Safety th Chpt notes by alicejenny


									Personal Safety – 7th, chpt 15

Lesson One: Preventing Injury

accident – an unplanned event
safety conscious – aware that safety is important
hazards – potential sources of danger
accidental injuries – injuries caused by unexpected events
habit – something you do daily, a custom hard to break

The Accident Chain
the situation -
the unsafe habit -
the unsafe action -
the accident –
the result –

Breaking the Accident Chain
-change the situation
-change the unsafe habit
-change the unsafe action

When you make one of these changes you greatly lessen the chance of an
  accident happening.
Lesson 2: Home safety

flammable – able to catch fire easily
electrical overload – a dangerous situation in which too much electric current flows
      along a single circuit
smoke alarm – a device that sounds an alarm when it senses smoke
fire extinguisher – a device that sprays chemicals that put out fires

Causes of home fires – majority are caused by carelessness
Careless cooking – grease too hot, food burning, leaving pots unattended
Careless smoking – improper disposal of used cigarettes
Incorrect storage of flammable materials – may cause combustion to spark a blaze
Damaged electrical systems – frayed cords, overloaded plugs, broken appliances
Gas leaks – natural gas is odorless & colorless, fragrance added so you can smell it

Preventing fires
keep stoves & ovens clean, keep flammable objects away from burners
dispose of cigarettes when completely extinguished, never smoke in bed
store matches & lighters out of the reach of children, never play with matches
check appliances for damaged cords, don’t run cords under rugs or near water
do not overload an electrical outlet

Being prepared in case of fire

Make use of smoke alarms
     should be on every level of your home
     near your bedrooms
     test the battery monthly
     change the battery yearly

have a fire extinguisher and know how & when to use it
     water will not extinguish a grease, electrical or chemical fire
     use the PASS to remind you how to use the extinguisher
            P = pull the pin
            A = aim the nozzle at the base of the fire near you
            S = squeeze the trigger to spray the foam
            S = sweep the foam back & forth

Create an escape plan with your family
     know at least 2 ways out of every room in your house
     establish a meeting place once you are out of the house
     practice your escape plan twice a year or more
What to do in case of fire
leave the building quickly, then call 911
feel the door prior to opening to see if it is hot, if so go another way
if you must exit through smoke, stay low to the ground & crawl
if you cannot get out, stay in the room, block out smoke from door bottom with
       a blanket or towel
if your clothing catches fire, stop, drop, & roll
once outside, meet at your meeting place, call someone, never go back into a
       burning building

Preventing injuries at home

Other injuries at home may occur from falls, poisoning, electric shock, & gun

Fall prevention- many times falls happen to the elderly
      clean up spills right away
      use a step stool, do not stand on chairs
      have a nonskid mat near the tub & shower
      keep personal products in plastic bottles
      make sure stairs are well lit & clear of objects
      apply non-slip treads to slippery steps,
      make sure handrails are secure & stable
      use latching gates to protect small children
Poisoning –
      keep household products and all medicines locked in cabinets away from
      make sure all containers have child proof caps & are clearly labeled
      know the number to poison control 1 800 222-1222
      know the number of the closest hospital

Electrical Shocks –
      improper use of electrical appliances or outlets can cause shocks
      some shocks can cause death
      never use an electrical appliance near water or if you are wet
      unplug electrical appliances when not in use or when you try to ”fix“
      pull the plug, not the cord, to unplug an appliance
      cover unused outlets with plastic outlet protectors

Gun safety
     observe all gun safety laws, take a hunter’s safety course
     always treat a gun as if it is loaded
     store all guns in a locked cabinet
     store ammo in a separate locked place away from the guns
     report anyone at school with a gun to an adult immediately
Lesson 3 – Staying Safe Outdoors
pedestrian – a person who travels on foot

Safety on Foot – pay attention to things happening around you, follow the
         following rules
        • Walk on sidewalks when possible, side of road facing traffic, walk on
           the left side
        • Cross in crosswalks when possible
        • Look both ways several times before crossing, keep looking & listening
           while crossing
        • Make eye contract with a stopped vehicle prior to stepping off the
           sidewalk in front of them
        • At night, wear light colored &/or reflective clothing, make sure area is
           lighted well, carry a flashlight
        • Do Not talk on your cell phone or wear headphones, listen to sounds
           around you

