Glossary of Copyright, CSC Publishing, Powder Coating Pretreatment and Stripping Terms A Alkaline descaling. A chemical process Ash. The nonvolatile inorganic matter for removing scale. A typical descaling of a compound, which remains after sub- Abrasive. Agent used for abrasive blast solution uses caustic soda with additives, jecting it to high temperatures. cleaning. Examples include sand, grit, such as detergents and chelating agents. steel shot, and glass or plastic beads. B Acid. A species which reacts in liquid Alkalinity. A measurement of the quan- BTU. British thermal unit. The amount water to generate hydrogen ions (repre- tity of chemicals present in the water of heat needed to raise the temperature of sented as cations—H+ or hydronium that can neutralize acids. These include one pound of water 1°F. - H3O+; anions such as sulfate, SO42 ; and carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, NO3-) which were associated and hydroxides. See titratable alkalinity. Base. A species which when dissolved in with the H+ in the acid are also released. - water generates hydroxide (OH ) ions or Alum. See aluminum sulfate. is capable of reacting with an acid to Acid descaling. A process using acid to form a salt. dissolve oxide and scale. See pickling. Aluminum sulfate. An aluminum salt commonly used as a flocculant by munici- Baume Scale. Specific gravity scale Acidity. Measure of the free acid present. pal water treatment plants. used for taking the relative weight of a liquid as compared to the weight of an Activation. Process of removing last Ambient temperature. Room tempera- equal volume of a standard liquid. The trace of oxide on a metal surface and a ture or temperature of surrounding area. lighter-than-water, or oil scale, has as its thin layer of the metal itself to ensure Amphoteric. A substance, such as alu- zero point, the distance to which a that the metal surface is electrochemi- minum, capable of acting either as an hydrometer sinks in a mixture of one cally active. See etching. acid or a base. part salt in nine parts of water. The 10° point is determined in pure water. The Active metal. Metal in the condition of Amphoteric surfactant. Surfactant distance between these two points is high chemical activity that is more sus- having both negatively and positively divided into ten equal parts and these ceptible to corrosion. charged functional groups. spaces are added above the 10°-mark as Adsorption. The binding of a molecule high as needed for the liquid where the to a surface (solid or liquid) by nonspe- Anion. A negatively charged ion. See ion. hydrometer is most frequently used. The cific physical forces. For example, the heavier-than-water, or acid, scale uses removal of free chlorine and chloramines Anionic surfactants. Surfactants that pure water for its zero point. The point to by activated carbon is through the mech- give negatively charged ions in an aque- which the hydrometer sinks in a mixture anism of adsorption. ous solution. of 15 parts salt to 85 parts of water is marked 15°. Between these two points, Age tank. A tank used to store a known Anchor pattern. Surface profile, usu- the space is divided into 15 equal parts. concentration of chemical solution for ally after blasting. These spaces are added below the 15°- feed to a chemical feeder. Also called a mark to make a total of 0° to 70°. French day tank. Anhydrous. Dry. Free of water in any scientist, Antoine Baumé, designed this form. type of hydrometer. Air jet. Type of sandblasting gun in which the abrasive is conveyed to the Antifoaming agent. Material added to Best available technology (BAT). A gun by partial vacuum. pretreatment chemical solutions to reduce level of technology represented by a higher the tendency of materials to foam. level of wastewater treatment technology Air knife. Mechanical device that uses a than needed by best practicable technol- small amount of compressed air to pull in Aquablast. A surface cleaning process ogy (BPT). BAT is based on the very best large volumes of surrounding air and pro- where an abrasive material is suspended (state of the art) control and treatment duce a high-flow, high-velocity curtain or in water. The resulting slurry is pressur- measures that have been developed, or are sheet of air. ized and ejected through a nozzle. This capable of being developed, and that are process can use higher pressures than economically achievable within the appro- Alkali. Caustic. Inorganic substances other types of blasting and quickly re- priate industrial category. that share the characteristic of being moves surface metal and leaves a good strongly basic (high pH). Examples surface finish. Best practicable technology (BPT). A include sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, level of technology represented by the and lye. Aqueous. A water-based material. average of the best existing wastewater treatment performance levels within the Chlorine. Chemical used to disinfect Copper sulfate test. Test to determine industrial