PowerPoint Presentation - Woodward's World by linxiaoqin

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									             Today’s Agenda: Lecture I
Journal Questions: Describe three characteristics
  of water. What is the water cycle?
*1. Lecture: The Water Cycle
 2. Homework: Read water related chapter in your
  textbook.




12/19/2011            Environmental Science     1
   Nutrient Cycles: The
  Water (Hydrologic) Cycle
             By Dr. Woodward




12/19/2011      Environmental Science   2
             Nutrient Cycles
A. Nutrient cycles involve natural process that
  recycle nutrients in various chemical forms in a
  cyclic manner from the nonliving environment
  to living organisms and back to the
  nonliving environment again.
B. There are three general types of nutrient cycles:
  1. Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
  2. Atmospheric Cycle
  3. Sedimentary Cycle

12/19/2011          Environmental Science          3
     The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
A. The water cycle collects, purifies and distributes the
    Earth’s fixed supply of water.
    1. Evaporation (conversion of water into water vapor)
    2. Transpiration (evaporation from leaves)
    3. Condensation (conversion of water vapor into droplets of
    liquid water)
    4. Precipitation (rain, sleet, hail, snow)
    5. Infiltration (movement of water into soil)
    6. Percolation (downward flow of water through soil and
    permeable rock formations to groundwater storage areas
    called aquifers)
    7. Runoff (down-slope surface movement back to the sea to
    resume the cycle)



12/19/2011               Environmental Science                    4
             The Water Cycle




12/19/2011       Environmental Science   5
         The Water Cycle Continued:
B. The water cycle is powered by energy from the
  sun and by gravity.
C. About 84% of the water vapor in the
  atmosphere comes from the oceans.
D. Oceans cover about 71% of the Earth’s
  surface.
E. On a global scale, the amount of water vapor
  entering the atmosphere is equal to the amount
  returning to the Earth’s surface as precipitation.

 12/19/2011           Environmental Science            6
             Human’s Influence on the
                  Water Cycle
A. We withdrawal large quantities of fresh water from
   streams, lakes, and underground sources for drinking
   potable water.
B. Clearing vegetation from land for agriculture, mining,
   road and building construction. This increases runoff,
   accelerates soil erosion and landslides.
C. We modify water quality, particularly by adding
   nutrients (such as phosphates) and other pollutants
   creating water pollution.


12/19/2011             Environmental Science            7
             The Importance of Water
A. Water covers 71% of Earth’s surfaces.
B.   About 97.5% of this volume is the salt water of the oceans and
     seas.
     The major biological source of dissolved oxygen in the
     ocean comes from photosynthesis by phytoplankton.
C. The remaining 2.5% is fresh water.
     1. Fresh water is water with a salt content of less than .1% -
     This is the water upon which most terrestrial biota,
     ecosystems, and humans depend on.
D. Earth’s organisms are made up of mostly water.
E. A tree is about 60% water by weight.
F. Most animals and humans are about 50-65% water.


12/19/2011                 Environmental Science                  8
             The Composition of Water
A.  Water is found in three physical states:
    1. Ice (solid) at O degrees Celsius
    2. Liquid water (liquid)
    3. Water vapor (gas)
B. Chemical formula: H20
    1. A weak attraction known as hydrogen
    bonding tends to hold water together

12/19/2011            Environmental Science    9
             Only 2.5% Fresh Water!
A.      Of the 2.5% fresh water available, two-thirds of it is
        bound up in the polar ice caps and glaciers.
B.      Thus, only .77% of all fresh water is found in lakes,
        wetlands, rivers, groundwater, biota, soil, and
        atmosphere.
C.      Nevertheless, evaporation from the oceans combines
        with precipitation to re-supply that small percentage
        continually through the water cycle.
D.      Thus, fresh water is a continually renewable resource.

12/19/2011                 Environmental Science             10
Freshwater Ecosystems:
    Just 3% of all freshwater!




12/19/2011      Environmental Science   11
                    Fresh Water
A.      A vital resource for all land ecosystems,
        modulating climate through evaporation.
B.      The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle reviewed:
        (1) Water rising to the atmosphere via
        transpiration and evaporation and returning to
        land via condensation and precipitation.



12/19/2011              Environmental Science        12
               The Power of Water
A.      Irrigation makes it possible to grow 40% of the
        world’s food.
B.      One-fifth of all electricity is generated through
        hydropower.
C.      In the developing world:
        1. Over 1 billion people still lack access to clean
        drinking water.
        2. 2 ½ billion people do not have access to adequate
        sanitation services.
        3. Over 3 million deaths each year are traced to
        waterborne diseases (mostly children under five).

12/19/2011                Environmental Science            13
                Water Terminology
A.      Hard water: Water that contains minerals, especially
        calcium or magnesium, that causes soap to
        precipitate, producing scum, curd, or scale in boilers.
B.      Soft water: Water that is relatively free of minerals.
C.      Turbid: Cloudy water due to particles present.
D.      Brackish water: A mixture of fresh and salt water,
        typically where rivers enter the ocean.
E.      Storm water: Water from precipitation that runs off
        of land surfaces in surges.
F.      Salinity: The concentration of salt (Na+) in a
        substance.

