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									CONFERENCE OF DIRECTORS OF NATIONAL LIBRARIES (CDNL)
BERLIN
6 AUGUST 2003


REPORT OF THE CDNL COMMITTEE ON DIGITAL ISSUES

Johan Steenbakkers
Gerard van Trier

The CDNL Committee on Digital Issues (CDI) was established at the CDNL meeting
in Boston (August 2001). The CDI is a platform for exchanging information and
promoting co-operation on research concerning digital issues. The CDI Work
Programme covers the various aspects: the policy, organisational and technical issues,
but also the best practices in this field. The programme was in its basic form approved
at the CDNL meeting in Edinburgh, August 2002 and has meanwhile been updated
and detailed further. For the latest version see Annex 3.
The work of CDI is for practical reasons organised in three Work Groups, Digital
Preservation, Bibliographic Standards for Access, and Deposit Agreements. This
report covers in a nutshell the most important activities during the first part of the 2-
year work programme.

SUMMARY OF TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION AND ACTION

   To discuss the possibility for other national libraries to join the consortium of BL,
    DDB and KB as general member of the International DOI Foundation.
   To discontinue CDI and gradually transfer relevant CDI activities to ICABS.
   To contribute to the PADI section on persistent identifiers in order to share their
    experiences.
   To provide information on deposit agreements in several countries as to up-date
    the information on the PADI website
   To incorporate on the PADI website the results of the joint efforts of libraries and
    publishers (CENL & FEP, IFLA & IPA) in the field of depositing electronic
    publications (in addition to the initiatives of individual countries).


1. DIGITAL PRESERVATION

UNESCO Draft Charter on the preservation of the digital heritage

After the adoption of the UNESCO Resolution on the preservation of the digital
heritage, which was submitted by the Netherlands on the invitation of the CDNL, the
UNESCO Secretariat commissioned Yola de Lusenet from the European Commission
on Preservation and Access (ECPA) to write a discussion paper and formulate
elements for a Draft Charter. UNESCO circulated a Preliminary Draft to the Member
States for broad consultation. Several regional expert meetings were held:
(a) Asia/Pacific: 4-6 November 2002 in Canberra, Australia;
(b) Latin America/Caribbean: 18-20 November 2002 in Managua, Nicaragua;
(c) Africa: 9-11 December 2002 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
(d) Baltic countries: 18-20 December 2002 in Riga, Latvia;


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(e) Central European countries, 17-18 March 2003 in Budapest, Hungary.

These consultations were held in close co-operation with the concerned National
Commissions for UNESCO and built sequentially on each other. They reviewed
digital preservation challenges in the respective regions. Participants discussed and
prepared comments on the Preliminary Draft Charter, and a second document setting
out detailed technical Guidelines on the preservation of digital heritage, prepared for
UNESCO by Colin Webb of the National Library of Australia. The Guidelines are
intended as a companion sourcebook to the Charter. The Secretary of the CDI, Johan
Steenbakkers, was invited to attend the Canberra meeting and to give his expert
advice. He also attended an expert meeting organised by the National UNESCO
Committee in the Netherlands. The comments and outcomes of the Canberra meeting
served as an input for the Managua meeting, which followed a similar pattern, and so
on. Revised versions of the Preliminary Draft Charter were produced in the course of
this sequential process and fed back into it, as the comments accumulated.

A consolidated version was prepared taking into account the discussions at the 166th
session of the UNESCO Executive Board and at the second session of the
Intergovernmental Council for the Information for All Programme in April, as well as
all contributions received. The consolidated Draft Charter:
- is relatively short, concise and to the point;
- clearly states the problem and proposes achievable solutions;
- communicates the relative urgency of the situation;
- defines “digital heritage” as a distinct set within the totality of digital media;
- aims to be inspirational and declarative rather than prescriptive;
- envisions a process leading to an international recommendation.
The Draft Charter is expected to be on the agenda of the UNESCO General
Conference 32nd Session, Paris 2003.

Research & Standardisation

CDI - Workspace
The National Library of Australia has created a CDI work space as part of the CDNL
members page at the PADI website. The CDI workspace is used for publishing and
discussing the results of both unilateral and joint research efforts.

