birch-bark by linzhengnd


									                             Multiple Visioning of Wask-quoy Metisk - Paper birch - Betula papyrifera
                             Teaching and presentation by Barb Frazer (

Birch Bark biting             Supplies needed:     Instructions:                                         Teaching and knowledge
(all ages)                                                                                               acquired by youth:
                                                                                                         1. Water molecules
                                                                                                         2. Pattern
                                                                                                         3. Square roots
                                                                                                         4. Water containers and
                                                                                                            canoes made from Birch
                              1. Birch ‘paper’
Birch Bark Biting: Is how        bark the          The most basic form of a snow crystal is a            1. Snowflakes and snow
patterns were transferred        cambium of        hexagonal shape.                                         crystals are made of ice.
to make designs as a form        the birch tree    Fold the birch bark paper 3 times always in an           Water vapours form into
of decoration clothing,       2. scissors          exact half always folding inwards from the               snow crystals form when
canoes, basket, etc.          3. Pictures of       center.                                                  water vapour condenses
                                 snow crystals     Bite down with front eye teeth from the                  directly into ice, which
Snow flakes have beautiful       and               ‘CENTER’ with a bit of pressure to make an               happens in the clouds.
ornate patterns and can be       snowflakes.       impression, but do not bit through the paper.         2. The patterns emerge as
simulated when birch                               Bit different at different angles, always connect        the crystals grow and a
paper is unfolded –                                the bit patterns.                                        snow crystal, as the name
exposing a different                                                                                        implies, is a single crystal
hexagonal pattern each                             Suggested Resources:                                     of ice.
time.                                                                                                    3. There are two hydrogen’s
                                                    “Northern Ojibway Style Birch Bark Canoe                for each oxygen, so the
Questions to ask:                                  Building”                                                chemical formula is H2O
1. How were patterns                               (order:                                     and when they freeze
   transferred in the past                                                                                  space is created between
   before paper? (A: birch    “Last Leaf, First Snowflake to Fall” by Ojibway        these hydrogen bonds.
   bark paper)                author Leo Yerxa. (1993) Toronto/ Vancouver:        4. Water is a liquid and it
2. How do raindrops come      Douglas &McIntyre.                                     cools it contracts as it
   down in the winter? (A:                                                           forms crystal lattice
   Snow flakes or water       “Maple Moon” by Connie Brummel Crook                   shape.
   crystals and there are     [about sweet water from trees]
   two hydrogen molecules     (
   and one oxygen (H2O)
   and when they freeze       (*) “Birch Bark Biting” – information sheet
   space is created between
   the bonds.
                              “Kakwité:ne Wao’shén:ni Ne Akohserá:ke -
                              Spring Defeats Winter” order from:
                              Tsi Ronterihwanónhnha ne Kanien’kéha
                              Kanehsatà:ke, Quebec
                              (450) 479-1651

                              “Creator’s Gift Good Water”

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