASTETY. Von Trier and Vinterberg enlisted two more
directors, SOREN-KRAGH-Jacobsen and Kristian Levring, thus
forming the DOGME BROTHERHOOD. And following the
example of Jean Luc Godard in the French new wave of the 1960’s
Von Trier chose to launch his offensive in Paris, birthplace of so
many Great Revolutions.
Lars Von Trier >>In the theater in Paris, kind of took these red leaflets and kind of threw them out over the
balconies. It was beautiful; it was kind of like in the old days. And then I read, you know, I read the manifesto and
then they asked me questions, and I said, “I was allowed by the brothers to read the manifesto but not to discuss it”.
I thought that was clever. It was kind of - - and then all said, why do you – why do you come here when you hate
film so much? That was kind of the response to this.
Kelly>> Do you both write for that?
Lars Von Trier >> No, but I thought it was interesting. It was really provocating. So that’s very strange, because
why? You know, I’m not saying that people have to do DOGME. I’m just saying that I am doing this.
Kelly >>So, just what were those controversial commandments?
Kelly >>Pause a moment for reflection. Dogme dictates the director must not be credited. So let us begin again.
Kelly >>Better. But Dogme also states that you cannot use any special effects or filters: so no superimposed titles.
Kelly >>And non of those smart-aleck special effects, like painting that blood red…
Kelly >>when everything else is in black and white. We’re still blaspheming. Dogme forbids genre film, so no
westerns, no science fictions, or, in this case, no gangster films. Also, the films must take place here and now. So no
Kelly >>Furthermore, you must not have any sounds that are recorded separately from the image. So banish your
big orchestral soundtrack, your overdubbed gunshots, and your voice-over. The sound must be real.
And wide-screen, that big cinematic experience is also prescribed. Instead, dogme filmmakers must use the squarer
academy ratio like the early silent films and everyday television. On top of that, shooting must be done on 35-
millimeter film stock; a rule, which we’ll discover, hasn’t been that easy for the brethren to abbey. Further stripping
away the artifice – all those smooth tracking shots and steadying tripods -- well, you can’t have them ether.
Everything must be handheld. These further simplifies production, making it possible to film with fewer crew
members and less equipment.
Oh, yes, Dogme demands there be no superficial action, so purge the story of weapons and murders. And those
pretentious, arty filmmakers can kiss their black and white good-bye.
Dogme films are exclusively in color. And vital to the whole ethos of back-to-basics production, special lighting is
unacceptable. Natural lighting or lights found on location are all you’ve got to work with.
And finally, absolutely no sets or props are permitted.
So all filming is on location, and you use what you find there. Taken all together, these ten rules can save directors
from the vices and the tricks of the trade that they so often succumb to. They must redeem themselves by forcing the
truth. Out of characters and settings at the cost of any good taste or esthetic consideration. Thus, I make my vow of
Kelly >>The resulting films have a very distinct flavor.
Tomas Vinterberg => imdb
Tomas Vinterberg>>The emotional life is very explosive in all
of them, which I think is because you have nothing else to tell the
story then the actors. You have nothing else when—when you
want to express feelings. You don’t have the music to make the
crescendo. You have to make them faint or puke or fight.
Something to express whatever you wanted to get out.
Kelly >>We’re going to Denmark to find out what the hell these
Danes thinking they’re doing and when I say “We”, I mean
myself and my crack team of multiskilled digital video operators
who will be dogging my every move. With our favorite track by
Kim Larsen, Denmark’s top folk rock superstar, we toured in
[Danish folk song playing]
Kelly >>You know, I really thought it would be bigger.
Is Dogme 95 just of having fun with film, or is it a whole new way of looking at life through a lens.
Is it just a passing fad in arthouse cinema, or can it capture a wider audience and inspire other filmmakers in its
Or in the end, is it just a clever way to make films cheaply?
There were the questions that were preying on my mind.
We’re at the gates of film city, a group of buildings on the heavily wooded outskirts of Copenhagen, strange to relay
it, this place, in fact, the beating heart of the Dogme 95 operation, because these houses the offices of Zentropa and
of Nimbus. The two production companies responsible for the Danish dogme product. In the movie business, the
Dogme Manifesto hadn’t been taken too seriously at first. After all, Von Trier had written Manifestos before. In one
of these, he’d even describe himself as simple masturbator of cinema. So wasn’t Dogme just another self-publicizing
The mood changed dramatically at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival when Martin Scorsese’s jury gave a top prize to
DOGME 1. The Celebration.
Dogme 1: FESTEN.
Scorsese>> And FESTEN. Tomas Vinterberg. [applause]
Lars Von Trier >> I thought he would be talented, but not too talented. But then later on, in turn out that he was too
talented. But then you can’t win them all, you know? So Yeah.
Kelly>>Are you proud of him, because of the way in which he took the concept and made a success of it?
Lars Von Trier >>Not at all. %. He should be grateful, the bastard.
Kelly>> FESTEN(The Celebration) in the story of the family celebration that goes horribly wrong.
[speaking Danish] the hero from The Celebration film:
>She had the most infectious laugh you can imagine. In no time at all we’d both be howling with laughter and we’d
get caught. But nothing ever happened to us. It was much more dangerous when Dad had his bath. I don’t know if
you remember, but Dad was always having baths. He’d take Linda and me into the study…as there was something
he had to do first. Then he’d lock the door and roll down the blinds. Then he’d take his shirt off and his trousers and
make us do likewise. He’d lie us across the green couch that’s been throw out now… and abuse us sexually. He
Raped us. Had sex with his little ones …
>A couple of months ago, when my sister died I realized that Helge was a very clean man, with all those baths
Kelly>>It’s weird that sometimes when Christian makes his first terrible speech--, see, it’s looks as if some of the
actors haven’t actually heard what he was said.
Tomas Vinterberg>>We didn’t tell the actors that the film was about child abuse and then he was going to make
the speech like that. So they were there for 14 days, getting to know etch other, becoming a family, huge fans of the
father. He’s been doing 40 films as the good guy, and then—and suddenly, that guy stands up revealing2 this. It was
interesting, ‘cause nothing really happened. It was quite – a quite true3 moment, actually.
