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					   Carbon Offsetting & Mitigation
      by Queensland Tourism
   Enterprises – Survey Results
Associate Professor Heather Zeppel
Australian Centre for Sustainable Business & Development
Dr Narelle Beaumont
Faculty of Business & Law, USQ Springfield
     South Queensland Tourism Industry Conference
           18-19 October 2011, Warwick, QLD
 Carbon Mitigation & Offsetting
 Mitigation of climate change involves taking
  actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  and to enhance (carbon) sinks (i.e. reduce the
  extent of global warming) (STCRC, 2009)
 Offsetting – A carbon offset is an investment in
  a project or activity that reduces greenhouse
  gas (e.g. tree planting, renewable energy)
 ‘Carbon offsets represent a reduction in greenhouse
  gases, or enhancement of greenhouse gas removal
  from the atmosphere. Carbon offsets are tradeable
  and often used to offset all or part of another
  person or organisation’s emissions’
  Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. 2010.
  National Carbon Offset Standard.

1. Tourism operator buying carbon offsets for business
2. Travellers paying for an optional carbon offset (e.g.
   airlines, transport, hotels, tours, festivals, conferences)
   Qld Tourism & Carbon Offsetting
 Tourism Qld -Offsetting your Carbon Footprint
  National Carbon Offset Standard (NCOS)
  (excludes renewable energy, forestry – in Kyoto Protocol)
  Ecofund Qld (Qld govt. broker of carbon offset projects)
 Qld Tourism Industry Council (2008) Offsets advice
  1. Forestry Projects (time limit, drought, bushfires-TQ, QTIC;
     lack of scientific research, large monocultures-QTIC)
  2. Energy Projects (more sustainable than tree planting;
                         compliant with National Standard-TQ)
 Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011
  – carbon credits for Australian forestry & soil carbon projects
  Big Cat Green Island Reef Cruises

  Carbon Offset
   We have taken a very proactive position on climate change
   because we view it as a very serious threat to the reef
   environment in which we operate. We are achieving a “Zero
   Carbon Footprint” by offsetting our direct emissions via
   “additional” future forest sink offsets supplied by
   Greenfleet Australia.
    (5% of reef visitors pay for carbon offset option)
 „Balancing the amount of carbon dioxide
  released into the atmosphere with an equal
  amount of carbon dioxide that has been
  sequestered or offset‟ (DRET, 2009)
 Carbon emissions are measured & reduced
  with remaining or residual emissions offset
 Carbon Neutral tourism operator: Hidden
  Valley Cabins (100% solar power, vehicle
  use offset, verified by Climate Friendly)
Carbon Mitigation in Tourism
 Review carbon offsetting & mitigation
  measures implemented by Qld tourism
  enterprises (i.e. hotels, tour operators,
  attractions, transport) in response to
  climate change and sustainability

            Photo courtesy of Tourism Queensland
    Objectives of Carbon Survey
 Evaluate what carbon mitigation and carbon
  offset measures have been adopted by different
  Qld tourism enterprises & why (or why not)
 Examine the influence of eco-certification
  schemes & government sustainability programs
  (e.g. ecoBiz) in mitigation & carbon offsetting
 Review the role of Tourism Queensland & tourism
  industry associations in promoting sustainability,
  mitigation & carbon offsetting
 Assess environmental motives of Qld tourism
  owner-operators for carbon mitigation/offsetting
      Carbon Mitigation Survey
 Based on carbon mitigation measures listed in
  certification programs, tourism agency websites,
  tourism operator websites, climate change guides
 24 questions in the tourism survey in 3 sections:
 A: Tourism Business, B: Climate Change (Mitigation)
 C: Carbon Offsetting - checklists, ratings, comments
 Pilot survey of 5 Qld tourism operators not certified
 Focus on environmentally certified Queensland
  tourism enterprises (Climate Action & ECO-certified,
  Earthcheck, ecoBiz, Eco-friendly Star) 83 surveys
 Survey sent to 380 Qld tourism operators by email,
  post, phone/personal interview; response rate 25%
   Mitigation strategies for tourism
 Tourism is a leader in mitigating the effects of
  climate change
    Energy efficient management strategies and
     building design techniques
    Water and Waste management techniques
    Adoption of green codes of ethics/best practice
    Accreditation with certification programs such
     as ecoBiz, ECO-certification, Climate Action
     certification, Earth Check, Green Globe etc
Examples of mitigation strategies
             Climate Change &
             Australian Tourism
 Impact of climate change and carbon emissions on
  ecosystems (e.g. Great Barrier Reef, coasts, rainforests)
 Tourism is a priority sector in Queensland ClimateSmart
  Adaptation Action Plan 2007-2012
 Climate change: A brief guide for tourism (QTIC, 2008)
 Climate Change Guide: Mitigation and adaptation
  measures for Australian tourism operators (DRET, 2009)
 Great Barrier Reef Tourism Climate Change Action
  Strategy 2009-2012 (GBRMPA, 2009)