Safety on Wheels – this includes bicycles, scooters, skateboards, inline skates,
           and 3 or 4 wheelers, mopeds
         • Always wear a helmet while taking part in these activities
         • Wear elbow and knee pads, wrist guards, & light gloves for skates,
           scooters, & skateboards
         • Make sure your clothing fits well & will not get in the way of the
           equipment you are using
         • Follow the community & rules of the road when participating in these
         • Learn how to stop & fall safely, especially on skateboards, skates,
         • Don’t take risky chances, always play safe

    Bicycle Safety –
          • Before you ride check:
               your seat & handlebars - should be tight & not loose
               wheels & spokes - should spin freely, no broken spokes
               tires - should have tread, no unusual bulges on the sidewalls
                       and be properly inflated
               reflectors – should be on both wheels and the back of the bike
               chain & derailleur – make sure free of dirt and excess grease
          • Always wear a helmet
          • If you ride at night or in fog you should have a front light and a
                   flashing red rear light so others can see you
          • Make sure your bike is the correct size for you
          • Stay alert, use hand signals for turns & slowing down
          • Ride single file in a group as close to the white side line of the road
          • Ride in the same direction the traffic going
          • Avoid riding in bad weather
          • Keep your speed under control
Safety in Vehicles – car crashes are the leading cause of death for 2-4 year olds
         • Always wear a seatbelt
         • Air bags in the front may hurt small children, they help adults
         • Seat children in the back seat, infants & small children should be in
            an approved car seat or booster seat
         • Don’t distract the bus driver
         • Don’t walk on a moving bus
         • When you exit the bus, make sure the driver & other vehicles can see
            you as you cross the street
         • Don’t cross behind the bus
         • Cooperate with the bus driver during an emergency

Neighbor Hood Safety – Ways to protect yourself from violence
   Violence – physical force used to harm people or damage property
        • Avoid potential trouble – never walk alone at night,
            tell parent or guardian where you are going & when you will be home,
            walk in well-lit areas,
            carry identification & a cell phone,
            have money or calling card for pay phone & numbers of people you
                may call for help, leave expensive items at home
        • Be aware – notice people around you & what they are doing,
             move away from people who make you feel uncomfortable
        • Get help – if someone tries to touch or hurt you, scream & run away,
             run to the nearest public or safe place,
             find someone who can help you,
             call 911
             explain details of what happened to anyone who can help

Safety at Play – be safe playing outdoors, follow the rules below
        • Take a buddy or two – one can get help of you’re hurt while the other
           stays with you
        • Stay aware – learn signs of weather emergencies, quickly move to
           shelter if you need to do so
        • Know your limits – don’t try to do more than you are capable of doing
        • Use good judgment – plan ahead, make sure you have the equipment
           you need, act safely at all times, check with an adult if unsure
        • Warm up and cool down – helps prevent injuries by stretching

Safety in hot weather –
          • Keep cool by drinking plenty of water
          • Rest in the shade when you can
          • Take a break if you feel dizzy, out of breath, or have a headache
          • Be aware of the signs of heat exhaustion – cold, clammy skin,
             dizziness or nausea
          • Be aware of signs of heat stroke – increase in body temperature,
             difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness, this can be deadly – get
             medical help immediately
Safety in cold weather –
         • Dress in layers to keep warm
         • Wear a hat, warm footwear, gloves or mittens
         • If you feel cold or start to shiver – go inside immediately

Safety in the Water –
         • Follow all posted safety rules
         • Swim only when a lifeguard or other trusted adult is present
         • Swim with a buddy
         • Don’t swim if you are tired or cold or if you have been in the sun too
         • Check your environment, watch for signs of a storm, leave the water &
            take shelter if a storm occurs
         • Never swim in water that has strong currents
         • Dive or jump in water at least 9 feet deep, never dive or jump in
            unfamiliar water or into above ground pools
         • Keep children away from water if no lifeguard is around, watch them
            carefully, small children may drown in only inches of water

