Bio A biochemistry Study Guide by xiaoyounan

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									Bio H Test 1 Study Guide              Name ______________________________

1. List the steps of the scientific method.


           a. If the results support your hypothesis, what is the next step?



           b. If the results disprove hypothesis, what is the next step?


2. Where are the following subatomic particles located in an atom? Indicate the charge
   of each (positive, negative, or neutral). Draw a basc diagram of an atom in the box
   showing the location of each part.

           a. Electron


           b. Proton


           c. Neutron




3. What does the atomic number of an element mean?



           a. What happens when you change the number of protons in an atom?



           b. In a neutral (non-charged) atom, the atomic number also tells us the
              number of _______________

4. What does the atomic mass of an element mean?


           a. What part of the atom does it tell us the number of?


5. Sample problem: For each of the following elements, look up or calculate the
   numbers below: Note, the plus 2 by Magnesium means that it has a 2 positive charge
   (meaning it lost two electrons!)

       a. Calcium:     Atomic number __________ Atomic Mass _________________
               Protons_______     Neutrons _________ Electrons _____________
       b. Magnesium+2: Atomic number _____________ Atomic Mass ____________
               Protons_______     Neutrons _________ Electrons _____________


       c. Gold: Atomic number _____________          Atomic Mass ________________
               Protons_______     Neutrons _________ Electrons _____________


       d. Oxygen-2 : Atomic number _____________             Atomic Mass ____________
               Protons_______     Neutrons _________ Electrons _____________


6. Why are normal atoms (on the periodic table) considered to be neutral?



7. What is an ion?


           a. What part of the atom do we change to make a neutral atom a charged ion
              (protons, neutron or electrons)?




8. If an atom gains electrons, it gets a _______________ charge. If it looses electrons, it
   gets a ________________ charge.


9. What are isotopes and why do different isotopes of the same element behave the same
   way chemically?



10. Compare and contrasts Compounds vs. Mixtures. Create a comparison chart like the
    following
                                      Compound                 Mixture
               Properties of
               ingredients change
               when C/M is made?


               Chemical bonds are
               formed?

               Exact proportions are
               required?
Define the following terms IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

   1. Atom: ___________________________________________________________
   2. Compound:_______________________________________________________
   3. Solution : ______________________________________________________
   4. Suspension: __________________________________________________

Identify each chemical reaction as a Synthesis (building), Decomposition (breaking
down) or Displacement (rearranging “partners”) reaction.

1. AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3                             _______________________

2. 2H2 + O2  2H2O                                         _______________________

3. 8 FeS  8 Fe + S8                                       ___________________________________________________



In All three examples above UNDERLINE the reactants



11. What is a covalent bond? What are the atoms that are bonding together getting out of
    the relationship (why bond in the first place?)



12. What is an ionic bond? (make sure you understand how oppositely-charged ions
    attract to each other!)



13. What is a compound? Are compounds the same as just putting its components (atoms
    it is made of) together and mixing them?



14. Sample Problem: In a chemical formula, such as C6H12O6,

           a. What types of atoms (elements) are involved?

           b. How many of each type of atom?


15. What is a mixture? What does it mean that a mixture is physically mixed and not
    chemically combined?
16. What does “polar” mean?




17. Draw a picture of a water molecule and put in the proper charges.




18. What is cohesion?




   a. Why does cohesion happen? How can it be demonstrated?




19. What is adhesion?




   a. Why does adhesion happen? How can it be demonstrated?




20. What happens when water is added to salt? What does polarity have to do with this?




21. In a solution of salt water, the solvent is _________________ and the solute is
    ________________


22. An acid increases the concentration of _____________________ ions in a solution.


23. A base increases the concentration of ______________________ ions in a solution.
24. A neutral solution (water) has an ______________ amounts of hydrogen and
    hydroxide ions which combine to form __________________




25. Draw the pH scale on the line below, label, acid, neutral, base


_______________________________________________________________



           a. Indicate the following pH values as strong acid, weak acid, neutral, weak
              base or strong base.

                      5.5
                      13
                      2
                      7
                      8

26. What pH range does most of your body fall into?




27. What does your body use to keep this pH from changing greatly?




28. List two places in your body where the pH is NOT in this range.




29. What happens when an acid and a base are mixed together? What are the products of
   such a reaction? What happens to the pH?




   Ex. HCl     +      NaOH  ______________________________________
30. What impact does acid rain have on nutrients in the soil?




31. What is the primary cause of acid rain?




Vocabulary

Independent       Dependent         Control            Hypothesis   Theory
Var.              Var.
Matter            Atom              Homeostasis        Element      Compound
Molecule          Cohesion          Adhesion           Polarity     Neutralization
Solute            Solvent           Element            Solution     Colloid

								
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