TV>>People really couldn’t deal with it. So they just kept talking. I have understood that it was really touched
something Danish, and I have understood that people have felt – that very provoked by a film coming that close to
something they know.
Kelly>>Deprived of their usual technical tricks, Dogme directors depend more than most upon their actors. Paprika
Steen is virtually the mascot of the movement, having appeared in
the first three films.
Paprika Steen >>Actually I didn’t know what Dogme was before
– before I was in it. And you know, working with it. We heard that
we don’t have to – the actor doesn’t have to follow the camera. The
camera has to follow the actors. So actually, we could just, you
know, forget about the camera. They would -- they would get us.
Tomas Vinterberg >>Suddenly, the camera became, how do
you say? That’s a cliché, but the fly on the wall
>I’m so happy you came.
>Yes, so are we.
— Michael, what are you doing?
— What the hell do you mean?
— I don’t know. He’s trying to throw me out 4.
— Mind your fucking manners!
— How dare you drag some monkey to Dad’s party?
— Are you calling Gbatokai a monkey? How dare you?
— You Nazi bastard!
Kelly>>The story reads like a classical piece of Scandinavian theater, but the Dogme rules, including handheld
camera and natural lighting, inspire to make the film fell more like a disturbing home movie.
[yelling 6in Danish]
male >I’ve got fucking news for you! You’re the one who does the packing! And every single time you lose my
shoes! You’re the one who wanted to visit your fucking parents!
Kelly>>Crucial7 in the development of this visual style is cameraman Anthony Dod Mantle. Who’s now shot three
of the first six Dogme films, and he’s celebrated here in Lars Von Trier’s “BREAKING THE WAVE”.
[pastor at the grave]
>Anthony Dod Mantle. You are a sinner, and you deserve your place in Hell.
Anthony Dod Mentle => imdb
Anthony Dod Mentle>>Dogme cameraman, the dog — Mr. Dogme, Anthony Dogme Mentle. When those rules
were written on the lavatory seat, or wherever they were written, I think one was imagining the kind of second world
war, whatever 35-mil handheld camera, available light. Let’s go for it, boys, charge, you know.
The film format must be Academy 35 mm.
Kelly to Vinterberg>>t was financial or budgetary choice for you. That FESTEN was digital.
Tomas Vinterberg>>Definitely. %.
Anthony Dod Mentle>>So we went for the video, and I thought, “Oh, we gotta do something dramatic here.” The
only camera for me, really sat in my hand. I really felt, “Wow, this is a weapon,” you know, was a Sony at that time
called PC7, which is about twice the size of this glass, and I’m sure you know that camera. It’s a first generation
consumer camera, and I realized could make movement and make – make this kind of — this kind of look work on
somebody’s film because it was story that would be perfect for this light, almost like the camera was to be operated
by some family member who didn’t really quite grasp what was going on around him.
Kelly>>At Cannes, this raw look caught8 critics by surprise.
Jonathan Romney(film critic)>>I think there was some perplexity9 because
suddenly on big screen in the palais, you were watching something that looked liked
a home video. This was very odd. There was a feeling that something had somehow
wandered onto the screen.
Anthony Dod Mentle>>I wanted this square, academy organic mass 10 to bubble up11 there.
[classic piano music]
Anthony Dod Mentle>>I just wanted to find the cinematic language that I felt related 12 to the pretty catastrophic,
pitiful, amusing, as well, situation these family members were in. I wanted to, like, get a Vermeer and get a
Rembrandt, and get a big soupspoon and sort of go like this, you know, porridge 13 oats14.
The camera must be hand-held.
Kelly to Vinterberg>>You allowed15 to yourself one violation of the handheld rule, am I right?
TV>>Yeah, that’s right. I used a boom stick.
Anthony Dod Mentle>>I gaffer the camera onto this. It was like part of the hand. I was still holding it. I was just
like an extension to my hand. So I had it up in the sky and just whacked it down into the face of this actress. I
suddenly glanced across the room, and there’s this mirror, and I’m standing there in shot, and you can actually see it
as the camera’s moving down. Just glance across the back of the room. You’ll se this pole and this idiot probable as
Vow of Chastity
I swear as a director to refrain from personal taste! I am no longer an artist. I swear to refrain
from creating a "work", as I regard the instant as more important than the whole. My supreme
goal is to force the truth out of my characters and settings. I swear to do so by all the means
available and at the cost of any good taste and any aesthetic considerations. Thus I make my
VOW OF CHASTITY.
Kelly>> But even if that doesn’t break the letter of the law, sorely giving the film a visual style breaks the spirit of
the vow of chastity.
Tomas Vinterberg>>We didn’t prepare. We just saw the scene, and then we – we talked about where to put the
camera so that we felt that it kind of happened in the moment. And of course, that became esthetic choices. But it
became instant and improvised esthetic choices., which I found was quite OK.
Kelly>>Controversial, acclaimed around the world, and the bigger hit in Denmark than TITANIC, The Celebration
launched Dogme with a bang. Even more controversial then The Celebration was Von Trier’s own Dogme offering,
THE IDIOTS. And at Cannes its notoriety was exploited by a central figure in the selling of Dogme, Von Trier’s
business partner in Zentropa, the cigar-smoker, bike-riding, table-bashing, press-baiting ringmaster of the Dogme
circus, Peter Aalbæk Jensen.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen => imdb
Peter Aalbæk Jensen >>Yes, my partner has, you know, an
artificial “Von” in between his first and his family name, which is
totally fake, which is also a movie tradition. I have adopted the
cigar, which is also a movie tradition.
Kelly>>Can you tell us how you and Lars Von Trier first hooked
Peter Aalbæk Jensen >>It was in ’88, and I was went bankrupt
with my first company, and then I had to be employed, you know.
It was pretty disgusting16 for me. And Lars was, you can say,
artistically, he was bankrupt, because, you know, nobody wanted to
invest in his movies…
LARS VON TRIER >>That’s a lie.
LARS VON TRIER >>I’ve never been — he has been all his life.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen>>Maybe it was because two flops, you know, united and was in desperate need for — for
each other. I don’t know. But they had worked ever since, yeah?
LARS VON TRIER >> And it’s still not good. But we’re working on it.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen >>And both Lars and I are also old left wings, you know, which we are pretty proud of.