12/19/2011                 Environmental Science                  14
Dedication to My Class during 7th Period
 Lecture II
 -Purchase an AP Prep Book for Environmental
   Science –Dedicate yourself to doing well!
 *1. Water Lecture continued….
  2. Population 7 billion…. That is a question…
      The world population is the total number of living humans on the planet
     Earth, currently estimated to be 6.96 billion by the United States Census
     Bureau as of July 1, 2011

   3. Homework…

 12/19/2011                      Environmental Science                           15
        Arctic Sea Ice
     (September 16, 2011)
   The. Arctic Sea Ice has melted to near record
    levels
   Second lowest level recorded ever. It is more
    evidence of climate change. The ice could shrink
    even further.
   It’s having a huge impact on 20,000 desperate
    walruses who are hauling themselves onto land to
    look for food.
     Normally, something they would do normally and
    on Ice Flows
12/19/2011            Environmental Science      16
             What do you think?
Refer to the following qualities of water:
(a) Acidity
(b) Turbidity
(c) Hardness
(d) Dissolved Oxygen
(e) Salinity
1.  ___ Measured on the pH scale.
2.  ___ Caused by suspended particulates.
3.  ___ Decreased breakdown of organic wastes.
4.  ___ Measured by the amount of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+

12/19/2011           Environmental Science          17
             Correct Answers:
1. Measured on the pH scale
    a. Acidity
2. Caused by suspended particulates
    b. Turbidity
3. Decreased by the breakdown of organic wastes
    d. Dissolved oxygen
4. Measured by the amount of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+
    c. Hardness

12/19/2011         Environmental Science          18
             Green vs. Blue Water
A.      Green Water: Water in the soil and in
        organisms that eventually ends up as water
        vapor –the main source of water for natural
        ecosystems and rain-fed agriculture.
B.      Blue Water: Renewable surface water runoff
        and groundwater recharge –the focus of
        management and the main source of water for
        human withdrawals.

12/19/2011             Environmental Science      19
                     Infiltration
A.      As precipitation hits the ground, it may either
        soak into the ground (infiltration) or run off
        the surface (runoff, a blue water flow).
B.      Runoff flows over the surface of the ground
        into streams and rivers, which make their way
        to the ocean or to inland sea. All the land area
        that contributes water to a particular stream or
        river is referred to as the watershed.

12/19/2011               Environmental Science         20
                  Groundwater
A. Groundwater: Water that fills the cracks and pores in
   underground soil and rock layers. (gravitational water)
B. The groundwater encounters an impervious layer of
   rock and dense clay, where it accumulates above this
   layer of stone. The upper surface water is referred
   to as the water table.
C. As groundwater seeps laterally, searching for its lowest
   level, it seeps into an underground layer of rock or soil
   that holds water (an aquifer)
D. Underground aquifers hold 99% of all liquid fresh
   water; the rest is in lakes, wetlands, and rivers.


12/19/2011              Environmental Science              21
                                 well


             Soil                              Capillary
                                                Water
          Unsaturated Rock
Water Table
             Saturated Rock
                (Aquifer)
                                                   Saturated
                                                    Water


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                             Sanitary well cap
                                                      Good casing

             Soil

                                                      Grout seal
             Bedrock



             Water Table




             Groundwater “aquifer”




12/19/2011                    Environmental Science                 23
             Groundwater Problems
A.      Already, more than 2 billion people depend on
        groundwater supplies.
B.      Groundwater depletion is considered the
        single biggest threat to irrigated agriculture.
C.      Agriculture chemicals such as fertilizers and
        pesticides, animal wastes, and industrial
        chemicals readily enter the groundwater,
        making groundwater pollution a great threat.

12/19/2011              Environmental Science         24
                 Growing Trend:
A.      Desalination is the desalting of seawater.
B.      More than 13,600 desalination plants currently
        exist throughout the world.
C.      These plants are very costly.
D.      The alternative: Use less water!
        1. The United States consumes an average of
        106 gallons of water per person per day.


12/19/2011              Environmental Science        25
               What do you think?
A.      Of the following, which constitutes the
        greatest percent of domestic use of water in
        the United States?
        (a) Flushing toilets
        (b) Drinking
        (c) Cooking
        (d) Washing Dishes
        (e) Washing Clothes
12/19/2011              Environmental Science          26
             Correct Answer
Correct Answer: (a) Flushing Toilets




12/19/2011         Environmental Science   27
             Freshwater Ecosystems




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Freshwater Ecosystems:
    Just 3% of all freshwater!