Safety while Hiking & Camping
        • Never camp or hike alone – make sure your family knows your route &
           schedule, take a cell phone or long-range walkie talkie if possible
        • Dress properly – be aware of the weather, know conditions may
           change, wear sturdy shoes, break them in prior to hiking to avoid
        • Check your equipment – take a supply of fresh water along, a
           flashlight, a first aid kit, and extra batteries
        • Know where you are – learn how to use & read a compass, carry a map
           of the area where you will be hiking/camping
        • Know the plants & animals – recognize different poisonous plants and
           dangerous animals, avoid insect bites by using repellant & tucking pant
           legs into socks
        • Use fire responsibly – learn to build a proper campfire, put is out with
           water or cover with sand or dirt
Lesson 4: Weather Emergencies & Natural Disasters

weather emergencies – dangerous situations brought on by changes in the
tornado – a whirling, funnel-shaped windstorm that drops from storm clouds to
          the ground
hurricane – a strong windstorm with driving rain that forms over the sea
blizzard – a very heavy snowstorm with winds up to 45mph
hypothermia – a sudden and dangerous drop in body temperature
earthquake – shifting of the earth’s plates, resulting in a shaking of the earth’s
aftershocks – smaller earthquakes, as the earth readjusts after the main

*Natural disaster- an event caused by nature that results in widespread damage
*Watch - conditions are possible for dangers to develop
*Warning - conditions are expected in your area, take precautions immediately!

Weather Emergencies –
Are natural events that often happen with little or no warning, they destroy
     property and may cause death. They are unpreventable.
The National Weather Service (NWS) – tracks the progress of storms, alerts
   communities of possible weather emergencies, giving people time to plan and
   make preparations to be safe

Tornados – may happen anywhere in the U.S. but most happen in the Midwestern
          states and those near the Gulf of Mexico. They happen most often in
          the summer, may be a mile wide, move about 25-40 mph but may be
          up to 60 mph.
  Where to go - safest place is an underground cellar or basement, if not
          underground go to a room without windows or a hallway. If outside, lie
          in a ditch or flat on the ground, stay away from trees, cars, and
          anything that could fall on you
  What to do – cover yourself with whatever protection you can find, if in a
          basement get under a workbench or stay under a heavy table, lie in a
          bathtub with under a cushion, mattress, or blanket – stay put, it won’t
          last very long.

Hurricanes – each hurricane has a center called an eye where the conditions are
         calm, the circular clouds swirl around the eye causing high winds, the
         strength of the winds give it categories, one is the lowest, six is the
         highest, most happen in late summer or early fall, they form and move
         slowly so people can prepare and get out of the path if necessary.
 What to do – board up windows & doors, bring outside furniture & equipment
         inside, stay indoors away from windows and doors, evacuate or leave
         immediately if NWS says to do so
Blizzards – may last only a few hours or days, visibility is very poor – less than ¼
          mile, has winds greater than 35 mph for 3 consecutive hours
  What to do – stay inside, easy to lose sense of direction, threat of hypothermia
          & death, if outside, find shelter or stay in car with flashers on

Thunderstorms & Lightning – lightning is a side effect of thunderstorms, Florida
         has the most deaths from lightning strikes
  What to do - stay inside, unplug electrical equipment, TV’s, computers,
         appliances, avoid using the phone and running water, be prepared for
         power outages, if caught while outside – crouch low to the ground in
         the open, stay away from tall trees, telephone poles, water and metal

Floods – floods kill more people than lightning strikes, flash floods most
          dangerous, they happen quickly, 2 feet of moving water is very
          powerful, never drive or try to cross rising moving water
  What to do – take emergency kit & go to highest place in your home, have
          battery powered radio, flashlights, bottled water, canned food, blanket,
          first aid kit, can opener, evacuate immediately if told to do so
  Where to go – highest place in your home, a neighbor or relative’s house on
          high ground or out of the flood watch area
  Aftermath – return only when told to do so, drink only bottled water, throw
         away contaminated food, clean & disinfect everything that flood waters
         have touched

