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					     The Grid

 ”Enter the GRID”

af Kristian Mandrup
Indeks
   Intro
   Overview
   Architecture
   Solutions
   Future
   Conclusions & discussion
What is it ?
   The Next-Gen Internet?
   A 21st century time machine?
Intro
   Future of collaborative problem-solving
   Internet's next evolutionary step
   The Grid is a new class of infrastructure
   Link computers in new ways
   Open up storage and transaction power
    as Web opened up content
Intro (2)
   Era of distributed, networked
    computing is just beginning
   The WWW a taste, the Grid a vision
   Answer to the enterprise computing
    crisis (ECC)
Vision
   Applies interconnected model used by power utilities to access services,
    software and hardware resources as part of virtual supercomp.
   Executes jobs on best suited, least loaded systems in a seamless,
    transparent and secure way
   On-demand access to computational power, data bases and services
   Manage resource sharing and co-ordinated problem solving across
    dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organisations both in eScience and
    eBusiness
   Provides scalable, secure, high-performance mechanisms for
    discovering and negotiating access to remote resources

   Geographically distributed groups can work together in new ways
Background (evolution)
   Breakthrough technologies
       Begun in the research environment
       Moved to open standards
       Applied to business applications


   What we are seeing with Grid standards
Background (history)
   Desire to connect supercomputers into
    "metacomputers" that could be remotely
    controlled
   Vision of the Grid started in 1960s
       Envisioned a computer facility operating "like a
        power company or water company"
       Word "grid" borrowed from the electricity grid
       Any compatible device could be plugged in
        anywhere on the Grid and be guaranteed a certain
        level of resources, regardless of where those
        resources might come from
Evolution
   1G Grids
       Involved local "meta-computers" with basic services such as distributed file
        systems and site-wide single sign on.
       1G Grids were totally custom made

   2G Grids
       Underlying software services and communications protocols Grids offered
        basic building blocks, but deployment involved significant customization
       Interoperability among 2G Grid systems very difficult

   3G Grids
       Solves deployment and interoperability issues by providing standard
        interfaces
       Today it feasible to realize the Grid vision
       Global Grid Forum (GGF) created in November, 2000
Demand
   Science & Industry
       High-energy physics, needs extra resources to
        manage and analyze huge amounts of data
       Science and industry participants require level of
        reliability not offered by current peer-to-peer
        initiatives
       Strong need to efficiently manage availability of
        distributed infrastructures, applications and
        services
       Computational resources are failing to keep up
        with what scientists demand of them
Demand (technical)
   Doubling periods (months)
       Network bandwidth 9
       Storage capacity 12
        Computing power 18
   Computer power is falling behind
    storage !
Demand (example)
   Scientists create high-resolution
    simulations need petabyte archives
       CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will
        produce multiple petabytes (1015 byte) of
        data per year
       Scientists demand 10+ Gb/s to work
        remotely on petabyte data sets
   Law of diminishing returns ???
Demand (solutions)
   If communication is unlimited and free
       Not restricted to using local resources to
        solve problems
       Use collective computing power of research
        collaboration or buy from provider
       Look at large datasets using special
        collaboration and visualization tools
       Use remote resources to do things not
        possible using local resources
Benefits
   Aggregates compute power and delivers it as
    a network service
   Grid Engine presents users to a seamless,
    integrated computing capability
   Facilitate the deployment of compute farms,
    the basic building blocks of grid computing
   Making large amounts of compute power
    available for applications and users
Benefits ”sales talk”
   Raise productivity
   Maintain availability
   Minimize downtime
   Shorter time to market
   Reduces costs by better utilisation of
    resources
   Quicker and better results
   Increased quality and innovation
   Do things not possible before
   Increased ROI (Return On Investment)
Potential problems
   Social and political dimensions (like
    WWW)
   Sharing between strangers where no
    history of trust
Uses
   Development of semiconductors
   Bioinformatics
   Mechanical design
   Software development
   Oil/gas exploration
   Financial analysis
   Academic and research pursuits
Architecture (Infrastructure)
   Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)
       Integration of Grid and Web services technologies
   Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI)
    Grid Resource Access and Management
    (GRAM) protocol and service
       Remote resource allocation and process creation
       Monitoring
       Management services
Architecture (OGSA)
   Open Grid Services Architecture
      Establish standard interfaces and behaviours for distributed system
       management
      Management of service instances (persistent or transient)
      Defines fundamental WDSL interfaces: to establish a Grid service in
       the open source Global Toolkit 3.0 (GT3)
      Grid service instance: maintains a set of service data elements by
       encapsulating XML fragments in standard containers
      FindServiceData operation: queries this information and allows
       notification of service existence and modifications in service