12/19/2011      Environmental Science   29
      A Few Freshwater Ecosystems
   Standing waters
      Lakes
      Ponds

      Reservoirs

   Flowing waters
      Rivers
      Streams

   Groundwater
   Wetlands
   Estuaries
12/19/2011            Environmental Science   30
Ponds:

   Shallow holes where freshwater collects
     Little wave action
     Muddy bottom

   Shallow enough to support rooted plants
   Basically a small lake
       But shallower
   Same temperature from top to bottom
   Greatly affected by local conditions and climate
       Can freeze solid
12/19/2011                 Environmental Science       31
Pond Succession:
    Geologically created
          Glacier
          Sink hole
    Seeds are “flown in” by birds
          Plants start to grow throughout pond
    Debris on bottom increases
          Layers build up over 100’s of years
          Pond gets shallower
    Larger plants/trees are able to grow across whole pond
          Is now a marsh
    Marsh  Swamp (can dry out)  Forest/Grasslands
    12/19/2011                    Environmental Science       32
             Lecture III
Today’s Agenda:
 (1) What does desalination refer to?
 (2) What are two threats to ground water
  pollution?
*Lecture III: Freshwater Sources Continued..




12/19/2011          Environmental Science      33
Lake/Reservoir Characteristics:
   Freshwater
   Too deep for rooted plants (except near shore)
   Large
        Wave formation
        Lake Superior
                 31,700 square miles, 1,300 ft deep
   Stratified (i.e. - layered)
        Layers caused by
                 Temperature
                 Light
                 Oxygen
                 Nutrients
   Reservoirs are man-made lakes (generate power, flood
    control, create municipal water supplies)
 12/19/2011                              Environmental Science   34
Lake Stratification by light:

    Littoral zone
          Where sunlight can reach the bottom
    Open Water
          Epilimnion
              Sun warmed upper layer
              Affected by surface mixing from wind and temp fluctuations

              Contains most of photosynthetic production

          Hypolimnion
                Cold, dark bottom layer
    12/19/2011                      Environmental Science              35
Stratification (layers) of a deep lake




   Temperature also decreases with increasing depth
        Summer Temps: Top (65-75ºF), Mid (45-65ºF), Deep (39-45ºF)
 12/19/2011                  Environmental Science               36
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   37
Lakes also Classified by Trophic state
    Productivity
          Nutrient levels affect algae
          Algae is green (Chlorophyll a)
                Affects water clarity
                Secchi disk test
          Oligotrophic - little nutrition
          Eutrophic - well nourished
    Food chain
          Algae- zooplankton-insects and fish -
           larger fish, animals
    Algal Blooms
          Nutrients too high
          Block light to lower layers
          Algae die and fall to bottom, decompose
           and Oxygen drops
    Cultural Eutrophication/Dead zones
    12/19/2011                           Environmental Science   38
                                       Secchi Disk
   Used to measure water
    clarity.
   Step 1:
    From a boat or dock, lower the secchi disk into the water
    until it disappears.
   Step 2:
    Raise the secchi disk very slowly until you can see it again.
   Step 3:
    Notice where the water’s surface intersects the marked line.
   Step 4:
    Pull the secchi disk in, holding the line at this intersection
    point.
   Step 5:
    Measure the distance from the disk to the point where the
    water intersected the line by counting the distance markings.
   The resulting measurement is the depth of water clarity.



     12/19/2011                                 Environmental Science   39
     Oligotrophic versus Eutrophic




12/19/2011      Environmental Science   40
             The role of phosphate
A.     Phosphate is an ion composed of a
       phosphorus atom with four oxygen atoms
       attached.
B.     Phosphate is an important plant nutrient.
C.     In natural waters, it is frequently the limiting
       factor; therefore, additions of phosphate to
       natural water are often responsible for algal
       blooms and plant growth.

12/19/2011              Environmental Science             41
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   42
Recent Algal Blooms at the Summer
        Olympics in China




12/19/2011   Environmental Science   43
             China




12/19/2011   Environmental Science   44
             China




12/19/2011   Environmental Science   45
                Ocean Vocabulary:
   Eutrophic = Characterized by nutrient-rich
    water supporting an abundant growth of
    algae or other aquatic plants at the surface.
   Deep eutrophic water has little or no dissolved
    oxygen.
   Eutrophic Zone: In aquatic systems, the layer
    or depth of water through which an adequate
    amount of light penetrates to support
    photosynthesis.
   Two sources of eutrophication are:
    *(1) Phosphates (2) Nitrates
12/19/2011                                       46
                      Environmental Science
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   47
             Ocean Vocabulary
   The major biological source of dissolved oxygen
    in the ocean comes from photosynthesis by
    phytoplankton.
   Plankton: Any and all living things that are
    found freely suspended in the water and that are
    carried by currents, as opposed to being able to
    swim against currents.
    Plankton includes both plant (phytoplankton)
    and animal (zooplankton) forms.




12/19/2011           Environmental Science      48
             Eutrophication




12/19/2011      Environmental Science   49
              What do you think?
A.      Which of the following will result in
        accelerated eutrophication when introduced
        into streams, lakes, and bays?
        (a) Bacteria and viruses
        (b) Pesticides
        (c) Herbicides
        (d) Phosphates
        (e) Acid wastes and salts
12/19/2011             Environmental Science     50
                Correct Answer
   Which of the following will result in accelerated
    eutrophication when introduced into streams,
    lakes, and bays?
   Correct answer: Phosphates




12/19/2011            Environmental Science             51
             Dead Zone




12/19/2011    Environmental Science   52
Dead zones - large scale, too!




