MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

					MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                                 Microwave Remote Sensing
                                                         (MRS)


                                                             Presented by

                                        Kishore Kumar Parida                 EC200117313


                                                      Under the guidance of
                                                       Mr. Rowdra Ghatak

                                      Kishore Kumar Parida     EC200117313
                                                                                           [1]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      What is microwave remote sensing?
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                         •A special application of microwave communications
                                         technologies for the purpose of collecting geophysical
                                         information about targets (objects and media) without
                                         making physical contact.
                                         •Microwave reflections or emissions from earth
                                         materials bear no direct relationship to their counterparts
                                         in the visible portions of the spectrum.




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida        EC200117313
                                                                                                       [2]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      How does it work?
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                         •There is an interaction between the EM waves and
                                         matter.

                                         •The target imposes a modulation on the EM wave which
                                         becomes its identifying characteristics.

                                         •Sensors use microwave communications technologies.

                                         •Active (radar) and passive (microwave radiometry)
                                         measurements.


                                      Kishore Kumar Parida      EC200117313
                                                                                                 [3]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Active and Passive Microwave Sensors
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                       •Passive: uses natural energy, either reflected sunlight or
                                       emitted thermal or microwave radiation

                                       •Active: sensor creates its own energy

                                       •Transmitted toward Earth

                                       •Interacts with atmosphere and/or surface

                                       •Reflects back toward sensor (backscatter)


                                      Kishore Kumar Parida         EC200117313
                                                                                                 [4]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Microwave Radiometry
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                         In the microwave region of the EM spectrum, the
                                         power collected by a microwave antenna is:

                                         P blackbody = k Tb * bandwidth

                                         Microwave Brightness Temperature, Tb, of a
                                         media is the product of the media emissivity and its physical
                                         temperature.
                                         For blackbodies,  = 1.0
                                         Tb =  * T phys


                                      Kishore Kumar Parida         EC200117313
                                                                                                     [5]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Microwave Radiometer
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                           Antenna          Receiver

                                                       +               Square
                                                                       Law          LPF
                                                                       detector
                                                Trec

                                                 Resistor
                                                 noise
                                                                                  Tsys = Radiometer Output power
                                              Tsys = T ant + T Rec                        KB*(receiver gain)
                                          Where K=Boltzman’s constant
                                          B=bandwidth

                                          TRec = (1-NF)*290 K; NF=Receiver noise figure
                                          Tant= scene brightness temp collected by antenna

                                      Kishore Kumar Parida              EC200117313
                                                                                                               [6]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Radiative Transfer Theory

                                      The TB measured by spaceborne radiometer is the linear sum of
                                      individual contributions from the atmosphere and surface




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida       EC200117313
                                                                                                      [7]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP)




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                                      [8]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Three Day Average of Some MRS Parameters




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                                 [9]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                       What is a Microwave Scatterometer?
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                       •A special purpose radar sensor that measures scattering from
                                       the earth’s surface i.e., a scatter-meter

                                       •If the objects are having smaller wavelengths,then scattering
                                       occurs




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida       EC200117313
                                                                                                   [10]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                       Satellite Microwave Scatterometer
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      Pr = Pt * σ
                                      Where σ = ocean
                                      Scattering coeff. Or
                                      Normalized radar
                                      Cross-section




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [11]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Scatterometer Applications



                                        •Ocean Wind Vector (wind speed & direction)
                                        • Hurricanes & Typhoons
                                        • Sea Ice Imaging
                                        • Land Imaging




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida      EC200117313
                                                                                      [12]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Antarctic Sea Ice Imaging




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [13]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                       • Microwave remote sensing of rainfall
                                       • TRMM Microwave (Radiometer) Imager
                                       • Precipitation Radar




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida     EC200117313
                                                                                   [14]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Greenland Ice Melt - 4 day intervals
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida    EC200117313
                                                                             [15]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Precipitation Radar - Hurricane Rainfall Image
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida    EC200117313
                                                                                       [16]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Synthetic Aperture Radar


                                       •Generally refers to the case of a moving radar and a
                                       stationary target- usually an extended scene, such as the
                                       surface of the Earth.

                                       •ISAR refers to the case in which the radar is relatively
                                       stationary and a rotating target provides all(or most) of the
                                       motion to create the synthetic aperture.




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida       EC200117313
                                                                                                   [17]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Comparison Between RAR and SAR




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [18]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Comparison Between RAR and SAR
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [19]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      SAR Modes




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [20]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004


                                      Side-Looking Radar System




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [21]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      SLR Operation
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [22]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      Conclusion
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      •microwave       sensors     provide      valuable    geophysical
                                      measurements
                                      • Remote sensing satellites provide global coverage each day
                                      • Day/night all weather
                                      • Atmosphere
                                      • Water vapor, cloud liquid water, precipitation
                                      • Sea Ice and land snow cover
                                      • Ocean
                                      • Surface winds, sea surface temperature




                                      Kishore Kumar Parida       EC200117313
                                                                                                   [23]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

                                      REFERENCES
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                      [1] Lillesand Thomas M. and Ralph W. Kiefer,”Remote Sensing
                                          and Image Interpretation”, fourth edition, chapter 8,pp. 616-692
                                      [2] Sullivan Roger J., “Radar Foundations for Imaging and
                                          Advanced Concepts”, Chapter 7, pp.191-194
                                      [3] http://www.engr.ucf.edu/centers/cfrsl/
                                      [4] http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/
                                      [5] Ulaby, F.T., R.K.Moore, and A.K.Fung, Microwave Remote
                                          Sensing: Active and Passive, Addison-Welsey, Reading, MA;
                                          vol.1: Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and
                                          Radiometry, 1981;vol. II: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface
                                          Scattering and Emission Theory, 1982;vol. III.


                                       Kishore Kumar Parida        EC200117313
                                                                                                     [24]
MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004




                                                   THANK YOU


                                      Kishore Kumar Parida   EC200117313
                                                                           [25]

				
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