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Mile-a-Minute Weed Biological Control Cooperators Meeting

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Mile-a-Minute Weed Biological Control Cooperators Meeting Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                      2/25/2011




                                                                              Introductions
           Mile-a-Minute Weed
            Biological Control                                   • Go around the room & introduce
                                                                   yourself!
           Cooperators Meeting
                      Feb. 24, 2011
                Judy Hough-Goldstein




             The MAM Website:                                       Mile-a-Minute Weed page
    http://ag.udel.edu/enwc/research/biocontrol/index.htm
                                                            • Project background
• UD, Dept.                                                   info and pictures
                                                              (weevil & weed)
  Entomology &
                                                            • Agenda and summary
  Wildlife Ecology
                                                              of content (with PDFs
• Biological Control                                          of PowerPoints) from
  of Invasive Plants                                          2010 Cooperators
  Research                                                    Meeting
• Mile-a-Minute                                             • Today’s meeting
  Weed page                                                 • Weevil release data
                                                              base
                                                                                          (continues for several pages)




                                                                     Articles and Related Links


In references,
PDF versions
of most of our
publications




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                                                                                                   Weevil releases - 2010
     EDDMapS - distribution maps
       (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health:                                       State
                                                                                                               Number        Number of      New counties
                                                                                                               released       counties        in 2010
 Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System, Univ. Georgia)
                                                                                                 CT             6,000             1               0
                                                                                                 DE              ~200*            2               1
                                                                                                 MA             6,000             2               2
                                                                                                 MD             9,504*            6               2
                                                                                                 NJ            14,050             6               0
                                                                                                 NY             8,000             4               1
                                                                                                 PA            14,800            13               5
                                                                                                  RI            6,000             1               0
                                                                                                 VA             3,500             3               1
                                                                                                 WV             7,970*           11               7
 Mile-a-minute weed by county*               Weevil releases by county*
                                                                                                TOTAL          76,024            49              19
     *Send Updates to Chuck Bargeron (cbargero@uga.edu) or to me
                                                                                                 *Includes some lab/greenhouse-reared or field-collected




     “Collect Your Own” day, 2010                                                         Will there be enough weevils?
                                                                                     • 100 weevils per m² of mile-a-minute weed (2 to 3
• Concern: free distribution of weevils from Trenton
                                                                                       years after release), where MAM is abundant (E.
  lab will not last forever
                                                                                       Lake)
• A possible alternative
                                                                                     • “Productive insectary sites” can develop within
   – Days when sites with large populations can be “harvested”
                                                                                       several years and (probably) last for several years
     by landowners and land managers
                                                                                       after that
   – Idea: FHTET 2006 booklet, “Biology and Biological Control
     of Leafy Spurge”                                                                • Difficult/impossible to “deplete” a site through
        • “Many states have ‘field days’ at productive insectary sites… On these       collection (exponential growth)
          days, land managers and landowners are invited to collect or receive
          freshly collected leafy spurge agents for quick release at their sites.”   • How many weevils in a “productive” field in mid-
• Within state only                                                                    summer?




                                                                                          July 14, 2010, White Clay Creek
                                                                                         State Park next to Nature Center
                                                                                     •   Sign-in sheet
                                                                                     •   Containers
             E. Lake array,                                                          •   Information sheets
             50 m diameter                                                           •   Informative poster
               (~ 2000 m2)                                                           •   Grad student assistants
                                                                                     •   Name tags (for us)
               Assume:                                                               •   Local and University
               50% MAM cover,100 weevils/m2                                              press coverage
                                                                                                                                                  Kiri Cutting
               • 98,150 weevils (> 2010 releases)




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                                                                                                             2/25/2011




                                                                      (grad
                                                                      students)




Pros                                                   Cons
• Educational                                          • General public found it difficult to collect
  – Brief stories in newspaper/University e-news         – Some did not have MAM
    before & after                                       – Some brought inadequate containers (open
  – Those who came learned:                                buckets!)
     • What mile-a-minute is                             – Some with MAM later reported they already had
     • What weevils/weevil damage looks like               weevils
     • About invasive alien plants & weed biocontrol   • Possible solutions
• Weevil populations were established in                 – Have them bring a sample of their pest plant (&
  some new areas (Sussex County)                           look for weevil damage)
                                                         – Collect weevils for them (& provide containers)




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Cons (cont.)
 • Possible undercutting of State Park message                                                     Interactions between
   (take nothing but pictures…)
 • Actual number of weevils collected was low
                                                                                                  mile-a-minute weed and
      – Again, collect for them                                                                   Rhinoncomimus latipes
 • Better undertaken by State Park, or                                                                in sun and shade
   Extension??