LARS VON TRIER >>Was it this hand or was it this hand?
Peter Aalbæk Jensen>>We talk on the phone about nothing three to four times each days, absolutely about
nothing, never about work.
Kelly>>Just like lovers.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen>>Yeah, like old girlfriend. And we have never seen each other privately, and that’s very
important for us that the friendship doesn’t include any kind of privacy.
Kelly>>So you wouldn’t go out for a drink together.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen>> Nope, Nope, that is — sounds pretty disgusting for both of us, to be together in our spare
time. Jesus Christ, that’s horrible, yeah?
This is his car, camouflage–painted, electric golf cart — on a military camp, yeah? If you really push it, I think it
goes around 20 kilometers per hour. There’s a little flash here. It goes when he’s driving around.
Kelly>> In 1996, Von Trier and Peter Aalbæk Jensen had collaborated on Breaking the wave, the film which
foreshadowed certain elements of Dogme.
>That’s great. You’re great. Great movie but maybe you could talk to me.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen>>I’m pretty proud of Lars, that, you know, after Breaking the wave, it would have been so
easy for him to make a little bit more slick film and a little bit more Hollywood-like, you know, and everybody
would have been sitting there, applauding in their fatty, greasy hands, you know, and say, “now he’s become adult.”
You know, and then, you know, he makes a film that practically everybody hates.
Dogme 2: THE IDIOTS
Kelly>>the film is about a group of middle class Malcontents who decided to provoke the community at large by
behaving like idiots or spassing, as they call it.
Kelly>>The desire to challenge what society calls “Good behavior” can be taken as a metaphor for the intensions17
for Dogme itself.
LARS VON TRIER >>This idea of putting limitations on yourself, something that, of course, when you think
about it, it’s something you do all the time, but it’s provocating to do it and in public.
Kelly>>The Idiots embodies the manifesto’s commitment to abandon esthetics and good taste. The Von Trier of old
would never have allowed himself such sloppy framing and jarring 18 cuts. But like he says “That’s what you get
when you follow the rules.”
LARS VON TRIER >>When you have done with film until today is that you have made such a great, great effort
to make it very smooth and everything. Otherwise it doesn’t look real, but what looks real, you know? I think it
could be much, much more abstract, and you still, I think, that within the brain of spectator or anybody, there is a
will to find the story line, if you want to call it that, or the logic between the things that are happening I’m sure that
this will is what we’re working with, and we should dare much more and kind of – because you want to find it
Paprika Steen>>The acting in The Idiots and in The Festen is really different. I think that he takes a lot more
chances, Lars, with his actor, and he makes them go out and made them – make them go out where it’s really
embarrassing, I mean also bad embarrassing, bad acting. But it sort of came out, you know, in a good way.
Bodil Jorgensen>>From the idea he got until we finished, it was
really – it was Dogme all the way. It’s what you are yearning for
when you’re an actor, this freedom. There’s no limit. There’s no
barriers, and it just come out.
Jonathan Romney>>As well as the rules, Von Trier has set up a
kind of a social theory and he’s working with a social theory, you
know, the idea of the cast as a kind of collective, and you know,
people interacting with each other and with the outside world in a
very peculiar19 way.
LARS VON TRIER >> I don’t think that this — that we went far
enough, you know. I had hoped that it would be much more kind
of, like, collective, you know. But – but of course, it – it my purpose was, well, I was trying to – to do this
differently from what I have done before.
Kelly>>Finally, Lars spoke movingly of his secret mentor.
LARS VON TRIER >>Old Baden-Powell, he was a good man, he would have made a wonderful dogme film, I’m
sure, with very little boys was running around naked in the woods.
LARS VON TRIER >>Yes. They are out looking for Baden-
Powell, you know, Ahh.
Kelly>>As Lars drove off into the sunset; we prepared
ourselves to meet another icon of Danish cinema. Soren
Kragh-Jacobsen is the third member of the Dogme
Brotherhood and one of the Denmark’s most respected
directors. But on our travels, we’d been told rather more about
his past life as a rock and roll legend.
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen => imdb
man>>Here we are. It’s from 1975 or something like that.
Paprika Steen>>This is a classic in Denmark. It’s a classic song.
Kelly>>Is this Soren on vocals?
Man>>Yes. He’s singing himself and had written the tune and everything.
Paprika Steen>>Soren is my generation’s biggest idol. When we was kids and teenagers, He made teenage movie
and teenage records, and we were just like, “Oh, Soren Kragh Jacobsen – is the greatest in the world.”
Kelly>>Did you buy his records?
Paprika Steen>>No, I didn’t, but everybody else did. I was more disco queen, you know.
Dogme 3: MIFUNE
[Danish music playing]
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen>>It’s very, very strange name, right?
Kelly>>Which name? Yours?
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen >>I wish my name were Rock Honda.
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen>>I start all interviews all over the world, were people say “Please, just before we go on,
you know, could you pronounce your name?” Soren Kragh Jacobsen.
I always compare the Dogme movement to the unplugged wave in the beginning of the ‘90s, right? Saying, why in
hell did Eric Clapton suddenly start to play unplugged? Of course, because he was surrounded by new technique in
the studios. You could do everything to your voice now, pitch it up, widen it out, sample it in, do whatever, and
suddenly these guys, of course, wanted to hear how good they really were. And that’s why they made these acoustic
records, which some of them are lovely, I think. And that’s exactly what we are doing with film here.
Lars and I often talked about, you know, when we had all the Dogme rules and the manifesto and all these things,
and said, “Beside of that, Lars, what is this about?” and he said, “It’s, of course, to give you and me joyful
filmmaking back.” I said, “good.”
It happened to suit my temper very much, this speed you’re doing it in, this energy that’s in production form like
that. I mean, actors come in the morning. They worked eight hours a day. We do eight, ten scenes a day. They are
warm, like running engines, right? And it gives it an energy, which I really believe you can see up on the big screen.
Kelly>>Now, you became the first of the brothers to shoot a Dogme film with a film camera with film in it.
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen>>I like the experiment with – with finding a type of film that I could push as much as
possible. With shooting 1,000 asa indoor, pushing it to stops, and I think it worked very well with the history.