Earthquakes – usually involve more than one single event, large quakes are
        followed by a series of aftershocks, earthquakes are hard to predict,
        their strength is measured on a Richter scale, 1 being very slight, 9
        being the most severe, (never had a 9 before anywhere).
        A “2” is 10 times stronger than a “1”, a “3” 10 times stronger than a “2”
        and so on.
  What to do – if outdoors – find a clear open area, lay flat, protect your head
       with your arms, if inside – stay away from windows, mirrors, objects that
       may shatter, & tall or heavy objects that may fall, get under a sturdy
       piece of furniture, cover your head with your arms or a pillow, or stand in
       a doorway or brace yourself on an inside corner of the building

Creating an Emergency Supply Kit – include supplies to last your family for 3
       days, if you evacuate, take the kit with you plus walking shoes, money, &
         1 gallon fresh water per person per day
         canned food that can be eaten with no preparation
         can opener & eating utensils
         first aid kit, bandages, written instructions for prescriptions
         battery or crank powered radio, flashlights, spare batteries
         pet food, bowls & leashes

Know several routes to leave your area in case one is impassable.
Lesson 5 – Giving First Aid

First aid – the immediate care given to someone who becomes injured or ill until
             regular medical care can be provided
cardiopulmonary resuscitation – (CPR) – a first aid procedure to restore breathing
              and circulation
rescue breathing a first aid procedure where someone forces air into the lungs of
              a person who cannot breathe on his or her own
abdominal thrusts – quick inward and upward pulls into the diaphragm to force an
              obstruction out of the airway
chest thrusts – quick presses into the middle of the breastbone to force an
              obstruction out of the airway
1 degree burn – only the outer layer of skin has burned & turned red
2nd degree burn – moderately serious burn, the burned area blisters
3rd degree burn – very serious burn, all layers of skin are damaged
fracture – a break in a bone
dislocation – major injury that happens when a bone is forced from it’s normal
              position within a joint

Emergency situations –
  Acting quickly & correctly can save lives
   1. call 911
   2. give your name, location, & reason for calling
   3. explain the condition of the injured person
   4. describe help that has already been administered
   5. take anyone receiving 1st aid to a medical provider as soon as possible

Restoring breathing & heartbeat –
     All organs, including the brain need fresh oxygen, which is carried by the
         blood, to work properly. When the heart stops beating, blood flow also
         stops. People trained in CPR can help until paramedics arrive if this
         emergency should occur.
   1 - rescuer loudly ask to check for a response is “Are you OK”, & they shake
        the person’s shoulder.
   2 – ask someone to call 911, or call themselves if there is no one to help
   3rd – begin CPR – cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Steps to CPR - the ABC’s of CPR
   A = airway, rescuer checks to see if person breathing by tilting the head &
        lifting the chin,
    B = breathing, they “look” at the chest to see if it rises, “listen” to see if
        they “hear” breathing, and place their cheek directly above the mouth to
        see if they “feel” breaths from the victim, if not begin rescue breaths,
        make sure head & chin are in proper position, pinch victims nose, make a
        seal over their mouth and give 2 slow breaths about 2 sec. long, watch
        the victims chest rise, remove your mouth & allow chest to deflate
        between breaths
    C = circulation, check to see if person is moving, coughing, breathing, if not
         begin chest compressions, or if not normal breaths give 1 breath/5 sec.
CPR cycle – adult (8 years & older)
 1. Chest compressions – kneel beside victim’s chest, place heel of one hand over
     lower 2/3 of sternum (breast bone) 2 fingers up from where the ribs meet at
     the bottom of the rib cage, interlace the fingers of the top hand with the
     fingers of the bottom hand, as you place your hands on top of each other
     make sure your fingers do not rest on the victim’s ribs
 2. Kneel over the victim so that your shoulders are directly over your hands, keep
      your elbows straight (locked), press down quickly with both hands, allow the
      victim’s chest to rise back to normal position, press quickly again. Repeat
      about 100 times/minute. After every 15 presses, breathe two breaths
 3. Four continuous cycles should take about 1 minute, check for breathing &
      circulation and stop chest compressions if circulation begins & breathing is
      normal, if breathing is not normal continue rescue breaths

AEDs – Automated External Defibrillators
   This electronic device will help to restore a heartbeat if a person’s heart stops
   beating by sending quick jolts of electricity to the heart through the chest. The
   AED gives the ordinary person verbal & picture directions so anyone can use
   the device. If an older person’s heart stops, this should be used as soon as
   possible to help the heart to begin it’s normal rhythm.