category. municipal water. the presence of mill scale or passivated metal. A copper color indicates absence of Biodegradable surfactant. Surfactant Cleaner. Detergent, alkali, acid, solvent, mill scale and presence of bare steel when Copyright, CSC Publishing, Powder Coating that may be decomposed by biological or other cleaning material, often water- or steel is swabbed with a 5- to 10-percent action. steamborne, used to clean and degrease solution of acidified copper sulfate. parts before powder application. Blast cleaning. Removal of surface Corrosion. Decomposition or reaction of contaminate from a part by using an Coagulant. A chemical which causes a metal with oxygen, water, or other air- or mechanically propelled abrasive. dispersed colloidal particles to become chemicals, when exposed to a particular destabilized, thereby, aiding in their environment. Blemish. Any surface imperfection of a removal during municipal water treat- coating or substrate. ment. Aluminum and iron salts are com- Counterflow. Transporting overflowed monly used for this purpose. solution from one washer stage to Blow-off. Removal of particulate and another for reuse. fibers from materials in preparation for Coagulation. A chemical (coagulant), Creepage. Corrosion under a scribe line powder application using compressed or most commonly alum, is added to water or edge after salt spray or other testing. high-volume, fan-driven air. to destabilize colloidal particles by neu- See scribe creep. tralizing their electrical charges. Coagu- Bright blast. White metal surface blast. lation is used together with flocculation See NACE No. 1 white metal blast cleaned as a process for colloidal removal. D surface finish. Day tank. See age tank. Colloid. Undissolved, submicron-sized Brush-off blast. Lowest blast cleaning particles that are suspended and well dis- Deflocculation. A cleaning procedure standard. See NACE No. 4 brush-off blast that breaks down soil into very fine parti- persed in a solution and will not readily cleaned surface finish. cles, which are maintained in a dispersive settle out on standing. phase to prevent agglomeration. Buffer. A solution or liquid whose chemi- Compaction. The undesirable physical cal makeup neutralizes acids or bases Defoamer. See antifoaming agent. compression of a reverse osmosis or ultra- without a great change in pH. filtration membrane, resulting in reduced Degreaser. Solvent or compounded flux rates. Higher temperatures and pres- material for removing oils, fats, or grease Builder. A chemical that aids in soil sures accelerate this phenomenon. from a substrate. Also the apparatus in removal without significant influence on which the operation is carried out. surface tension. Conductivity. Conductivity is a quanti- tative measure that describes the ability Degreasing. Removal of grease, oil, and C of an aqueous solution to carry electric other fatty matter by the use of solvents CFS. Cubic feet per second. A measure current and depends on the presence of or chemical cleaners, electro, or heat of flow rate. ions in the solution. Solutions of inorganic processes. ions are relatively good conductors—and Cation. A positively charged ion. See ion. exhibit high conductivity—whereas solu- Deionization. The removal of ions from tions of organic molecules are rather poor a solution by ion exchange. Cationic surfactant. Positively conductors—and exhibit low conductivity. charged surfactant molecule. Highly purified water is also a poor con- Deionized water (DI water). Water con- ductor. Conductivity is expressed in units taining no ions other than hydrogen and Caustic. A strong chemical base. hydroxyl ions. Typically produced through of Siemens/centimeter (mhos/cm). Con- ductivity measurements can be used to using ion exchange resins and used for Cellulose acetate. A synthetic polymer parts after a seal rinse in a spray washer. monitor the performance of reverse osmo- derived from naturally occurring cellu- sis equipment. The measurement is tem- lose and widely used in fabricating Descaling. Removal of mill scale or caked perature dependent and should be mea- membranes. The polymers used for rust from steel by chemical and-or sured with a temperature-compensated water purification membranes may be mechanical means, sometimes assisted by meter. The usual reference temperature diacetate, triacetate, or blends of these flame cleaning. is 77°F (25°C). Conductivity measure- materials. ments can also be used to estimate total Detergent. An alkaline or ionized clean- Chelant. Chemical that complexes dissolved solids in water. See resistivity. ing or emulsifying agent. A formulation metal ions in soluble form. that will remove soil. See surfactant. Contaminants. Foreign material, such Chromate rinse. See Chromic acid rinse. as dirt, which can be detected in the Dilute. To make thinner or less concen- cured powder coating. trated by adding liquids such as water Chromic acid rinse. A chromic acid or solvent. solution used after zinc or iron phosphate Conversion