Because it a live, looks a bit like polish film 1969. I wanted to go back there, because I happen to like that. I don’t
have anything against doing a feature film on video with three cameras. I’ve been doing so much three-camera
things on Television back in the beginning of the ‘70s. I said, “It’s too easy.” I mean, the challenge must be that you
have one camera here. You shoot it on film, and that’s a sport, right?
Anthony Dod Mentle>>In a CELEBRATION , and it is also— you know, they interesting , both in there own
rights, and we knew, and certainly Soren knew, that MIFUNE was going to be something completely different, and
in itself much more gentle. And that’s what it scores
points on. It also loses, you know. Some people are saying, you know, “Where’s the edge?”
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen>>Dogme is not a style. Dogme is a set of rules, but of course, I ran into that many times
when the people said, “Don’t look like Dogme film.” Of course it doesn’t look like Dogme film. Because I asked
Tony many times to stop moving.
Anthony Dod Mentle>>It would have been totally absurd for me running around with, like, you know, a camera on
my head and one out in the breast pocket, you know, “Let’s shoot it like this.”
Soren Kragh-Jacobsen>>I don’t believe that intensity and energy is in the restless camera. I think it’s between
Kelly>>MIFUNE won The Silver Bear at the 1999 Berlin Film Festival, further promoting the Dogme cause and
Tomas Vinterberg>>The reason for hitting the table so hard is, of course, when you’re a small country, you have to
yell to get heard. It’s the same thing as a person with a small penis wanting a huge motorbike. I think part of that
arrogance behind Dogme 95 is we represent a very small country with very small penises.
Kelly>>Leaving Denmark, we tracked down the fourth Danish Dogme brother on our home turf, London.
Kristian Levring => imdb
Kelly>>Kristian Levring, a big-time commercials director was cutting his film here in Soho, once home to the
author of another rather influential manifesto.
Kristian Levring >>It had become a much of thing to say ,”Well, that’s the way to do a film. There is like a
standard way and there is also standard way of telling a story, because of all this is very controllable.” And I think
Dogme is just a way to say, “Okay, let’s do it differently.”
Dogme 4: THE KING IS ALIVE
Kelly>> The King is Alive boasts an international cast, including Janet McTeer and Jennifer Jason Leigh. It’s
about a group of terrorists stranded in the African dessert. Facing almost certain death, they try to lift they spirits by
performing Shakespeare’s KING LEAR.
Male1>Nothing will come of nothing; speak again.
Male2>Good my liege.
Femal2 to Male2>Shh, it’s not your turn.
Female1>Unhappy that I am. I cannot leave? have?
Female1>Unhappy that I am. I cannot heave my heart into my mouth. I love your majesty according to my bond no
more, no less.
Kristian Levring >>Because when you shoot Dogme, the actual setup of the scene is very, very fast, and because
of that, we were able to reshoot a lot of scenes two or three times, we went on until we felt “Now it’s there. Now it’s
Female2>Well, it’s about a king who has two daughters.
Female2>or maybe it’s three. I’m not really sure. But anyway, he has a couple of kids. And he’s old and he wants to
retire, and he wants to divide his kingdom between his kids.
Male >All right.
Female2>So whoever says they love him the most gets the biggest share. That’s it.
Male >And you get to play the evil daughter, right?
Female2>Sure. I get to play the real bitch. You don’t have to worry, you know. Nobody has to fall in love and
anybody gets to die in the end.
Genre movies are not acceptable.
Kelly>>In the sense, the story of your film, a group of individuals under adversity, relationships falling apart bears a
certain relation to movies like THE TOWARING INFERNO or THE POSEIDON ADVENTURE or ALIVE.
Kristian Levring >>If you look at that rule, I think that the way it’s meant is which is like it’s not a western, it’s not
a film noir, it’s not a historic piece, it’s not a society fiction, , but, of course, every film has a genre, and if you dig
very deep in my film there’s an [speaking French] that’s a genre.
Tomas Vinterberg>>I thought about this genre rule. And I found it a bad rule. Because it’s very difficult to avoid
being a genre. And it’s not very creative, because it’s not easy to — it’s not very specific. The good rules, the ones
who are encouraging creatively, are the specific rules. You have to hold the camera in your hand, you cannot add
any props, but not being able to make a genre film, or not being allowed to have a taste is in a way impossible.
Kristian Levring >>Because every time you point a camera somewhere, you make an esthetic choice: things you
put in your frame and the things you leave out of your frame.
Male>…to this hard house. My master calls me
Kristian Levring >>Lars has talk about it. Thomas has talk about it. Soren has talk about it. And I experienced it:
how joyful it was to do films according to these rules.
Kelly>>The King is Alive completes a quartet of films by the founding brotherhood. So maybe the most vital part of
the Dogme experiment is now complete.
Kelly>>Do you think you’ll make another Dogme film when you are finished with this one?
Kristian Levring >>No, I don’t think so.
Tomas Vinterberg>>we invented this in ‘95s. We’re done Dogme.
Kelly>>But that’s not the end of the story.
Next stop America.
We are on route to a little place called Rankin, Illinois, to meet
with actor-turned-director Jean-Marc Barr.
Jean-Marc Barr => imdb
A trusted collaborator of Lars Von Trier, Barr made the first Not-Danish Dogme film
LOVERS. He’s in Rankin shooting the follow-up, too much flash.
What’s going on over there? Believe it or not, is the making of a feature film? Yep.
That’s right. That small mob 21 of people are the TOO MUCH FLASH crew. Although
not a Dogme film, it’s being produced using many of the same techniques. Compare
this to the enormous crews employed on the average Hollywood film set we sat
down with Jean Marc during his crew’s lunch break to discuss his experiences
Jean-Marc Barr>>We took dogme as being a chance to get the film done. A lot of first time filmmakers today are
thrown into the situation where, you know, if they got $5 million to make a picture, but if it doesn’t work out they
got to go work at MacDonald’s. It really puts them in a very stressful, uncreative situation. We shot LOVERS for a
budget of about $400 000 $500 000 and in all, it took us abut seven months.
Jean-Marc Barr>>And all that time, non one studio nor television company told us what to write, how to shoot.
And that, for us, was a real change in contrast to other bigger project.
Male>Do you really have to go to work?