Collaborative Research Initiatives
In the past year several actions have been undertaken by national libraries, relating to
studies of and research on digital issues. (See for an overview e.g. the websites of
PADI and DPC). In this report we will focus on two major initiatives, promoting
collaborative research on digital preservation, one in Europe (PATCH) and one in the
USA (NDIIP).
But first we would like to give a helicopter view of the research area Digital
Preservation. Considering this area as a whole, two main fields can be distinguished.
The two fields reflect the essence of the problem of digital preservation. Hence, there
are two problems to be addressed:
(1) to maintain through time the 'digital objects', containing the information, and
(2) to guarantee 'permanent access' to the digital information in the objects, in spite of
    obsolescence of formats, software, and hardware.
Maintaining the digital objects by creating a 'Safe Place'


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For the problem of maintenance of digital objects, the European project NEDLIB has
consolidated in its 'Guidelines for setting up a Deposit System for Electronic
Publications' a wide range of internationally acquired results. A strategic choice of
NEDLIB was to transfer the electronic publications from the publishing environment
to an archiving environment (nowadays indicated as a 'Safe Place'). Using 'The
NEDLIB Guidelines' the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB) and IBM-Netherlands jointly
have been able to develop the first deposit system, compliant to the standard for
archival systems (OAIS). The deposit system was implemented in 2002 as the
technical hart of the 'e-Deposit' of the KB. As a result major international publishers
(Elsevier Science and Kluwer Academic) have signed an agreement with the KB for
permanent archiving of all their electronic publications. Actually some other national
libraries and archives are making preparations to acquire a deposit system.
Guaranteeing permanent access
The problem of permanent access to digital information, up to now has been
addressed by several, however scattered and small-scale, initiatives. The first attempt
to consolidate the experiences and results of these studies and experiments has been
undertaken by the 'PATCH consortium', a group of national libraries and archives,
universities, research institutions and ICT-companies. This PATCH initiative is
aiming at a technological framework to promote continuous development of solutions
for permanent access.
PATCH 'Creating the Permanent Access Toolbox for digital Cultural Heritage‟ is an
Integrated Project proposed by the „PATCH – Consortium‟ in April 2003 to the EC
for co-funding within the 6th Framework Programme. The total costs for PATCH are
estimated to be 12,700 K€. For a short summary see Annex 4.
The status at the moment of writing this report is that, although PATCH has been
qualified in the evaluation process as a strategic and good proposal, the European
Commission will probably not co-fund this initiative within the actual programme.
NDIIP 'Preserving our Digital Heritage. Plan for the National Digital Information
Infrastructure and Preservation Program. A Collaborative Initiative of the Library of
Congress.' (October 2002). The costs of this plan will amount up to a total of 175,000
US K$ and is substantially co-funded by the Congress of the USA. Information on the
status of NDIIP can be found on the website of the Library of Congress.


2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC STANDARDS FOR ACCESS

PADI Section on Persistent Identifiers

On the PADI website is a section with information on persistent identifiers, offering a
comprehensive overview of current tools and practices. All CDNL members are
invited to contribute to the section on persistent identifiers in order to share their
experiences.

Membership of the International DOI Foundation

Consortium of national libraries
In the CDNL meeting last year it was agreed that Wim van Drimmelen would
approach the International DOI Foundation (IDF) seeking gratis membership of the
Foundation to enable CDNL to monitor DOI progress. The director of the IDF,
Norman Paskin, had approached a number of individual national libraries, but it was


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the general consensus that some form of consortial membership was preferable to
individual membership. This matter was taken further by CENL, as CDNL is not a
legal entity and therefore could not join the IDF. CENL could be a formal member, as
it is a legal entity under Dutch law. However, a decision on CENL membership can
only be taken at the annual meeting of the Board of Directors in September 2003. To
be able to move forward, it was proposed that a temporary consortium of national
libraries would jointly become member of the IDF.
The IDF considered a joint approach through an informal consortium an acceptable
first step, but did not agree with gratis membership. After a discussion in the CoBRA
Forum (the CENL Standing Committee for projects) on April 9th in The Hague, The
British Library, Die Deutsche Bibliotheek and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, joined the
IDF as a consortium for a reduced annual fee (see annex 2 for the press release).
Johan Steenbakkers, secretary of the CDI, will act as the official representative of the
consortium.