coating. Inorganic pre- to passivate the metal at the base of treatment—zinc or iron phosphate—for Dilution ratio. Ration by which a given cracks or pinholes in the phosphate coat- metal substrates that prepares the sur- solvent or solution may be diluted with- ing. Used to improve corrosion resistance. face for powder coating. out adverse effects. Dispersion. Suspension of one sub- Enzyme. For detergency, an amino acid Flux rate. The rate per unit of area at stance in another. polyester derived from bacteria, that which water passes through a semiper- breaks down proteins (protease), fats meable membrane, such as those used Drag-in. The water or solution that ad- (lipase), or starches (amylase). for ultra filtration or reverse osmosis. Copyright, CSC Publishing, Powder Coating heres to workpieces introduced into a bath. Erosion. Wearing away of a coating to Fouling. The deposition of insoluble mate- Drag-out. Process of solution en- expose the undercoat and substrate. rials, such as bacteria, colloids, oxides, and trapment being pulled with the product, waterborne debris, onto the surface of a typically out of the washer zone or coat- Etch. Wear away or roughen a surface reverse osmosis or ultra filtration mem- ing enclosure. with, or as if with, an acid. brane. Fouling is associated with decreased flux rates and may also reduce the rejection Etching. Surface preparation of metal rates of reverse osmosis membranes. Drain. A piping system used to collect by chemical process; removal of a layer and carry off surface and ground water. of the base metal. G Dry blasting. Any form of blasting Evaporation. The physical process by GPD. Gallons per day. where the abrasive agent is not carried which a liquid substance is converted to in water. GPM. Gallons per minute. a gas or vapor. GPY. Gallons per year. E F Effluent. Any spent liquors or other waste Face rusting. Appearance of rust on an Gallon. Unit of volumetric measure (4 material which are emitted by a source, apparently unblemished coated surface. quarts, or 3.785 liters). such as waste from plating shops, pickling Feed water. Water entering a purifica- Galvanized steel. Steel coated with a tanks, and sewage treatment plants. tion system or an individual piece of pur- layer of metallic zinc. ification equipment, such as an ultrafil- Effluent limitations. Any restrictions, ter or reverse-osmosis system. Gray blast cleaning. A commercial blast established by the government or by standard. See NACE No. 3 commercial management, on quantities, rates, and Filiform corrosion. Corrosion resem- blast cleaned surface finish. concentrations of chemical, physical, bio- bling a thread-like formation; usually logical, and other constituents that are caused by poor substrate cleaning or rins- Grit. Abrasive obtained from slag and discharged from paint sources. ing. various other materials. Emulsion. Suspension of colloidal-sized, Filter. A porous material on which solid Grit blasting. Abrasive cleaning of a immiscible liquid droplets in another liq- particles present in the air or in other surface by blasting with angular chilled uid; two phases present. fluids which flows through it are largely iron grit, aluminum oxide, or any crushed caught and retained. or irregular abrasive. Emulsion cleaning. A cleaning tech- nique that emulsifies contaminants. Filtration. The process of segregation of Emulsions are mixtures of two liquids; H phases, such as the separation of sus- one holds the other in a suspension. The Hexavalent chrome. Chromium most often pended solids from a liquid or gas, usually liquids will typically have different polari- used as a seal rinse in a five-or-more-stage by forcing a carrier gas or liquid through a ties and will dissolve different types of pretreatment system. Has a +6 valence porous medium. materials. One of the liquids is usually Hex and is considered a reactive seal rinse. water and the other will have nonpolar Flame cleaning. Surface preparation of Hydroblasting. Cleaning with high- properties and they can dissolve nonpolar steel using flame to burn off contaminates. pressure water jet. contaminants, such as oil and grease, from metal surfaces. Flash rusting. Very thin coating of rust or oxide occurring within minutes to Hydrogen ion concentration. pH. See pH. End point. Samples are titrated to the hours after applying a pretreatment solu- end point. This means that a chemical is tion. I added drop by drop to a sample until a cer- Immiscible. Descriptive of the two or Flocculant. A substance used in combi- more fluids that aren’t mutually soluble. tain color change (blue to clear, for exam- nation with coagulants, which causes sub- ple) occurs. This is called the end point of microscopic, suspended matter (colloids) to Impeller. Located within the pump housing, the titration. In addition to a color change, aggregate into larger particles that can be this device provides the mechanical action an end point may be reached by the for- removed by settling or filtration. needed to pump