Choking –
   Food & objects can become stuck in the airway causing a person to choke.
   A person can die within minutes if the airway remains blocked.
Signs of choking – grabbing the throat & neck, coughing, gagging, wheezing or
          turning blue in the face
    If someone can cry, speak, or cough forcefully you do not need to give 1st aid.

1st aid for choking – use abdominal thrusts
     adults - stand behind person, wrap arms around their stomach, place your
        hand made into a fist with the thumb tucked under your fingers above the
        person’s navel, using the opposite hand over your fist give a quick inward &
        upward thrust toward their rib cage, continue until the object is dislodged
     infants (under age 1) – hold infant face down, supporting head with your hand
        and the body on your forearm, use your thigh to help rest your forearm if
        needed, with the infants head down give 5 back blows between the
        shoulder blades, if still choking, keeping the infant facing head down turn
        the infant onto the other arm and using two or three fingers placed directly
        between the nipples on the sternum (breast bone) press 5 times, repeat
        with back blows & chest thrusts

If the victim becomes unconscious, call 911 immediately
    In an adult, lay the person down, straddle their thighs and begin abdominal
       thrusts, check to see if you see the object in their mouth, use the finger
       sweep method to remove the object, make sure you do not push it back
       down the throat

If you choke and there is no one around, perform the abdominal thrust on yourself
      or use the back of a straight chair or a low railing to perform the thrust.
Stopping Severe Bleeding
       Severe bleeding is a life-threatening emergency. Put on protective gloves
before you help someone bleeding. Never touch someone else’s blood, it may
contain pathogens (germs).
 1. cover wound with clean cloth, apply direct pressure, if cloth soaked – do not
    remove, add another cloth & keep applying pressure
 2. elevate the bleeding area above the heart level, use pillow or rolled towel,
    clothing, etc. do not move injured part if there may be a broken bone
 3. apply pressure to pressure point or artery between injury & heart if bleeding
    does not stop with direct pressure (pressure points are where arteries lay near
    bones so when pressure is applied it is against something firm)
 4. remain with victim until help arrives

3 types of burns
  First degree – superficial burn – treatment - flush with cold water 15 mins.,
     elevate burned area, loosely wrap cooled burn with dry, clean dressing, do
     NOT pop blisters or peel loose skin
  Second degree – partial thickness burn – treatment - flush with cold water 15
      mins., elevate burned area, loosely wrap cooled burn with dry, clean
      dressing, do NOT pop blisters or peel loose skin
  Third degree – full thickness burn – require immediate medical attention, call
      911, do not try to remove burned clothing, reduce the heat on the burn area
      then cover with clean cloth
 Causes of burns
    Playing with matches, mishandling hot foods or liquids, shower water too hot,
    not using sunscreen or wearing protective clothing when outdoors in the sun
    for extended periods of time may cause first or second degree burns. Third
    degree burns usually are the result of fire, chemicals, or electricity.

Other emergencies
 Common injuries
  Broken bones or fractures - may occur along the long length of a bone or at the
        joint - treatment – call 911, keep victim still, immobilize the injured area
  dislocation – a bone is moved out of it’s proper place in the joint, - treatment is
        the same as for a bone fracture
  Sprains –injury to a ligament connecting a bone to a joint
  Bruise – blunt injury to muscle tissue
  Treatment for sprains & bruises – keep victim still & use the P.R.I.C.E. formula
      P = protect the injured part
      R = rest the injured part
      I = ice the injured part with an ice pack wrapped in a towel, remove every
                  15-20 mins. so does not become too cold
      C = compress the part with a bandage
      E = elevate the injury above the level of the heart

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