 • Comments?




             June 2, 2008 (sun versus shade, same place & time)
                                                                                                                          July 26, 2010




                 Mile-a-minute:
          Vining habit: seeking sunlight                                         Individual MAM plants without weevils
                                                                                                                                                           200

                                                                                                      2400
                                                                                                                                                           160
                                                                                                      2000
                                                                                    Seeds per plant




                                                                                                                                                                 Plant dry wt (g)




                                                                                                      1600                           Seeds                 120

                                                                                                                                     Plant dry wt
                                                                                                      1200
                                                                                                                                                           80

                                                                                                      800

                                                                                                                                                           40
                                                                                                      400


                                                                                                         0                                                 0
                                                                                                             Sun (n=5)   Partial Sun (n=8)   Shade (n=6)

Pea Patch Island, Delaware, Aug. 14, 2003   White Clay Creek SP, Sept. 6, 2005                                                                   Hough-Goldstein, 2008




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             2008: replicated plots with and
                     without shade                                                         Weekly sample
   •    Shane LaCoss (senior thesis)
                                                                         • Number of weevils
   •    Weevils established since 2004
                                                                         • % cover mile-a-minute weed
   •    5 pairs of 2-m by 2-m plots
                                                                         • Single plant (outside center): damaged nodes,
   •    40% shade cloth                                                    plant characteristics


                                                                            Central 1 m²
                                                                            delineated
                                                                            with strings




                          2010:
                 weevils (+,-), shade (+,-)


• Dinotefuron (Safari)
  eliminated weevils
• 60% shade cloth                                                                                                  P = 0.03* (repeated
                                                                                                                  measures ANOVA)




                           Counting weevils and estimating % cover MAM




             Weevils per m² MAM (2010)                                      Damaged nodes (larval feeding)
       180

       160                                                                                                                                  (2008)
                                                        Sun
                                                                                              40
                                                                                                       Percent of nodes damaged per plant
       140                                              Shade
                                                                                              30
       120
                                                                                              20
       100

       80                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                             P = 0.0367*
       60                                                                                      0

       40                                                                                      12      # damaged nodes per m stem
                                             P = 0.06                                          10
       20
                                                                                                   8
        0                                                                                          6
                                                                                                   4
                                                                                                   2                        P = 0.0188*
                                                                                                   0




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   In greenhouse, always move to
                                                      MAM dry biomass (Aug. 10, 2010)
     sun side versus shaded side
                                                            1200
                                                                                              Weevils: P = 0.0016*
                                                            1000                              Shade: P = 0.0077*
                                                                                              Weevils X Shade: P = 0.0407*
                                                             800
Even if plant                                                600
present only                                                 400
on shaded                                                    200
side!                                                          0
                                                                       D-Sun         D-Shade           Sun           Shade
                                                                   ----- no weevils -----            ------ weevils ------
                                                          • Weevil treatment: sig. effect in sun (P = 0.0006*)
                                                          • Shade treatment: sig. effect with no weevils (P = 0.0018*)




                Conclusion                                    Acknowledgements
                                                      • Shane LaCoss
                                                      • Jeff Smith & Joe Thomas
                                                      • William Bartz
                                                      • Ellen Lake, Kayla Iuliano, Kiri Cutting,
                                                        Matt Frye, Kelsey Paras, Rachel Schnaitman
                                                      • White Clay Creek State Park, DE
                                                      • Dick Reardon, Forest Health Technology
                                                        Enterprise Team, USDA Forest Service
   Sun-loving plant, negated by presence of weevils
                                                                                                                  Weevil photos: Kathy Atkinson, UD




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