   Includes GT3 (Global Toolkit 3) Core and Base Services
Architecture
   1) physical devices or resources
   2) Core communication and
    authentication protocols
    cryptographically secure
    mechanisms - verifying identity
    of users and resources
   3) Protocols, services, and APIs
        Implement interactions across
         collections of resources
        Directory and brokering services for
         resource discovery and allocation
        Monitoring and diagnostic services
        Data replication services
        Membership and policy services

   4) User applications
Security
   Unlike the Web, the Grid is being designed from the
    ground up as a secure system
      Accept only messages coming from special hosts
       and reserved ports
      Integration with Kerberos5 and DCE exists



   Authentication, authorization, and policy
      Client and a server need to mutually authenticate
       each other.
      No distinction between client and server. Server
       one moment, client another moment.
      Special requirements for managing transaction
Security (method)
   Single sign-on: Via creation of a proxy credential
   Mapping to local security mechanisms: Grid security
    infrastructure maps to local solutions at each site
   Delegation: Sub-computations created at sites A and B. Both
    communicate with each other and access files at site C
   Community authorization and policy: infeasible for each
    resource to keep track of community membership and
    privileges. Group membership identified with cryptographic
    credential issued by trusted third party
Security (how it works)
   User calls on computational
    resources of sites A and B
   Communicate with each other , read
    files located at site C.
   Each step requires authorization and
    authentication
   Mediating requests requires the Grid
    Security Infrastructure (GSI)
   Provides:
        Single sign-on
        Run-anywhere authentication
         service
        Support for delegation of credentials
         to sub-computations
        Local control over authorization
        Mapping from global to local user
         identities
Implementation requirements
   Implementing architecture requires
    uniform mechanisms
     Creating and managing services on remote
      computers
     Supporting single sign-on to distributed resources
     Transferring large datasets at high speed
     Forming large distributed virtual communities
     Maintaining information about existence, state,
      and usage policies of community resources
Solutions
   Sun Microsystems acquired Gridware, a private
    developer of Distributed Resource Management
    (DRM) software, in July 2000
   Becomes Grid Engine project
   Grid Engine project goals:
       New open standards for DRM
       Standard API for application integration
   Grid Engine Portal (GEP)
       Provides a Java based capability for enabling highly secure internet access
        to applications that run on an existing Grid Engine grid
       Loosely coupled to Grid Engine, SunONE Portal Server

   Globus Toolkit (1996)
       Standards-based protocols for distributed system management for open
        source implementation
Using the Grid
   Steps to take
    Discover resources exist.
    Negotiate access to resources
    Configure hardware/software to use
     resources
 Avoid compromising security of self or remote
  resources
How it works
   Obtaining: authentication credentials
   Querying: Information system and replica catalog to determine
    availability of computers, storage systems, and networks, and
    location of required input files (collective services)
   Submitting: requests to appropriate computers, storage
    systems, and networks to initiate computations, move data, and
    so forth (resource protocols)
   Monitoring: the progress of the various computations and data
    transfers, notifying the user when all are completed, and
    detecting and responding to failure conditions (resource
    protocols)
Status
   Grid Engine software has been ported
    to many operating systems, including
    Solaris, Linux
   Current v.5.4 can be downloaded
The Future
   The Grid may give birth to a global file-
    swapping network or a members-only
    citadel for moneyed institutions
   The future of the Grid is unknown !
Conclusions & discussions
   Is this the distributed systems utopia ?
   Is anything missing ?
   What is the next step after ”the Grid” –
    ”the Matrix” ???
   What is ”the Matrix” ?
   CM-systemers rolle ?

				
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posted:12/19/2011
language:English
pages:30