Female>C’est pas vrai. I can’t believe it you are search a baby. I cannot miss two days consecutive. I’ll be fired.
Male>Wait, wait. I can’t help it, Leanne. You get me too exited. It’s too much for me. The way you’re dressed — I
think it’s the orange tights. What do you expect? I fall in love. She wants to go to work. Come on. Cone on. Let’s go
back to upstairs.
Jean-Marc Barr>>When we wanted to make was a film that would touch and have an emotional intimacy that the
technology that preceded that didn’t have. We wanted to be able to tell the story where all of a sudden, anyone
who’s fallen in love would be able to identify with what’s going on, and that for us is a cinematic experience.
Jonathan Romney>>And a really good set of rules is like a grid 22 where people sort of pass through. But in order to
pass through, they have to leave their own baggage behind, because it won’t get through the grid. And what
disappointing about a film like that is it proves that someone can come to this kind of cinema, to these practices,
with, you know, the most banal preconceptions, the most, kind of, outmoded kind of, you know, post – post—
nouveau vague, you know, romance. And it still gets through.
Jean-Marc Barr>>When we finished the film, the hardest thing to deal with was trying to get through the Dogme
Police, and, and, and to see if the film could pass.
Kelly>>Can you describe that process for us?
Jean-Marc Barr>>Well, we had to write a letter of confession23.
Tomas Vinterberg>>I’m proud to say I was the one who invented the confessions. Actually I did to emphasize how
rigid24 I was.
Jean-Marc Barr>>Everyone, the four filmmakers who made the four previous Dogme films, watched a film and
made their criticisms, and they allowed us three or four sins.
Tomas Vinterberg>>It’s very, very difficult discussion every time, whether people have broken a rule or not,
whether they have followed the intentions of Dogme 95 or not.
Props and sets must not be brought in.
Jean-Marc Barr>>For example, it was not an apartment that existed as you see it. It was something that you
created. So it wasn’t really Dogme. Because we didn’t know how much light this camera can go by – and it’s a
camera that is very sensitive to light, and you can shoot in very low light – we put a lot of lamps around.
The director must not be credited.
Kelly>>Did you credit yourself as director in this?
Jean-Marc Barr>>No. No. Just holding the camera.
Jonathan Romney>>The peculiar25 thing is that all the directors who have been associated with Dogme, we know
who they are. Their name might not appear in the film, but we know who they are. They’ve each brought personal
taste to bear. They all have turned up at Festivals. And I thought, “Well, you know, if you going to be, if you going
to make this claim to anonymity, well, you know, do it all the way.“
Jean-Marc Barr>>Pascal and I thought to be a little different and also that that the concept was a bit bourgeois, of
not putting the name director’s on there as a director, but Lars wouldn’t let us get away with it.
LARS VON TRIER >>That’s were I’m very dogmetic, as they say. I think it’s not interesting if you don’t take it
seriously. Because then why do a Dogme film?
LARS VON TRIER >> It is — it is a little game, but
LARS VON TRIER >>And if you know don’t follow the rules, then why, you know, why — play football if you
don’t want to kind of put the ball in the, you know, the goal or whatever.
Kelly>>In the beginning, Lars Von Trier invited many A-list Hollywood directors to make a Dogme films.
LARS VON TRIER >>Yeah. I never heard from anybody.
Kelly>>So does this mean Dogme’s too radical for the yanks?
Tomas Vinterberg>>I asked Mr.Spielberg, himself, whether he wanted to do one or not, and he was very
enthusiastic about it. I don’t think he’s going to do one.
LARS VON TRIER >>If he does, we will never know, because he’s not supposed to be credited.
LARS VON TRIER >>So maybe it has done already
Kelly>>Bit is it really possible for the Dogme wave to cross the Atlantic?
After all, what does Danish cultural mean to the average American except for a rather delicious kind of pastry?
Next stop. New York.
Harmony Korine => imdb
In the end, it was the most conspicuous figure in alternative U.S. filmmaking, 25-years-old Harmony Korine, co-
writer of KIDS, and director of GUMMO, who rose to the challenge with Julian
Harmony Korine>>A lot of people thinking that it’s a kind of joke, or you
know, or there’s like — or there’s some of levity27 involved. But I wouldn’t be
interested in it if there was any irony attached to the vow of chastity. It’s very
Female>Sometimes I wish I was deaf.
Female >I don’t know. I think the world is just too loud and —
Harmony Korine>>I kind of had lost some faith, and I still have very little faith
in a – in a kind of a – in a formal screenplay structure. It’s just really boring to
me. So what I did was a basically wrote a list of scenes, of images, kind of like looking at photographs. It was much
Kelly>> Julian Donkey-Boy is an abstract portrait of a schizophrenic man young man and his dysfunctional family.
Father>She’s never gonna learn to play this harp. She’s a dilettante and she’s a slut 28. You’re never gonna learn to
play this harp. Can’t stand this any longer. Com on. Can’t stand this any longer. I might accidentally step on this
here. Don’t try to defend your sister. You’ll just look stupid. … You utterly and completely and irrevocably stupid.
If I was so stupid, I was slap my own face. ……Tell him to slap his face!
Harmony Korine>>I was just interesting in making of kind of
movie than almost like an artifact or something, like, just
documenting some kind of action.
Kelly>>We spoke to actor Ewen Bremner about his experience
of a dogme movie.
Ewen Bremner>>It’s also a Harmony Korine movie, you know, and
Harmony Korine doesn’t make films like anybody else. You know,
so it’s just dint of the fact that I’m working on a Harmony Korine
movie. It’s going to have demands, which are beyond what I’m used
to. The fact of the Dogme film is sort of like icing on the cake for me.
Anthony Dod Mentle>>To understand what Lars was doing in The Idiots, which for me is the most — one of the
very, very interesting things of Idiots, this sudden experience of not quite knowing what you’re witness to, whether
you’re in a real or unreal or fictional or you don’t quite know any longer? I think Harmony was looking for that —
Black male with white hair>I’m a black Albino straight from Alabama, way down South. Then you know that = %
yeah, check it out
Ewen Bremner>>on an artistic level, people are taking the film – people — everybody’s taking a film very
seriously – and which is good. A lot of people hate the film. Quite a lot of people — Americans — seem to be
taking it quite technically. “OK. This is a Dogme film. Right. Okay. I know all about Dogme. Yes.” That flouts 29
Dogme, doesn’t it? Generally, that’s nothing in the film that really flouts a Dogme. I don’t think, and if there is,
Harmony has admitted to, you know, has confessed his sins. There’s a lot of ways that you got around the Dogme
and very ingenious30 ways.