•Due to Agricultural runoff into Mississippi River (Midwest farms)
•Sport fishing, shrimp, crab, oyster fisheries devastated
•20,000 square miles (area of New Jersey)
12/19/2011                Environmental Science               53
Rivers and Streams
    Natural or man-made bodies of
     moving water
    Rivers are larger than streams
      Flow into large water bodies
       (oceans or lakes)
    Numerous tributaries
          Flow into main channel
    Greatly influenced by immediate
     surroundings

    12/19/2011                  Environmental Science   54
Streams:
    Types of streams:
          Ephemeral
                Exist for short periods only
                After rainfall
                Defined channels
          Intermittent
                Seasonal
          Perennial
                Flow all year long
    Origins of streams:
          Headwaters of a lake
          Springs or groundwater
          Runoff
    12/19/2011                          Environmental Science   55
Streams become rivers. . .
   Little streams join to become
    small rivers
   Small rivers become medium
    rivers
   Get bigger and bigger…

   Watersheds:
     A common set of streams
      and rivers that all drain into
      same place (ocean or lake)
     Can be huge (Mississippi)

12/19/2011               Environmental Science   56
    Large Rivers and River Systems
   Slow moving!
   More 1º production than fast
    moving small rivers
   More detritus and nutrition
       Able to fall out and be used
   More low level consumers
       Invertebrates!
   More fish, amphibians, etc.
   Estuaries
       Where rivers enter the ocean
       More later on these!
12/19/2011                    Environmental Science   57
             Lecture IV (Sept 20, 2011)
   Journal question: What is eutrophication?
   What does the term. “Eutrophic” mean?
   *Lecture IV: Water…Wetland Characteristics




12/19/2011             Environmental Science    58
    Wetland Characteristics:
   Land surface is saturated or
    covered with water
   Underground water is at or
    near surface
   Where land is covered in water
    less than 6’ deep
   Major nesting, breeding and
    migration areas
   Store and purify water
       Natural water purifier
       Silt, nutrients and toxins
        removed.
   Flood/Erosion control
   50% of North America’s
    wetlands have been “lost”
    12/19/2011                       Environmental Science   59
             Wetlands




12/19/2011    Environmental Science   60
              What do you think?
A. The amount of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river
     system is likely to be increased by the presence upstream of
     which of the following?
I.   Artificial levees and embankments
II.  Dams
III. Extensive natural wetlands
     (A) I only
     (B) II only
     (C) III only
     (D) I and II
     (E) II and III



12/19/2011                Environmental Science                     61
                Correct Answer
   The amount of sediment deposited at the mouth
    of a river system is likely to be increased by the
    presence upstream of artificial levees and
    embankments.
   Correct answer: (A) I only
   A levee is a long ridge formed by deposits of
    sediments alongside a river channel.




12/19/2011             Environmental Science         62
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   63
    Types of Wetlands:
   Swamps
       Trees and shrubs prevalent
       Water is inches to over a foot
       Saltwater swamps are “Mangroves”
   Marshes
       No trees. Grasses, cattails,
       Freshwater or saltwater
       Home to huge numbers of animal species
   Bogs (and fens)
       Waterlogged with freshwater
       In cold regions
       Bottom covered with peat (dead plant
        material) - cold prevents decay.
       Surface often covered by thick mat of
        “sphagnum” moss.
    12/19/2011                       Environmental Science   64
Estuaries. . .
(sloughs, bays, harbors, inlets, sounds, and bayous)

   Partially enclosed
        By coastlines, marshes, barrier islands,
         sand dunes
   Where salt water from ocean mixes
    with freshwater from a river
   Strong Tidal Forces
   Brackish water (moderately salty)
   Very productive, high species diversity
   Nurseries/fisheries
   Deltas
        Mississippi River, Sacramento/San
         Joaquin.
 12/19/2011                          Environmental Science   65
             Deltas




12/19/2011   Environmental Science   66
                   Water Pollution
A.      The EPA defines pollution as the “presence
        of a substance in the environment that,
        because of its chemical composition or
        quantity, prevents the functioning of
        natural processes and produces
        undesirable environmental and health
        effects.”
B.      Any material that causes pollution is called a
        pollutant.
12/19/2011               Environmental Science           67
Pollution is typically a by-product of:
(1) Producing crops (agriculture).
(2) Creating comfortable homes.
(3) Providing energy and transportation.
(4) Manufacturing products. (Commercial Industry)
(5) Biological functions (excreting wastes)




12/19/2011         Environmental Science       68
       Non-biodegradable Materials
A. Aluminum cans
B. Plastic packaging

C. Synthetic organic chemicals

-These are all examples of non-biodegradable
   materials which resist attack and
   breakdown by detritus feeders and
   decomposers and consequently
   accumulate in the environment.