Benefits of national library membership
The consortium is able to influence IDF developments as well as benefit from
information and participation. Others than the official representative may participate
in working groups. The consortium is entitled to one "participation", which is not
always restricted to one individual, depending on circumstances and needs. The
benefits of membership participation flow downward to subsidiaries of members. In
the case of CENL, this means that national libraries are (for IDF‟s purposes)
"subsidiaries" of CENL. The monthly report for example would be sent to the CENL
representative, and could certainly be seen by the members of the consortium.
However the IDF does not wish this to be distributed in its entirety to the whole
CENL or CDNL list – the aim is exchange of relevant information. If the
representative sees something that is of mutual interest, it can be brought to the
attention of the library community; or the CENL representative can inform the IDF of
some relevant library work.

Next steps
As a legal body CENL could become a member of the IDF. Formal IDF membership
will be discussed at the CENL annual meeting in Vilnius (Lithuania) in September.
As the outcome is uncertain, the possibility of other national libraries joining the
consortium of BL, DDB and KB could be discussed at the CDNL meeting in Berlin.


3. DEPOSIT AGREEMENTS

Provisions to cover electronic publications
In several countries actions have been undertaken to extend their deposits agreements
to incorporate the depositing of electronic publications. These actions differ from
country to country, depending on the character of the deposit agreements (legal or
voluntary depositing). But also within similar frameworks, the content of the
agreements is still very different. The CDI is trying to promote some convergence by
maintaining an overview of (draft) deposit agreements in a special section on the
PADI website. However several countries described in this PADI section, have yet to
update the information on their deposit agreements.




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Gerard van Trier and Yola de Lusenet (ECPA) started talks with IPA with the aim of
carrying out the decision of CDNL to prepare a joint statement of CDNL and IPA on
codes of practice for the voluntary deposit of electronic publication. This would be a
follow-up of the joint statement of CENL and the Federation of European Publishers,
which is being updated.

In updating the PADI section on deposit agreements it is appropriate to also
incorporate the results of the joint efforts of libraries and publishers (CENL & FEP,
IFLA & IPA) in the field of depositing electronic publications (in addition to the
initiatives of individual countries).



4. FUTURE OF CDI IN THE LIGHT OF ICABS

Die Deutsche Bibliothek took the initiative to establish the IFLA-CDNL Alliance for
Bibliographic Standards (ICABS) as a follow-up to the former UBCIM core activity,
which was hosted by Die Deutsche Bibliothek from 1990 to the beginning of 2003.
IFLA decided to support the initiative. The six partners of the Alliance (BL, DDB,
KB, LoC, NLA and NLP) will meet on August 7th during the IFLA conference in
Berlin. ICABS aims:
1. to maintain, promote and harmonise existing standards and concepts related to
   bibliographic and resource control
2. to develop strategies for bibliographic and resource control and ensure the
   promotion of new and recommended conventions
3. to advance understanding of issues related to long-term archiving of electronic
   resources

There is a considerable overlap between the aims of ICABS and the aims of two CDI
Work Groups: (a) Work Group Bibliographic Standards (promote common solutions)
and (b) Work Group Digital Preservation (promote collaborative research, raise
awareness). Maintaining both CDI and ICABS would mean a considerable
duplication of work. On June 6th Wim van Drimmelen consulted the CDI members
on a proposal to merge the two bodies. ICABS would provide the governance
structure and could profit from CDI‟s organisational structure, which was set up last
year. The NLA would continue to co-ordinate the work of CDI‟s third Group (on
Deposit Agreements) as a separate international activity.
It was agreed that duplication of work must be avoided. Die Deutsche Bibliothek
prefers to start ICABS with a small group of libraries, which could be enlarged at a
later stage. It would take some time for ICABS to prepare for a concrete start.
It is proposed that CDNL take the decision to discontinue CDI; relevant CDI
activities will gradually be transferred to ICABS. The Chair and Secretary of CDI will
monitor the transition process and provide any assistance when needed.