LARS VON TRIER >>All the more interesting directors would, of course, go their own direction. That is why, you
know, they are interesting. But that also means that they would take a set of rules and kind of go to the limit or over.
I mean, the good thing about them was they were written obtusely 31 enough that – that they left room to basically do
anything that you would want to do in a film. You know, they weren’t, they weren’t so restricting 32 that I couldn’t
do what I wanted to do. It’s just I had to go about, go about it in another way.
A lot of people misinterpreted33 that for some kind of – for sinning or breaking the rules, and – which was a boring
argument for me, because, ultimately, you want people to watch the film for the film.
Jonathan Romney>>No, but if you actually stick a label right on the front of the film and say this is certificated
and this is made according to the rules, and you know, here’s a Dog’s ass. And as soon as someone does accept a
label – and it’s not just any label. You know, it’s now world-famous, you know, it’s a brand name, I mean, it’s Nike
– then you’re asking for it to be talked about in very, very specific terms.
Props and sets must not be brought in.
Tomas Vinterberg>>There’s, of course, one thing which is definitely not a Dogme thing, which is that she was not
Kelly>>Yeah. I believe he said he tried very hard to impregnate34 Chloe Sevigny.
Harmony Korine>>I wouldn’t call it a sin, because I tried, so — it was just me shooting blanks.
Tomas Vinterberg>>to me, that was – that was a very beautiful explanation. What I found interesting with
Harmony’s film is that, to me it’s very esthetic film. It’s very obsessed with its own esthetics. You have a digital
camera in your hand, and there’s a lot of things you can do, and you can kind of make stop motion, and we kind of
agreed on that, because it happens in the very moment, and it’s a part the set, so it follow the rules. But to me, it
suddenly becomes untrue to this – the basic idea of Dogme.
Kelly>>Surely what’s significant is that Korine and the brotherhood recognized kindred spirits in each other and
symbolically Joined Hands across the Atlantic.
Kelly>>But cynical35 critics insisted36 that Karine was using Dogme as a marketing ploy37, a way of flogging 38his
otherwise unmarketable product by linking it to the latest craze39.
Harmony Korine >>It didn’t really help the box office sales. It’s not like, I mean, that accusation has no bearing.
And I mean, in America, the idea of, you know, of doing it, making a Dogme money — I mean, Dogme movie for
the money, it’s like, if anything, it’s would hinder 40. I don’t even think that making a Dogme film is necessary
cheaper than doing it regular. It probably would have cost me less money to do it a different way.
Kelly>>Currently, there are dogme films planned in Denmark, Spain, Brazil, England, Italy, Korea, and just about
everywhere else. So has the movement been hijacked 41 by producers keen42 to make a fast buck43.
Tomas Vinterberg>>It is not meant to be another package, another low-budget package. It’s meant to awake some
directors and to encourage some directors and to challenge some directors and filmmakers. It was not the idea to
make cheap film. But it’s a Dogme film, and it’ll sell. I mean. That’s nothing.
Jonathan Romney>>It’s now tag or a license that other people can pick up. I mean, I keep finding reviews of little
films from around the world in VERIETY. Where it’s either a Dogme film – you know, it’s the first Albanian
Dogme film or whatever, or someone has done a film Dogme-style, and it’s a term that’s used so loosely44. The
danger is that it means nothing.
Tomas Vinterberg>>There’s many sad things to say about dogme right now. I mean, it’s for me, it’s sad to hear
that when they shoot Danish commercials, they want it Dogme-like. I mean, it’s not the point. It’s the point that
people get angry and do something else, or they do this. It’s – the point to reflect the movie business as it is, not to
give it another color. It’s – the idea was put a mirror in front of it and say, “Listen, we could do it another way as
From The Celebration [speaking Danish]
Father>What are you staring at? Is it my fault that I have such talentless offspring 45?
Tomas Vinterberg>>So I was ready to end it. But Lars has a very generous mind, and he said, “Well, other people
could get a nice experience with this,” and I kind of understood that. And for me, then it suddenly opened up this
whole Dogme concept.
Kelly>>So how have the four brothers kept the game fresh, short of changing the rules of play?
Kristian Levring >>There’s been a lot of talking about the rules being modified. You cannot change the ten
Kristian Levring >>but — I, my, we’ve changed one thing that has changed has been that Dogme has gone from
Catholicism to Protestantism.
Kelly>>To get the Dogme certificate now, director just signs a piece of paper saying that he or she obeyed the rules,
and, um, that’s it.
Paprika Steen>>We didn’t expect anything when we sat down there in 1995. We wanted to do four films in
another way. We wanted to have a brotherhood. It was a kind of protest against several things. But now, when it
suddenly became a wave – I don’t know why it became a wave – why should we sit there and be — being judges?
LARS VON TRIER >>Estonia or some of these countries, they also suddenly came make films, you know,
because, if that’s a film, you know, then we make films too. I think that’s great.
LARS VON TRIER >>Yeah. Instead of thinking, “Oh, if it doesn’t look like Star Wars, then we can’t make a
film.” And then, you know — if that is the only thing that comes out of these, I think it’s fantastic.
Kelly>>It doesn’t worry you that the quality control will fall off and the Dogme name will be tarnished 46.
Peter Aalbæk Jensen>>It’s not a Walt Disney here label, you know? It’s a political movement, so it’s free for
everybody to use or misuse. Yeah.
Kelly>>Uh-huh. If it’s a political movement, what’s the objective?
Peter Aalbæk Jensen >>It’s just to — to kick some ass in a — in a sloppy business, you know?
Stop it! I’m going home!
Peter Aalbæk Jensen >>you know, there’s nothing new to this fucking Dogme movie, nothing at all if you look
into film history, more or less. But it’s nice. Now and then, every, you know, business need a movement, that’s
doing something new or at least try to call it something new, or so that’s good. And now we look for someone to
rebel against us.