12/19/2011         Environmental Science       69
     Categories of Pollution that Effect
              Water & Land
A.      Solid wastes from landfills, combustion facilities and
        highway litter. (water and land pollution)
B.      Spills, leaching from disposal sites and direct
        discharges from certain industries. (toxic chemicals)
C.      Leaching from lawns, gardens, agriculture fields.
        (pesticides/herbicides)
D.      Sewage treatment plants, fertilizer runoff (nutrient
        oversupply)



12/19/2011                 Environmental Science                 70
Water Pollution:
    Physical, Biological, or Chemical
    Adversely affects body of water
    Makes water unsuitable for
     desired use
    Some natural sources
          Sulfur springs, oil seeps and
           sedimentation
    Two source types:
          Point source 
          Nonpoint source



    12/19/2011                     Environmental Science   71
More on pollution sources:
    Point sources
          Discharge from specific location
           directly into waterway
          Drain pipes, sewer outfalls,
    Nonpoint sources
          Runoff of pollutants into
           waterway
          Farm runoff, feedlots, golf
           courses, lawns
          Construction sites, logging areas,
           roads, parking lots.
    Some sources are mobile
    12/19/2011                    Environmental Science   72
     Water Pollution: Point Sources vs.
     Nonpoint Sources of Pollutants:
A.      Point Sources involve the discharge of substances
        from specific areas such as factories, sewage systems,
        power plants, underground coal mines, and oil wells.
B.      Nonpoint Sources are poorly defined and scattered
        over broad areas. Pollution occurs as rainfall and
        snowmelt move over and through the ground,
        picking up pollutants as they go. (agriculture runoff,
        storm-water drainage, and atmospheric deposition)



12/19/2011                 Environmental Science             73
     Wednesday (9/21/11)
*Lecture V: Water Pollution
  Continued.
 Today’s Agenda:

Journal Questions V: What is the
  difference between a point source
  and nonpoint source of pollution?
  -What does the term “brackish”
  mean?
Exam next Friday (9/30/11)
12/19/2011         Environmental Science   74
There are many types of Pollutants:
1. Biological Pollutants
   A. Infectious Agents
     Pathogenic organisms
     Caused by inadequately treated human
       and animal waste
   B. Coliform bacteria (fecal)
     E. coli, Salmonella, etc.


12/19/2011       Environmental Science   75
 There are many types of Pollutants
2. Organic materials
   A. Sewage, paper pulp
   B. Stimulates decomposers
     Increased O2 consumption
     Oxygen sag
        Downstream decline




12/19/2011       Environmental Science   76
     Organic Matter & Oxygen Sag
A.    If there is too much organic matter in a lake
      or river, oxygen can be consumed by bacterial
      respiration faster than it is re-supplied from the
      atmosphere.
B.    This can lead to oxygen depletion and this
      kills fish.
C.    In rivers, oxygen depletion takes a special
      form called the dissolved oxygen sag curve.

12/19/2011              Environmental Science          77
Effects of an organic pollutant on
    Oxygen concentration. . .




12/19/2011   Environmental Science   78
More Types of Pollutants:
A. Inorganic pollutants:
   (1)Some naturally released
   (2) Metals are highly toxic in very low
     concentrations…….
   (3) Mining accelerates release of pollutants.
   (4) Accumulate in food chains.
B. Acids and Bases
   (1) Industrial by-products
   (2) Acid mine drainage
       a. Coal mining
       b. Sulfuric acid
 12/19/2011               Environmental Science    79
             More Types of Pollutants
C. Organic chemicals: (Organic = Contains Carbon)
   (1) Industry and Households
   (2) Farm, road and lawn runoff
   (3) Herbicides, pesticides, plastics
   (4) Toxic at very low concentrations.
        Birth defects, genetic mutations, cancer

 500,000 tons of pesticides used each year in US

 Accumulate up food chain




12/19/2011           Environmental Science          80
Sediment and Thermal Pollution
A. Naturally some sediment in river and
  lake systems:
    Human activities increase erosion

       Farming adds 25 Billion tons of soil,
        sediment annually!
       Construction sites, road building add
        50 billion tons
    Sediment fills lakes


 12/19/2011           Environmental Science     81
             Sediment Erosion




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Sediment Erosion: Laurel Canyon




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  Sediment and Thermal Pollution
B. Thermal pollution
    Power plant cooling systems
    Logging, clearing vegetation
    Increased sediment load
 Lowers O2 solubility
 Organisms not able to handle temperature
  changes


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              What do you think?
       Of the following, which is the best example of
        a point source of water pollution?
A.      Factory effluent
B.      Storm water
C.      Acid precipitation
D.      Agriculture runoff
E.      Residential pesticide runoff

12/19/2011              Environmental Science        85
             Correct Answer
Correct Answer:
(A) Factory effluent is the best example of a point
    source of water pollution.
    The other answers would be examples of
    nonpoint sources of water pollution.