the washer solution through mation of a precipitate or the reaching of a the piping in a spray treatment system. specified pH. An end point may be de- Flowmeter. An instrument for measur- tected by the use of an electronic device ing the rate of flow of a fluid moving Impingement. A process resulting in a such as a pH meter. The completion of a through a tube, pipe, or duct system. The continuing succession of impacts between desired chemical reaction. instrument is calibrated to furnish vol- liquid or solid particles and a solid surface. ume or mass rate of flow. Indicator (pH) paper. A vegetable- NACE No. 1 white metal blast cleaned Neutralization. Addition of an acid or al- dyed paper that indicates relative acidity surface finish. This finish is a surface kali (base) to a liquid to cause the pH of the or basicity (alkalinity). with a gray-white uniform metallic color, liquid to move toward a neutral pH of 7.0. slightly roughened to form a suitable Copyright, CSC Publishing, Powder Coating Industrial waste water. Water dis- anchor pattern for coatings; this surface P charged from an industrial process as a shall be free of all oil, grease, dirt, visible pH paper. See indicator paper. result of formation or use in that process. mill scale, rust corrosion products, oxides, paint, or any other foreign matter; the sur- pH value. Measure of acidity or alkalin- Industrial water. Water (including its face shall have color characteristic of the ity. pH7 is neutral. The pH values of acids impurities) used directly or directly in abrasive media used; photographic or are less than 7. The pH values of alkali industrial process. other visual standards of surface prepara- bases are greater than 7. tion may be used to further define the sur- Inorganic. Designation of compounds face. Syn: white blast. PPM. Parts per million. that generally don’t contain carbon. NACE No. 2 near-white metal blast Paint and varnish remover. Liquid, Interfacial tension. See surface tension. cleaned surface finish. This finish is principally solvents, sometimes with wax one from which all oil, grease, dirt, visible or thickeners, which is applied to a coated Ion. An atom or group of atoms that has mill scale, rust corrosion products, oxides, surface in order to soften the old coating acquired a net of electric charge by gain- paint, or other foreign matter have been and bring it to such a condition that it can ing or losing one or more electrons. removed from the surface except for very be easily removed. Syn: stripper. light shadows, very slight streaks, or Iron phosphate coating. Conversion slight discolorations; at least 95 percent of Parkerized. Descriptive of iron or steel, coating. Chemical deposition on steel and the surface shall have the appearance of a which has received a rust-resisting treat- aluminum for corrosion protection. surface blast cleaned to a white metal sur- ment by being dipped in a boiling solution face finish and the remainder shall be lim- of manganese dihydrogen phosphate; this L ited to the light discoloration mentioned protective coating also improves the bond- Laminar scale. Rust formation in heavy above; photographic or other visual stan- ing (adhesion) of paint and lacquers. layers. dards of surface preparation may be used to further define the surface. Passivation. Conversion of metal surface M to less reactive state to reduce corrosion NACE No. 3 commercial blast cleaned Media. Aggregate used to effect dispersion rate of metal surface. surface finish. This finish is defined as in certain types of production equipment, one from which all oil, grease, dirt, rust such as ball pebble and sand mills. Phosphate. Chemical radical (PO4)-3. In scale, and foreign material have been com- coating operations, zinc, iron, or man- pletely removed from the surface and all Media mill. Any mill using any one of ganese phosphate is used as a conversion rust, mill scale, and old paint have been the various types of grinding media such coating to prepare the part for coating completely removed except for slight shad- as sand, steel, ball, and pebble. application. ows, streaks, or discolorations; if the surface is pitted, slight residues of rust or paint Phosphating. Pretreatment of steel or Mild steel. Structural steel or plate, mal- may be found in the bottom of the pits; at certain other metal surfaces by chemical leable iron-based alloy. SAE 1020, with a least two thirds of the surface area shall be solutions containing metal phosphates and carbon content of up to 2.5 percent. free of all visible residues and the remain- phosphoric acid as the main ingredients, to der shall be limited to light discoloration, form a thin layer which serves as a good Mill scale. Oxide layer formed on steel slight staining, or light residues mentioned base for subsequent paint coats. by hot rolling process. previously; photographic or other visual standards of surface preparation may be Phosphatize. Formation of thin, inert Miscible. Capable of mixing or blending used to further define