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Annex 1 - Committee members

The committee on digital issues is established under the chairmanship of Wim van
Drimmelen (Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Netherlands). The committee members are:

NLA Jan Fullerton
LC     Winston Tabb
BL     Lynne Brindley
NLC Roch Carrier
HUL Kai Ekholm
DDB Elisabeth Niggemann
KB     Chair: Wim van Drimmelen
Secretary: Johan Steenbakkers

Mission statement
The Committee on digital issues was established by the Conference of Directors of
National Libraries (CDNL) to promote concerted actions for the benefit of core
national library tasks in the digital environment.




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Annex 2 - DOI News Release
April 22, 2003
National Libraries Join International DOI Foundation
The International DOI Foundation (IDF) announces that an informal consortium
of three major national libraries -- The British Library (UK), Die Deutsche
Bibliothek (Germany) and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (The Netherlands) -- has
joined the International DOI Foundation.

This General Membership results from actions proposed by the IFLA/IPA
Steering Group in 2002, which recognised that national libraries are best placed
to lead DOI adoption within the library community, in particular given their role
in associating bibliographic information to national collections. IFLA's 2003
meeting resolved that it would encourage libraries, and especially national
libraries, to join the IDF. Parallel to this the Conference of Directors of National
Libraries (CDNL) decided at its annual meeting in Edinburgh (2002) to explore
the possibilities of national libraries joining the IDF as a consortium. Following
a consultation procedure between IDF and six national libraries present at an
informal meeting in Frankfurt, October last year, the BL, DDB and the KB are
joining the IDF, in anticipation of a proposal for membership being considered
by the Conference of European National Librarians. The CENL Board of
Directors will decide on formal IDF membership of CENL at its meeting in
Vilnius in September.

Through this relationship, a selection of DOI information that is directly relevant
for national libraries will be made available via the consortium to the wider
CENL and CDNL community.
Dr. Wim van Drimmelen, Director General of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek which
will be the co-ordinator of the consortium, said "I am looking forward to our co-
operation, which I hope will be to the benefit of libraries as well as publishers."

Dr. Norman Paskin, Director of the International DOI Foundation, said: "We are
delighted to welcome this group of leading libraries, and to have their support
for our work on a persistent and extensible identification and metadata
infrastructure for intellectual property. Our recent work with DOI applications
and services will be of particular interest to the library community."

Further information:
    International DOI Foundation
    The British Library
    Die Deutsche Bibliothek
    Koninklijke Bibliotheek
    IFLA
    IPA
Press contacts:
Norman      Paskin   International   DOI      Foundation:    n.paskin@doi.org
Johan Steenbakkers, Koninklijke Bibliotheek: johan.steenbakkers@kb.nl




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Annex 3 - Work Programme 2002–2003
(draft version 0.4, March 2003)

Role of the Committee
The Committee on digital issues was established by the Conference of Directors of National
Libraries (CDNL) to promote concerted actions for the benefit of core national library tasks
in the digital environment.

The Committee was established in August 2001, as a merger of two existing CDNL working
groups:
1. The CDNL committee on digital preservation was established at the CDNL meeting in
    Jerusalem (August 2000). It consisted of three members: Jan Fullerton (NLA), Winston
    Tabb (LC) and Wim van Drimmelen (KB) as chair. During 2001, the committee initiated
    the drafting of a UNESCO Resolution on Digital Preservation and undertook the
    necessary measures for the adoption of the Resolution at the UNESCO Conference in
    Paris in October 2001.
2. The CDNL Task Force on persistent identifiers, chaired by Winston Tabb (LC), was
    established earlier to exchange information and to identify requirements for persistent
    naming from both national and global perspectives. In this context, the Helsinki
    University Library of Finland drafted an informational RFC on 'Using National
    Bibliography Numbers as URNs', which was submitted to the Internet standardisation
    body last year.