12/19/2011          Environmental Science        86
    Wastewater Treatment
                     Or
             From Crapper to Creek



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             Human Waste Disposal
A. Creates serious health-related water pollution problems
B. More than 500 types of pathogenic bacteria,
   viruses, and parasites
 The most serious water pollutants are the infectious
   agents that cause sickness and death.
 The excrement from humans and other animals
   infected with certain pathogens (disease-causing
   bacteria, viruses, and other parasitic organisms)
   contains large numbers of these organisms or their
   eggs. (waterborne pathogens)

12/19/2011             Environmental Science             88
      Pathogens Carried by Sewage
   Salmonella typhi (bacterium) causes typhoid fever.
   Vibrio cholerae (bacterium) causes cholera.
   Salmonella species (bacteria) causes salmonellosis.
   Diarrhea can by caused by Escherichia coli,
    Campylobacter species (bacteria), Cryptosporidium
    parvum (protozoan).
   Hepatitis A virus can cause infectious hepatitis.
   Dysentery, Giardiasis, Poliomyelitis, and
    numerous parasitic diseases can be found in
    sewage/untreated water.

12/19/2011              Environmental Science             89
     Monitoring Sewage Contamination
A.      Testing the fecal coliform count is used as an
        indicator to test the level of fecal
        contamination in water.
B.      Water with as many as 200 E. coli per 100 ml.
        is still considered safe for swimming. Beyond
        this level, the water is considered polluted.
C.      By contrast, raw sewage (99.9% water, .1%
        waste) has E. coli counts in the millions.

12/19/2011              Environmental Science        90
    Lecture VI: September 23, 2011
 Today’s Agenda:
 Journal Question #6: What is cholera?

*Lecture VI: Water Pollution & Sewage Treatment
-Homework: Gather materials from
 AP Readiness Session #1 this
 Saturday at UCLA (9/24/11)



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                  AP Readiness Session #1
1.   Location: UCLA - When: Saturday (September 24, 2011)
2.   Registration 8:45 – 9:00 am       Classes 9:15 – 12:55
3.   Environmental Science Classes:
     a. Current Issues in Environmental Science
     (Math Sciences – Room 5117)
     b. Dirt Made My Lunch
     (Math Science – Room 5128)
     c. What is Environmental Sciences?
     (Math Science –Room 5118)
     d. Isopod Lab (Math Science – 5127)
     12/19/2011           Environmental Science          92
             Environmental Conditions              Potential Acute Health Effects
                                                   (Source: WHO)
             Drinking Water/Food:                  … gastrointestinal disease (e.g.,
             Inadequate and unsafe water           cholera) parasitic infections, eye
             supply and unsanitary excreta         and skin diseases
             disposal

             Land: Inadequate            solid … gastrointestinal and parasitic
             waste disposal,        Poor       diseases (due to increased vector
             drainage                          breading and feeding--rats,
                                               mosquitoes)

             Built Environment: Toxic              …increased risk of respiratory
             materials (mold, asbestos, lead),     disease transmission (e.g.,
             crowded and structurally              tuberculosis), stress and
             inadequate housing                    accidents

             Air: Polluted air,                    …respiratory distress or
             Feedlot odors                         infections

             Emergencies: chemical and             … distress, short and long-term
             radiological releases                 health effects (CDC)

12/19/2011                                Environmental Science                         93
                      Cholera
Cholera is an infection of
the small intestine that is
caused by the bacterium
Vibrio cholerae. The main
symptoms are profuse
watery diarrhea and
vomiting. Transmission is
primarily through
consuming
contaminated drinking
water or food with feces.
12/19/2011             Environmental Science   94
              Cholera & the Broad Street
             Water Pump (London, 1850s)
                                     Pattern of unusual deaths and
                                      illness
                                     Problem solving essentials…
                                         Concern

   Prison                                Experiment Recognition
                                         Understanding the affected
                                          communities
                                         Data to identify
                                          problem (and solution)
                                     Resistance to changing the
                                      system

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                    The Broad Street Pump
                     Today… No Handle




 The John Snow Pub is visible in the background,
 at the corner of Broadwick Street and Lexington Street, London, near
 Piccadilly Station.
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             Cholera Is Still with Us




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    Cholera in the World as of 2011




12/19/2011      Environmental Science   98
         Natural Processes for Waste
               Management
A. Low population densities
   (1) Eliminate rapidly
B. As densities grow..
   (2) Process not effective
      Fun Fact: Airborne dust in Mexico City
        contains large amounts of dry, pulverized
        human feces


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             Ancient Waste Treatments
   South American Dynasties, 5000 years ago
      Covered ditches to transport waste.

   Romans, 2000 years ago
      Cloaca maxima- Huge sewer ditches
       transport waste to nearest body of water
         capacity for 1 million people

      Moved problem to another place.




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               Rome was Famous for
             Sewage System and Canals




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             Granny’s Outhouse




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             Double-decker




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             Function of Double-decker




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             Double-Decker




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             Septic Tanks




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     Septic Tanks in Paradise Cove




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       Municipal Sewage Treatment
(1) Protects human health.
(2) Maintains ecosystem stability.
(3) Promotes good water quality




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             Primary Treatment
(1) Separates large solids (removal of debris and grit by
   bar screen) metal grating and screens
(2) Grit tank
(3) Primary sedimentation tank (removal of particulate
   organic material; letting material settle –raw sludge.)
     half of all suspended organic material settles as
      sludge.
     30-40% of pollutant volume removed
        There are still many pathogens in the effluent.