the surface. phosphate coating on surface, usually by uniformly. treatment with phosphoric acid or other Molten salt. Inorganic chemical or chem- NACE No. 4 brush-off blast cleaned sur- phosphate compound. icals that are used at temperatures above face finish. This finish is one from which oil, grease, dirt, rust scale, loose mill scale, Pickling. Use of chemical solution to their melting point for heat transfer, heat loose rust, and loose paint or coatings are prepare surface for coatings or bonding treating, or metal cleaning purposes. removed completely, but light mill scale by dissolving away surface oxides and Molten salt bath. A specially designed and tightly adhered rust, paint, and coat- other impurities. vessel used to contain and heat molten ings are permitted to remain provided they Power wash. Multistage cleaning and salt processes. have been exposed to the abrasive blast conditioning machine or structure to pattern sufficiently to expose numerous transport material using some form of flecks of the underlying metal fairly uni- N formly distributed over the entire surface; conveyor system. NACE. National Association of Corrosion photographic or other visual standards of Pretreatment. Chemical cleaning and Engineers. surface preparation may be used to further etching before powder application in define the surface. order to improve adhesion and corrosion resistance. Product water. The purified water Sandblast. Blast cleaning using sand Solution. Mixture formed when one stream from purification equipment, such as an abrasive. material (solid or liquid) is dissolved into as reverse osmosis units and ultrafilters. a liquid. Sanitary shield or shroud. Shield that Copyright, CSC Publishing, Powder Coating Profile. Surface contour; usually used as protects the conveyor from excessive Solvent. Liquid or blend of liquids used a blasting term. moisture in the washer. to dissolve or disperse a paint. A true sol- vent is a single liquid that can dissolve Pyrolysis. Decomposition or transforma- Saponification. Decomposition of paint. tion of compound caused by heating. esters to their constituent alcohols and R fatty acids, usually accomplished with Solvent washing. Cleaning with solvent. Reagent. A substance used in chemical an alkali. Spray chamber. An enclosure that sur- reaction to detect, measure, examine, or Scale. Rust occurring in thin layers, rounds the pretreatment process and produce other substances. commonly found on hot-rolled steel. contains overspray. Recovered solvent. Solvent which is ex- Steam clean. Cleaning with live steam. Scaler. A hand-cleaning chisel used to tracted from a process or exhaust stream remove scale. usually by absorption or condensation. Stripper. Device or chemical used to Scaling. In reference to reverse osmosis remove a coating from a substrate by Reverse osmosis (RO). Method of re- equipment, scaling is the precipitation of means of pyrolysis, chemical attack-dis- moving ions from water to make purer sparingly soluble salts, such as calcium solution, mechanical abrasion, or a com- water. Method of removing metal ions carbonate, onto the surface of a mem- bination, such as high heat burn-off, from an aqueous solution via semiper- brane. Scaling is associated with de- molten salt, grit blast, and alkaline strip- meable membranes. creased flux and reduced reverse osmo- pers. Rust. Corroded iron. Red iron oxide de- sis rejection rates. Suction feed. Siphons abrasive to the posited on metal. Also other metal oxides Scribe creep. Measurement taken from nozzle of a sandblaster. formed by corrosion. the scribe line in a salt-spray test to mea- sure the quality or corrosion resistance Surface active agent. See surfactant. Rust bloom. Discoloration indicating the beginning of rusting. of a coating system. Surface preparation. Operations nec- Rust grade scale. In evaluating the re- Seal rinse. A final rinse in a spray essary to prepare the surface to receive a sistance to rusting, the linear, numerical washer that passivates the pretreated coating. rust grade scale is an exponential function surface to prevent oxidation and provide corrosion resistance in the field. Surface tension. Cohesive surface on a of the area of rust so that slight amounts liquid surface. Force attracting molecules of first rusting have the greatest effect on Sedimentation. The process by which at the surface to the bulk of the material lowering the rust grade (ASTM D-610). solids are separated from water by grav- or energy difference between two phases Rust resistance. The ability of a coating ity and deposited on the bottom of a con- (interfacial tension). to protect the substrate of iron or its tainer or basin. alloys from rusting. Surfactant. Chemical used to adjust sur- Semipermeable. Descriptive of a mate- face tension of a material. Term con- Rust-inhibitive washes. See conversion rial, such as a reverse osmosis or ultrafil- tracted from surface active agent. coating. tration membrane, which allows the pas- Suspension. Mixture of fine particles