Kelly to LARS VON TRIER >>And it’s possible that you’ll inspire making different manifestos?
LARS VON TRIER >>I’ll inspire people to throw this manifesto away. Why not?
Kelly>>Why should they have to follow?
LARS VON TRIER >>Gives exercise, you know! Good for your muscles too. Madness.
Captioning provided by The Independent Film Channal. Captioning by CaptionMax www.Captionmax.com
Всем привет! Слава email@example.com
Centenary n. (100th anniversary) столетие. adj. (100 years old; pert. to 100th anniversary) столетний;
(happening every 100 years) происходящий раз в сто лет.
Reveal v.t. обнаруживать, -ть; показывать, -ать; he would not reveal his name он не хотел назвать своё имя;
he revealed himself to be the father он объявил себя отцом; this account is very revealing этот отчёт очень
показателен; revealed religion богооткровенная религия; it was evening before the sun revealed itself солнце
показалось только к вечеру; she wore a revealing dress она была в открытом платье.
True n. (alignment, adjustment): the wheel is out of true колесо плохо установлено. adj. 1. (in accordance with
fact) верный, правдивый; a true story правдивый рассказ; is it true that he is married? это правда, что он женат?;
all my dreams came true все мои мечты сбылись/осуществились; it is only too true увы, это чистейшая правда;
(concessive): true, it will cost more разумеется, это будет стоить больше. 2. (in accordance with reason, principle,
standard; genuine) правдивый; настоящий; подлинный, истинный; it is not a true comparison это ложное
сравнение; the true price is much higher действительная/настоящая цена намного выше; he is a true Briton он
настоящий британец; the true heir законный наследник. 3. (conforming accurately) правильный; true to life
реалистический; true to type типичный, характерный. 4. (loyal, faithful; dependable) преданный, верный;
надёжный; he was always a true friend to me он был мне всегда преданным другом; he remained true to his word
он сдержал слово; a true sign of rain верный признак дождя. 5. (mus., in tune) верный (тон и т.п.). 6. (accurately
adjusted or positioned) точно пригнанный/установленный. adv. правильно, верно; his story rings true его
рассказ звучит убедительно; he aimed true он точно прицелился.
Throw out v.t. выбросать, выбросить; (proffer) предлагать, -ожить; I threw out a remark я отпустил
замечание; he threw out a challenge он бросил вызов; (put out): they threw out a feeler они пустили пробный
шар; the tree threw out new leaves дерево дало новые листья; (build on) пристраивать, -оить; the college has
thrown out a new wing к колледжу пристроен новый флигель; (reject) отклонять, -ить; the bill was thrown out
(parl.) законопроект отклонили; (expel) исключать, -ить; выбрасывать, выбросить; the club threw him out его
исключили из клуба; (upset) сбивать, -ить; путать (impf.); you will throw me out in my calculations вы собьёте
меня со счёта;
chill out, Slang. to calm down; relax.
Yell n. (пронзительный) крик; give a yell вскрикивать, -нуть; закричать (pf.). v.t. & i. вопить, за-; кричать, -
икнуть; he yelled abuse at me он обрушил на меня поток брани.
Crucial adj. (decisive) решающий.
Caught p.p. of catch v.
Perplexity n. (bewilderment) озадаченность, недоумение; (cause of bewilderment) запутанность.
Mass1 n. (relig.) месса, литургия; (in Orthodox church) обедня; high mass торжественная месса; low mass
месса без пения; masses were said for his soul за упокой его души служили обедни.
Bubble up бить (impf.) ключом; булькать (impf.); bubble (over) with laughter заливаться (impf.) смехом;
Related adj. 1. (logically connected) (взаимно) связанный (с+i.). 2. (by blood or marriage): he is related to the
royal family он в родстве с королевской семьёй; he and I are related мы с ним родственники; we are distantly
related мы в дальнем родстве.
Porridge n. овсяная каша; save your breath to cool your porridge є сиди и помалкивай; держи язык за зубами.
Oat n. (in pl.) овёс; feel one’s oats (coll.) быть оживлённым; чувствовать (impf.) свою силу; he is off his oats
(coll.) он потерял аппетит; wild oats овсюг; sow one’s wild oats (fig.) прожигать, -ечь молодость; he has sown
his wild oats он уже перебесился/остепенился. adj. овсяный.
Allow v.t. 1. (permit) позволять, -олить; разрешать, -ить; allow me! разрешите!; as far as circumstances allow
насколько позволяют обстоятельства; he was allowed to smoke ему позволили курить; I will not allow you to
be deceived я не допущу, чтобы вас обманули; allow no discussion запрещать, -тить всякое обсуждение;
smoking is not allowed курить воспрещается; no dogs allowed вход с собаками воспрещён. 2. (grant, provide)
давать, -ть; предоставлять, -авить; допускать, -тить; he allows his son Ј500 a year он даёт сыну 500 фунтов в
год; I allowed him a free hand я предоставил ему свободу действий; at the end of the 6 months allowed в конце
предоставленных шести месяцев; allow discount предоставлять, -авить скидку; allow 10p in the pound делать,
с- скидку в десять пенсов с каждого фунта. 3. (admit) допускать, -тить; (recognize) признавать, -ать; his claim
was allowed его требование было принято; allow an appeal (leg.) удовлетворять, -ить апелляцию. v.i. 1. allow
for (take into account) учитывать, -есть; allowing for casualties учитывая возможные потери; not allowing for
expenses не принимая в расчёт издержек; allow Ј50 for emergencies выделять, выделить 50 фунтов на
чрезвычайный случай; allow for his being ill принять (pf.) во внимание то, что он болен; allow for wind брать,
взять поправку на ветер; allow for shrinkage делать, с- допуск на усадку. 2. allow of: his tone allowed of no
reply его тон не допускал возражений.
Disgusting adj. отвратительный.
Intension n. сила, интенсивность, глубина.