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             Primary Treatment




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             Sewage Treatment




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             Sludge




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             Secondary Treatment
A. Biological degradation of dissolved organic
   compounds
B. Removal of colloidal and dissolved organic
   material; using natural decomposers and detritus
   feeders.
Aeration tank – activated sludge
     primary effluent mixed with bacteria
     air pumped in for digestion of organics
 sludge settling tank
     sludge removal
 disinfection tank
     chlorine gas kills bacteria and pathogens before
      discharge
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             Tertiary Treatment
A. Removal of plant nutrients
    nitrates and phosphates
     (Fertilizers/Agriculture)
B. Oxidize remaining organic compounds
C. Reduce effluent volume
D. Final cleansing.



12/19/2011        Environmental Science   114
             Wastewater Treatment




12/19/2011          Environmental Science   115
             Problems & Progress
A.     The EPA has identified nonpoint-source
       pollution as the nation’s number one water
       pollution problem.
B.     Progress: The Clean Water Act requires
       permits for all point-source discharges of
       pollutants.
C.     The picture in developing countries is far less
       encouraging; safe drinking water and basic
       sanitation needs are still overwhelming problems
       for a majority of the population.
12/19/2011             Environmental Science        116
             What do you think?
In the removal of a pollutant from wastewater, which of the
     following is true of the cost per unit of pollutant
     removed?
A.   It decreases as the toxicity of the pollutant increases.
B.   It decreases as the time passed before remediation
     increases.
C.   It increases as the concentration of the pollutant
     decreases.
D. It increases as the volume of the wastewater decreases.
E.   It does not change over time or with concentration of
     pollutant.

12/19/2011             Environmental Science             117
              Correct Answer
In the removal of a pollutant from wastewater,
  which of the following is true of the cost per
  unit of pollutant removed?
C. It increases as the concentration of the
  pollutant decreases.

Rationale for this answer


12/19/2011           Environmental Science         118
     Lecture VII (Monday) 9/26/11
Journal Question: What is sludge? At what stage
  in waste water treatment is sludge produced?
Feedback from UCLA AP Readiness Program
*(1) Lecture VII: Glorious Oil & The BP Oil Spill
 (2) Next Unit Topics (Water Pollution): Heavy
  Metals, Acid levels in fresh water lakes.
 (3) Exam I: This Friday


12/19/2011         Environmental Science        119
              Glorious Oil!!
A. The word petroleum comes from the Latin petra
  (rock) and oleum (oil) meaning ‘rock of oil’.
 Crude oil is a result of the transformation of
  organic (animal and vegetal) debris from
  marine populations, under high pressure.




12/19/2011         Environmental Science      120
              The Origins of Oil
A. Today, scientists are consistently
   finding that oil largely comes from
   one of the tiniest organism of life.
B. While any kind of organic
   (Carbon) material can contribute
   in the making of oil, most of it
   was formed around millions of
   years ago in the Carboniferous
   period before the dinosaur era.
 12/19/2011           Environmental Science   121
             The Origins of Oil
C. Kerogn particle in the halfway stage of
   turning into oil.
D. Millions of years ago, these one-celled
   microorganisms lived and thrived in warm
   ancient waters. They were so small that more
   than a million could be found in a single drop
   of seawater.


12/19/2011         Environmental Science       122
             The Origins of Oil
E. Through millions of years of increasing
  pressure, hot temperatures, and multiple
  chemical changes, the organisms
  transformed from black mud to inanimate
  crude or oil.




12/19/2011        Environmental Science      123
             The Origins of Oil




12/19/2011        Environmental Science   124
Glorious Oil Making Its Way to You




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             British Petroleum Oil Spill
                    April 20, 2010




12/19/2011             Environmental Science   126
               Drilling Off Shore
A. In 2020, undersea oil wells, more than
  400 meters below the sea surface, will
  likely provide 10% of the world’s oil.
B. But going this deep poses both
  technical and safety risks.
C. The waters of the Gulf below a
    thousand feet are a relatively new
    frontier.
D. One of the toughest place on the
    planet to drill
  12/19/2011           Environmental Science   127
             Origins of Gulf Oil




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             BP Oil Spill




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             BP Oil Spill in Comparison




12/19/2011            Environmental Science   130
             BP Oil Spill




12/19/2011     Environmental Science   131
             BP Oil Spill




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                    BP Oil Spill
A.     In 2009, Gulf oil production jumped 34% -
       largely from waters deeper than 5,000 feet.
B.     New technologies have made it possible to drill
       more than 35,000 feet down through water
       and rock




12/19/2011              Environmental Science       133
             BP Oil Spill




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             BP Oil Spill
Economic Impact        Environmental Impact




12/19/2011        Environmental Science       135
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   136
       Hypoxic – Waters of the Gulf
A.     Plankton cannot survive as waters become
       hypoxic – depleted in of oxygen.
B.     The probable cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of
       Mexico due to microbes digesting oil and
       methane gas from the spill.