of sage of some molecules and prevents the Rusting. Corrosion on the surface of iron any solid with liquid or gas. passage of others. or ferrous metals resulting in the forma- tion of products consisting largely of Shot blasting. Blast cleaning using Sweep blast. See NACE No. 4 brush-off hydrous ferric oxide. blast cleaned surface finish. steel shot as the abrasive. Rustproofing. Processes applied to T Shot peening. See shot blasting. steel, including coating or galvanizing, Titratable Alkalinity. When certain but most often refers to phosphating and Soap. Salt of fatty acid; used to desig- anions, such as carbonate (CO3-), are dis- similar low-duty rust preventatives. nate all detergents. solved in water, they bind hydrogen ions (H+) and thus shift the water equilibrium S Soils. Foreign matter on a part’s sub- to produce free hydroxyl ions (OH-). This strate before being cleaned in a pre- excess concentration of OH- is termed Salt-spray test. Corrosion test using treatment system. Can be organic or alkalinity. Titratable alkalinity can be salt (NaCl) solution sprayed as a mist in inorganic. measured by determining the amount of a heated humidity chamber to simulate seashore conditions, or to accelerate cor- H+ (in mEq or mmol) which must be Solubilizer. Chemical used to hold mate- rosion at a controlled rate. (ASTM Test added to water to restore the pH to 7.0, rials in suspension in a solution. B-117). the condition of neutrality where [H+] = [OH-]. Titrate. To titrate a sample, a chemical Water hardness. Presence of heavy S. LeSota, ed., Coatings Encyclopedic solution of known strength is added drop metals, commonly calcium (Ca) or mag- Dictionary (Blue Bell, Pa.: Federation of by drop until a certain color change, pre- nesium (Mg), in solution. Societies for Coatings Technology, 1995). cipitate, or pH change in the sample is Copyright, CSC Publishing, Powder Coating observed (end point). Titration is the Water softness. Absence of high concen- The Powder Coating Institute, Powder process of adding the chemical reagent in tration of Ca or Mg. Water is considered Coating Terms and Definitions (Alex- increments until completion of the reac- soft when concentration is below 100 andria, Va., 1996). tion, as signaled by the end point. parts per million (ppm) (as CaCo3). L. Regenstein. Metal Finishing Industry Total dissolved solids (TDS). A mea- Water spotting. Visual blemish that Pollution Prevention Notebook (Boston: surement of the solids content of water in occurs on the surface in areas where Northeast Waste Management Official’s the parts per million (ppm). water droplets have dried and left dis- Association). solved solids. Whitish blemishes on a pre- Tooth. Profile. Mechanical anchorage. treated part where minerals in the water Surface roughness. have left a deposit on the surface. U Wetting. Ability of a liquid to spread over a surface. Ultrafilter. A membrane based filtration system in which the pore sizes range from Wetting agent. See Surfactant. 0.001 to 0.1 micron. White blast. Blast cleaning to white V metal surface. See NACE No. 1. Vapor degreasing. The use of a con- densing solvent vapor to dissolve and White metal. Blasting metal to a speci- rinse away oil and grease before assem- fied appearance, such as SSPC-SP-10, bly or coating. and NACE No.1. Vestibule. Small entrance hall to the pre- White rust. White corrosion products (zinc treatment washer. hydroxide and zinc oxide) on zinc-coated articles. Syn: white storage stain. W Z Washer crystal. Particles caused by crys- tallization of minerals, additives, cleaners, Zinc phosphate coating. Conversion or chemicals found in the water of power coating used on steel and galvanized washers. steel parts to improve coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. Washer drain zone. The space in between spray zone within the washer tunnel. Definitions come from the following sources: Washer process zone. The spray treat- ment zones within the washer tunnel. California State University Sacramento Foundation, Office of Water Programs. Washer vestibule. The portion of the Master Glossary of Water and Wastewater washer tunnel at the entrance and exit. Terms (Sacramento, Calif., [www.owp. csus.edu/glossary/ glossary.htm]). Washing. The combination of mechani- cal and chemical means to remove soil. GE Osmonics, Tech Note 120 (Kent, Wash., 2003). Water blasting. Blast cleaning of metal using high-velocity water. L. Cecil and J. Beckwith. The Glossary of Standard Finishing Technology (Dear- Water break. The appearance of a discon- born, Mich.: Association of Finishing tinuous film of water on a surface, signify- Processes of the Society of Manufactur- ing nonuniform wetting and usually asso- ing Engineers, 1991). ciated with a surface contamination. R. Lange, ed., Detergents and Cleaners: Water-break-free. The ability of the A Handbook for Formulators (Cincinnati: rinse water to cover the surface in an un- Hanser Gardner, 1994). broken film.
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