Jarr2 n. 1. (harsh sound) неприятный звук. 2. (shock, vibration) сотрясение; (on nerves or feelings)
неприятный эффект; the news gave him a jar известие неприятно поразило его. 3. (disagreement) несогласие;
(quarrel) ссора. v.t. (shake) сотрясать, -ти; (fig., shock) потрясать, -ти. v.i. 1. (emit harsh sound) издавать, -ать
резкий звук; (sound discordantly) дисгармонировать (impf.). 2.: jaron, against (strike with grating sound)
скрежетать (impf.) по+d.; jar on (irritate, annoy) раздражать, -ить. 3. (disagree) сталкиваться, -олкнуться; (fig.):
these colours jar эти цвета не сочетаются.
Peculiar adj. 1. (exclusive, distinctive) особенный, своеобразный; this custom is peculiar to the English это
чисто английский обычай. 2. (particular) особенный; a building of peculiar interest здание, представляющее
особый интерес. 3. (strange) странный; his behaviour was rather peculiar он вёл себя довольно странно.
Heave n. (lifting effort) подъём; (throw) бросок; (act of retching) рвота. v.t. (lift) поднимать, -ять; (throw)
бросать, -осить; heave a sigh (тяжело) вздохнуть (pf.). v.i. 1. (pull): they heaved on the rope они выбрали канат;
heave ho! раз-два взяли!; эй, ухнем! 2. (retch) тужиться (impf.) (при рвоте). 3. (rise and fall) вздыматься
(impf.); her bosom was heaving её грудь вздымалась; heaving billows вздымающиеся волны. 4.: heave to (naut.)
ложиться в дрейф. 5.: heave in sight показываться, -аться на горизонте.
Mob n. 1. (rabble, crowd) толпа. 2.: the mob (common people) толпа; чернь; mob rule самосуд; суд Линча. v.t.
нападать, -асть на+a.; the singer was mobbed by his fans певца осаждали поклонники.
Grid n. 1. (grating) решётка; luggage grid багажный стеллаж; багажная сетка. 2. (gridiron) рашпер. 3. (map
reference squares) координатная сетка; grid reference координаты (f. pl.). 4. (elec.) сеть электропередач. 5.
(power supply system) энергосистема.
Confession n. 1. (avowal) признание, сознание. 2. (profession of faith) исповедание. 3. (denomination)
вероисповедание. 4. (to a priest) исповедь.
Rigid adj. жёсткий, негнущийся; (fig.) косный, негибкий; rigid discipline/economy строгая
Peculiar adj. 1. (exclusive, distinctive) особенный, своеобразный; this custom is peculiar to the English это
чисто английский обычай. 2. (particular) особенный; a building of peculiar interest здание, представляющее
особый интерес. 3. (strange) странный; his behaviour was rather peculiar он вёл себя довольно странно.
Conspicuous adj. заметный; бросающийся в глаза; выдающийся; he was conspicuous by his absence его
отсутствие бросалось в глаза.
Levity n. легкомыслие.
Slut n. неряха; (trollop) потаскуха.
Flout v.t. попирать, -рать; (mock) насмехаться (impf.) над+i.; глумиться (impf.) над+i.
Ingenious adj. изобретательный; остроумный; an ingenious solution остроумное/гениальное решение; (of a
device, machine etc.) искусный; замысловатый.
Obtuse adj. (lit., fig.) тупой.
Restrict v.t. ограничивать, -ть; free travel is restricted to pensioners бесплатный проезд распространяется
только на пенсионеров; speed is restricted to 30 mph скорость ограничена до тридцати миль в час; his vision
was restricted by trees ему было плохо видно из-за деревьев; restricted area район ограниченной скорости
движения; (US mil.) район, закрытый для военнослужащих.
Misinterpret v.t. неправильно понимать, -ять; неправильно истолковывать, -ать. n. неправильное
Impregnate v.t. (fertilize) оплодотворять, -ить; (saturate) пропитывать, -ать; насыщать, -ытить; impregnated
wood ипрегнированная древесина.
Cynical adj. циничный.
Insist v.t. & i. настаивать, -оять на+p.; требовать, по- +g.; упорствовать (impf.); he insisted on his rights он
настаивал на своих правах; he insisted on his innocence он настаивал на своей невиновности; he insisted on my
accompanying him он настоял на том, чтобы я его сопровождал; very well, if you insist! ну ладно, коли вы
Ploy n. (manoeuvre) уловка.
Flog v.t. 1. (beat) стегать, от-; пороть, вы-; сечь, вы-; he is flogging a dead horse (fig.) он пытается возродить
то, что безнадёжно устарело. 2. (sell) загонять, -нать; толкать, -нуть; (both coll.).
Craze n. мания, помешательство; повальная мода. v.t. сводить, -ести с ума.
Hinder adj. задний.
Hijack n. угон, похищение. v.t. угонять, -нать; похищать, -итить.
Keen adj. (lit., fig.: sharp, acute) острый; keen eyesight острое зрение; a keen intellect
острый/проницательный ум; (piercing) пронзительный; a keen glance пронзительный/острый взгляд; a keen
wind резкий/пронизывающий ветер; keen frost сильный мороз; (strong, intense) сильный; keen desire
сильное/острое желание; keen interest живой интерес; (eager; energetic) ревностный; энергичный; a keen
businessman энергичный делец; a keen pupil усердный/прилежный ученик; keen competition трудное
соревнование; ожесточённая конкуренция; a keen demand for sth. большой спрос на что-н.; (enthusiastic)
страстный; a keen sportsman страстный спортсмен; энтузиаст/любитель (m.) спорта; be keen on
сильно/страстно увлекаться, -ечься +i.; I am not keen on chess я не особенно увлекаюсь шахматами; he is keen
on your coming ему очень хочется, чтобы вы пришли; they are keen on getting (or to get) the work done они
стремятся окончить дело; им не терпится закончить работу.
Buck 4. (coll., dollar) доллар; big bucks куча денег. Fast Buck.
Loose 6. (imprecise): a loose statement неопределённое/расплывчатое заявление; a loose translation
приблизительный/вольный перевод; a loose style небрежный стиль; loose thinking нечёткость мысли.
Offspring n. потомок, отпрыск; (pl.) потомство; (fig.) плод.
Tarnish n. тусклость, тусклая поверхность. v.t.: tarnished by damp потускневший от влаги; (fig.) пятнать,
за-; he has a tarnished reputation он запятнал свою репутацию. v.i. тускнеть, по-; окисляться, -иться.