                    Photo courtesy of Tourism Queensland
       Rationale for Carbon Mitigation
   Concern about climate change, transport emissions
    (plane travel), & environmental impacts of tourism
   Growing demand for green travel products – UK/Europe & US
    travel wholesalers demand „green credentials‟ from suppliers
   Reduce business operating costs through energy, water &
    waste management (i.e. eco-efficiency & carbon mitigation)
   Tourism operator compliance with environmental regulations
    & carbon measurement or reporting (become „carbon neutral‟)
   Carbon emissions audit for certification programs, e.g. EcoBiz,
    EarthCheck, Climate Action, Planet Safe Partnership etc.
Tourism Queensland & Climate Change

 Sustainability & Climate Change Resource Centre
  Fact Sheets: Climate change, Offsetting your carbon footprint
 Sustainability Case Studies: Accommodation (n=47);
  Tours/Transport (n=26); Attractions (n=6)
 Sustainable Regions Program (49 operators reduced
  their carbon footprint, 3 plan to offset, EC3, 2009)
*Offsetting carbon emissions from vehicles through Greenfleet
  (Magnetic Is=19; Airlie Beach=16; Agnes Water & 1770= 16; N. Stradbroke
   Is.=14; Mackay=5; Winton=13: ecoBiz „Climate Smart Cluster Program‟)
 “The Biggest CarbonLoser”, Scenic Rim (2010)
  38 tourism operators - Beaudesert, Boonah, & Tamborine
Tourism Queensland - Tourism
Environmental Indicators (2009/10)
1.  Carbon Footprint of the Queensland Tourism Industry
2.  Energy Use
3.  Water Use
4.  Waste sent to Landfill
5.  Response to Climate Change by Tourism Operators
   (% of operators participating in adaptation & mitigation)
   (no. of Qld tourism operators in certification programs)
6. Regional Sustainability Policies
7. Average Energy Use, Water Use and Waste Sent to
    Landfill Per Visitor Night
10. Carbon Offsetting
    (% of visitors using carbon offsets)
Qld. Tourism Operators Environmental
Indicators Benchmark Study 2010
 Survey of 986 Queensland tourism operators
 Accommodation (63%), Attraction (18%), Tour
  (13%), Other (7%), Transport (3%), F&B (3%),
  Hire (3%)
 Small Business (1-4 staff) (n=672); Medium
  Business (5-20 staff) (n=216); [90% SMEs]
  Large Business (>21 staff) (n=98)
 Benchmarking of environmental initiatives and
  sustainability by Qld tourism operators
 25% had a sustainability policy (65% LB; 26%
  MB; 18% SB); 18% aim to in next 12 months
 (14% LB; 24% MB; 16% SB)
 14% had a formal environmental action plan
  (39% LB; 14% MB; 11% SB); 17% aim to in next
  12 months (24% LB; 25% MB; 13% SB)
Qld. Tourism Operators Environmental
Indicators Benchmark Study 2010
    1 in 10 measured their carbon footprint (38% LB; 25%
     MB; 6% SB); mainly Brisbane tourism operators (21%);
     Sectors: Transport 37%; Tour 17%; Accommodation 7%.