The name given to the Committee on Digital Issues (CDI) is suitably vague and neutral to
encompass all digital library issues - but the Committee has expressed the need to define and
scope its own work programme and to prioritise the issues it wants to tackle.

CDI - Work Programme
It was decided to start with a 2-year work programme that will address the following three
issues:
 Digital Preservation
 Bibliographic Standards for Access
 Deposit Agreements (legal/voluntary)

Work Method and Procedures
-   The CDI - Work Programme 2002-2003 will be co-ordinated by Johan Steenbakkers
    (KB).
-   For each of the three issues in the Work Programme a Working Group is installed with
    one co-ordinating member (see tables below).
-   The Working Group members are experts assigned by a member institution of the
    Committee. External members may be invited on grounds of their expertise.

Scope Work Programme
The common interests of national libraries delimit the scope of the Work Programme. The
issue addressed by each Work Group relates to a core task of national libraries.

Reporting to CDNL
The secretary of the Committee Gerard van Trier (KB) will write up a yearly report about the
Committee's work and achievements, to be submitted to the annual CDNL meeting.




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Communication and Dissemination
-   The Committee communicates through an email discussion list.
-   The Committee will disseminate information about its work programme and
    communicate results through a special Home Page on the PADI website.
-   Internal documents that are not fit for public dissemination will be put on the website in a
    password protected area.


Work Group Digital Preservation (WG-DP)
(WG-DP Co-ordinator: Johan Steenbakkers)

Activities          Results                             Timeframe       Origin                 Goal
1.UNESCO Resolution UNESCO Resolution                   Oct 2000 –      NEDLIB project         Awareness
                    adopted                             Oct 2001                               raising

2.Contribute to            UNESCO Charter               2002-2003
UNESCO Memory of
the World Project:
Preserving our digital
heritage.

3.Research &               Section on Digital           Aug 2001 –      NEDLIB project         promote
Standardisation            Preservation Research in     Aug 2002                               collaborative
                           the PADI website                                                    research

                           International                2002 – 2003
                           Collaborative Research
                           Initiative



Experts                    Email                        Library
Johan Steenbakkers         Johan.steenbakkers@kb KB
Helen Shenton              .nl                   BL
Deborah Woodyard                                        BL
Ute Schwens                                             DDB
Hans Liegmann                                           DDB
Jukka Kervinen                                          HUL
Marko Tenkanen                                          HUL
Mark Roosa                                              LoC
Colin Webb                 mroo@loc.gov                 NLA
Fay Hjartarson                                          NLC
Alison Bullock                                          NLC
Bill Newman                                             NLC




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Work Group Bibliographic Standards for Access (WG-BSA)
(WG-BSA Co-ordinator: Sally McCallum)

Activities                 Results                   Timeframe    Origin            Goal
1.Overview of current      Section on Persistent     Aug 2001 -   CDNL Task Force   promote
practices and tools        Identifiers in the PADI   Aug 2002     on PI             common
                           website                                                  solutions



Experts                    Email                     Library
Sally McCallum                                       LoC
Robert Smith                                         BL
Kathrin Schröder                                     DDB
Renate Gömpel                                        DDB
Marit Olander                                        HUL
Margaret Philips                                     NLA
Marg Stewart                                         NLC
Fay Hjartarson                                       NLC




Work Group Deposit Agreements (DA)
(WG-DA Co-ordinator: Pamela Gatenby)

Activities                 Results                  Timeframe     Origin            Goal
1.Promote adoption of      CDNL/IPA Statement on
the CENL/FEP codes         deposit code of practice 2002-2003     new               Promote
of practice at the int'l                                                            common
level                                                                               understanding


2.Overview of deposit      Section on Deposit        Aug 2001 -   new               best practices
agreements concerning      Agreements in the PADI    Aug 2002
digital material           website



Experts                    Email                     Library
Pamela Gatenby             Pgatenby@nla.gov.au       NLA
John Byford                                          BL
Ute Schwens                                          DDB
Johan Steenbakkers                                   KB
Gerard van Trier                                     KB
Jani Stenvall                                        HUL
Nancy Davenport                                      LoC
Ingrid Parent                                        NLC
Libby Martin                                         NLC




