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building_codes

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									Building Codes
Building codes: collapse prevention
    The Uniform Building Code




• Building Seismic Safety Council (FEMA), 1996
• Evolution of earthquake hazard maps
• UBC-Level 4, area of highest risk
    Areas of High
Population/Seismic Risk
Seismic zones and Faults
Seismic zones and population
Damage Mapped by Damaged
        Buildings
          Structural problems
•   Earth material
•   Soft story
•   HOG
•   Cripple wall
•   House off foundation
•   Chimneys
•   Water heaters
•   URM
       Uniform Building Codes

• 1927- First UBC
  required, fire safety
• updated every 3 years
• recognition of new
  weaknesses in designs
• recognition how earth
  materials influence
  seismic waves
          Soft Story Collapse
• Parking garage is a
  soft story
• Scenes like this were
  familiar near the
  epicenter
• Where have you seen
  this type of structure?
• 1973- requires           Uniform
  bracing of cripple
  walls                 Building Code
• 1991- stronger
  bracing for cripple
  walls
Cripple wall retrofit
Uniform Building Code




 • 1935- Foundation bolting
Bolting Methods
                   Chimneys
• Built before 1970
• Not properly
  reinforced
• Tear down chimney
• 2007 building code
  – Specific types of brick
    and mortar
  – Extensive anchoring
    with specific
    requirements of
    attachment
       Uniform Building Code
• 1991-Bracing of
  water heaters
      Uniform Building Code
• 1935- reinforcement
  of masonry
  foundations
• 1986- Unreinforced
  Masonry retrofit law
• 1993- how retrofitting
  is done
                     Building Code Objective
       Full
       Operational   Operational    Life safe   Near Collapse



M6.5


 M7.0



 M7.5



 M8.0

								
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