12/19/2011             Environmental Science      137
                 Oil Spills
A. When oil falls to the bottom, into the mud of
  a lagoon or marsh, it can hang around for
  decades, degrading the environment.




12/19/2011         Environmental Science      138
       Oil Consumption Around the
             World as of 2009




12/19/2011       Environmental Science   139
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   140
12/19/2011   Environmental Science   141
             The Battered Gulf Coast
             Putting It All Together
                Case Study 2011
Progression of environmental destruction:
(1) New Delta Land

(2) Oil Infrastructure

(3) Saltwater Intrusion

(4) Lifeless Waters

(5) Vanishing Shorelines


12/19/2011           Environmental Science   142
             New Delta Land
A. On the Louisiana coast, new land is being
  formed as river sediment replenishes wetlands.




12/19/2011          Environmental Science          143
              Oil Infrastructure
A.   Since the 1940’s, oil companies have
     built thousands of drilling platforms
     along the Louisiana’s coast.
B.   Tens of thousands of pipelines
     connect those rigs to the shore.
C.   The oil industry pumps $70 billion a
     year into the state.
D.   Pipeline canals speed erosion, and
     the risk of spills is ever present.

 12/19/2011             Environmental Science   144
     Oil Infrastructure in Louisiana




12/19/2011       Environmental Science   145
             Saltwater Intrusion
A.    As wetlands sink and fragment, saltwater slips
      farther inland, killing the freshwater marshes
      that make up 81% of Mississippi River Delta
      wetlands, home to diverse plants and animals.
B.    Canals dug to accommodate oil pipelines and
      ships speed salt water inland with tides; faster
      currents increase erosion.




12/19/2011            Environmental Science       146
                Lifeless Waters
A.   Each summer a “dead zone” of oxygen-starved
     (hypoxic) water develops along the coast.
B.   Algae blooms, fed by nitrogen (nitrates) and
     phosphorous from animal wastes and fertilizers
     from mid-western farms, create this zone from a
     non-point source of runoff.
C.   This dead zone threatens the Gulf’s rich coastal
     fisheries.


 12/19/2011           Environmental Science      147
             Dead Zone




12/19/2011    Environmental Science   148
             Vanishing Shorelines
A.    Fragile marshland soils need replenishment
      with sediment and nutrients, but levees
      built for flood control and navigation shoot
      these substances out to sea.
B.    Draining swamps for development of
      pumping groundwater cause ground to
      subside, drowning marsh plants and
      creating expanses of open water.

12/19/2011           Environmental Science      149
             Vanishing Shorelines




12/19/2011         Environmental Science   150
Review:
How we get our drinking water:




12/19/2011   Environmental Science   151
                 California Water Supply
    SIERRA SNOW SLIGHTLY
     ABOVE AVERAGE
    The latest snow survey of the
     2010 season conducted by the
     Department of Water Resources
     (DWR) has provided some
     cautious optimism as the state
     plays catch-up after 3 years of
     devastating drought. The water
     content of this year’s
     snowpack stands at just 106%
     of average.

    12/19/2011                Environmental Science   152
             Dirty Water!




12/19/2011     Environmental Science   153
             Water Cycle
                              41 inches



              Recharge                            Evapotranspiration
              15 inches                           20 inches




                                             Runoff          Stream Flow
                                             6 inches        21 inches


                                    Discharge
                                    15 inches
12/19/2011                Environmental Science                        154
                                 well


             Soil                              Capillary
                                                Water
          Unsaturated Rock
Water Table
             Saturated Rock
                (Aquifer)
                                                   Saturated
                                                    Water


12/19/2011             Environmental Science                   155
             Fractures in Limestone
12/19/2011       Environmental Science   156
              Groundwater Aquifers


   Recharge


                            Spring
                                                   Groundwater feeds streams


              Groundwater Flow



               Impermeable layer (aquitard)


                      Confined Aquifer

12/19/2011                 Environmental Science                       157
                             Sanitary well cap
                                                      Good casing

             Soil

                                                      Grout seal
             Bedrock



             Water Table




             Groundwater “aquifer”




12/19/2011                    Environmental Science                 158
             Contributing Area
                  barn and feed lot

         stream                         Direction of ground water flow




                                 home and
                               septic system


                           Important Factors
                           Pumping rate
                           Rock type
                           Land use
                           Well depth
12/19/2011                    Environmental Science                      159
                Groundwater Mining
 Consumptive Water Use
                                                 Can result from:
                                                 -removal of water
                                                 -density of homes




                                                       Treatment
                                                         Plant




12/19/2011               Environmental Science                       160
             Why do Wells Go Dry?



                                           1. Decreased recharge
                                              • Drought
                                              • Land use change
                                           2. Increased pumping
                                              • Population growth
                                              • New users
                                           3. Well structure
                                              • Natural aging
                                              • pump

12/19/2011         Environmental Science                     161
Moral of the story. . .




   Freshwater Ecosystems
         Are all around us
         Incredibly productive and valuable
         Very susceptible
    12/19/2011                   Environmental Science   162

								
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