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Annex 4 - PATCH proposal, summary
PATCH - Creating the „Permanent Access Toolbox for digital Cultural Heritage‟
Proposal for an Integrated Project within the 6th Framework Programme of the EC,
April 2003

Digital information at risk
The information we use at home and work is increasingly digital. Computers have
become an integral part of our daily lives and it is now hard to believe that the
Internet has only been in existence for a few years. Nowadays we depend heavily on
digital information in a wide variety of forms including text, images, sound, video, as
well as, combinations of these different media types. At the same rate at which our
world is becoming digital, our information is threatened. New types and versions of
computer applications and file formats supersede each other, making our recorded
digital information inaccessible.

Quest for persistence
Memory institutions, as the custodians of our cultural heritage, contend with a
growing quantity of digital documents. These institutions have the same mission with
both analogue and digital materials, which is to make the items available over the
long-term. However, they are confronted with the issue of limited durability of digital
items and are forced to look for solutions to the digital preservation problem. ICT
companies have only recently become aware of the relatively short-term accessibility
of digital objects. The current generation of archival systems have been designed to
preserve digital information for the long term. Still to be resolved is how to access
this stored information: how can we render digital information and view/listen to it,
now and in the future?

Integrating the effort in PATCH
A group of national libraries and archives, universities, research institutions and ICT
companies have joined forces to build tools to provide permanent access to stored
digital objects. All of these organisations have had experience in archiving digital
information and have also started research in several digital preservation areas,
including development of rendering solutions. To avoid duplicate efforts, to benefit
from each others experiences, and to design, build and test various potential solutions,
these organisations wish to work together in a project called PATCH: Permanent
Access Toolbox for Digital Cultural Heritage.

PATCH and the PATbox
The PATCH partners will create a technological framework (the PATbox) to promote
continuous development of solutions for permanent access. Various tools for
permanent access will be built and tested in a variety of environments (archives,
libraries, and scientific institutions). During the project the tools will be compared,
general guidelines will be drawn up and interoperability will be reviewed. PATCH
will also try to induce a change in the way in which the ICT sector designs systems
and software. This change requires that persistence of digital information is a design
criterion for systems, rather than an inevitable problem for which late stage, makeshift
measures have to be provided. If we do not act now an increasingly large quantity of
digital           information            will         be           lost         forever.



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Overview of the PATCH Consortium


1        KB     Koninklijke Bibliotheek               Project co-ordinator & WP3        The
Netherlands
2        BL     The British Library                              WP 1 leader            United
Kingdom
3        NA     UK National Archives                  WP 2 leader              United Kingdom
4        CNES   Centre National d‟Etudes Spatiales    WP 4 leader              France
5        BNF    Bibliothèque National de France       WP 5 leader              France
6        LU     University of Leeds                              WP 6 leader            United
Kingdom
7        DPC    Digital Preservation Coalition        WP 7 leader              United Kingdom
8        IBM    IBM-Nederland                         partner                  The Netherlands
9        DDB    Die Deutsche Bibliothek               partner                  Germany
10       UKOLN University of Bath (UKOLN)                        partner                United
Kingdom
11       BTUD   Bibliotheek Technische Universiteit Delftpartner               The Netherlands
12       NANETH Nationaal Archief                     partner                  The Netherlands
13       KBD    Det Kongelige Bibliotek               partner                  Denmark
14       SBD    Statsbibliotheket                     partner                  Denmark
15       KBS    Schweizerische Landesbibliothek       partner                  Switzerland
17       SAD    Statens Arkiver                       partner                  Denmark


        Potential contributors to PATCH (including subcontractors)

        RAND-Europe                                                            The Netherlands
        Tessella                                                               United Kingdom
        ERPANET                                                                Europe
        CENL (Conference of European National Librarians)                      Europe
        ICA (International Council on Archives)                                          World-wide
        CDNL (Conference of Directors of National Libraries)                   World-wide
        NLA (National Library of Australia)                                    Australia
        LoC (Library of Congress)                                              USA




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