    1 in 10 purchased carbon offsets (21% LB; 10% MB; 9%
     SB); mainly Mackay (22%), Fraser Coast (3%)

    <10% plan to purchase carbon offsets in the next 12
     months (8% LB; 6% MB/SB); Region: (Mackay 9%;
     Outback 6%; Whitsundays 4%; Fraser Coast 2%)

    85% of operators were NOT a member of any environmental
     certification program (Eco tourism 11%, Green Globe 7-8%)

    48% of Qld tourism operators had received some education
     on climate change (70% LB; 58% MB; 42% SB)
   Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
Location of Business: North QLD (n=45) 54%
                      South QLD (n=36) 43%
                          (not stated=2)
Type of Business:       Accommodation            (n=40) 48%
                        Tour Operator            (n=31) 37%
                        Attraction               (n=8) 10%
                        Convention Centre        (n=3) 4%
                        Tourism Organisation     (n=1) 1%
Size of Business: Small Business: 1-4 staff     (n=33) 40%
                  Medium Business: 5-20 staff (n=24) 29%
                  Large Business: over 21 staff (n=26) 31%
Role in Tourism Business: Owner/Operator         (n=45) 54%
                           Manager               (n=25) 30%
                           Other*                (n=13) 16%
*Other staff=business (5), environmental (4), operational (2), venue (2)
Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
Age of Business:
  Accommodation:       1-78 years, mean= 17.4
  Convention Centre: 7-16 years, mean= 12.6
  Tour Operator:       2-38 years, mean= 15.4
  Tourist Attraction: 3-120 years, mean=16.7*
               (*excluding attraction 120 years)

Main Business Certification:
  ECO-certified*      (n=58)
  Eco-friendly Star (n=14)
  Earthcheck          (n=9)
  ecoBiz              (n=2)
*Ecotourism, Nature Tourism,
 Eco Guide, Ecotourism Australia member, Climate Action,
 Green Globe, Savannah Guides, Planet Safe Partnership
 Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
Do you think that climate change is an important issue for the tourism
                     Yes       (n=72) 88%
                     Maybe     (n=8) 10%
                     Not sure (n=1) 1%
                     No        (n=1) 1%

Do you think it is important to reduce the carbon footprint
(emissions) of your tourism business? (no response=1)
                      Strongly agree    (n=44) 54%
                      Agree             (n=28) 34%
                      Neutral           (n=9) 11%
                      Disagree          (n=0)
                      Strongly disagree (n=1) 1%

Audit of carbon emissions/energy usage by your tourism business
             Yes-online emissions calculator    (n=19) 23%
             Yes–consultant audited emissions#(n=15) 18%
             No-do an emissions audit in future (n=28) 34%
             No-emissions audit not necessary* (n=23) 27%
#’Ergon Energy audit‟ (attraction)
*„rather spends $ on action than audits‟ (accommodation)
Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
Online emissions calculator used by tourism business

               ClimateSmart                  (n=8)
               Earthcheck/EC3*               (n=7)
               GBRMPA^                       (n=7)
               ecoBiz                        (n=5)
               NGERS#                        (n=3)
               Greenfleet                    (n=2)
               Greenhouse Challenge          (n=2)
               Tourism QLD                   (n=2)

*‟We are participating in the GC (Gold Coast) City Council pilot project with EC3
  and I will follow their lead on this – i.e. which one to use‟ (accommodation)
  Earthcheck software used by Earthcheck auditor‟ (attraction)

#‟NGERS calculator reported that our emissions level was below the threshold‟
  (eco-resort) [National Greenhouse Energy Reporting System]

^Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) Tourism Operator’s
                                                       Emissions Calculator
„We have not found a suitable formula to measure our footprint in a large rural
property. Most footprint calculations are building and urban based‟ (tour operator)
  Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
Types of emissions reduction actions by tourism business
     Energy saving CFL bulb/LED lights                (n=78)
     Recycling & minimise solid waste                 (n=75)
     Buy energy efficient appliances                  (n=69)
     Switch off appliances at wall                    (n=61)
     Train staff on emissions reduction               (n=48)
     Inform visitors on reducing emissions            (n=44)
     Roofing insulation                               (n=39)
     Choose suppliers reducing emissions              (n=38)
     Use room fans                                    (n=38)
     Market emissions reduction actions               (n=35)
     New fuel efficient vehicles or vessels           (n=32)
     Other energy saving initiatives*                 (n=21)
     Carbon offsetting                                (n=21)
     Solar or heat pump hot water heaters             (n=21)
     Solar photovoltaic power                         (n=20)
     Ethanol mix or biofuels in vehicles              (n=14)
     Electric or hybrid-electric vehicles             (n=12)
     Purchase Green Power electricity                 (n=10)
*Other=gas hot water, water saving, renewable power, movement sensors,
        natural lighting, optimising power use (air conditioning, generators)
Number of Actions Adopted: Convention Centre (11.3), Attraction (10.2),
                              Accommodation (8.4), Tour Operator (6.8)
     Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
Main reasons to implement emissions reduction actions
        Attract environmentally aware tourists           (n=68)
        Differentiate business as ‘climate friendly’     (n=67)
        Cost savings                                     (n=59)
        Certification or permit requirement              (n=52)
        Environmental regulations                        (n=30)
        Other*                                           (n=29)
        Business reporting legal requirement             (n=4)
*Other: Environmental ethics, CSR, role model, customer demand,
no mains power, heritage values (refurbish original 1930s hydro)
Ranked 1 (accommodation & tour operators)
Differentiate business as „climate friendly‟, Other (environmental
ethics), & Cost savings
Ranked 2 (accommodation & tour operators)
Attract environmentally aware tourists
Ranked 4 Certification or permit requirement, &
         Environmental regulations
   Carbon Mitigation Survey Results
     Cost savings from tourism      emissions reduction measures
       Accommodation:               $100-$100,000pa
       Tour Operator:               $50-$50,000pa
       Attraction:                  $10,000pa
       Convention Centre:           $50,000pa

 Accommodation: $100, $100yr, $200, $1,000, $1,000, $1,200, $300pm
($3,600pa), $6,000, $10,000pa, $20,000+, $30,000, $30K per year, $100K,
25%, power (quite substantial), currently not tracked, still in the process of
working out, unknown audit not completed, no determined yet, no comparisons have
been done, has not noticed a reduction of expenses, nil to several thousand expense,
none-it would have been cheaper on electricity grid/diesel power

Tour Operator: 30% saving on fuel consumption-investment of $170,000, av.
10%, $300pa, $500, $1,250, $3,000, $10,000, $20,000, $50,000pa, not sure
– about $50 p.a. off electricity bill & we divert over 26,000 litres of solid waste from
landfill through recycling program, 10% off power bill, minimal, initial outlay costs –
potential long term saving 5-10%, not compared as always tried to be environmentally
friendly, info not available at this time, don‟t know, unsure, unknown

Attraction: significant, we use only renewable power, reduction in electricity
consumption offset by increase in price, nil any savings are offset by additional costs
 Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Participated in a carbon offset program to offset emissions
   Yes–business emissions partially offset^                  (n=17)
   (Accommodation-8, Tour Operator-7, Convention Centre-2)
   Yes–business emissions totally offset                     (n=7)
     (Tour Operator-3, Accommodation-2, Attraction-2)
   No–plan to implement offsetting in near future#           (n=31)
   (Accommodation-16, Tour Operator-9, Attraction-4,
        Convention Centre-1, Tourism Organisation-1)
   No-carbon offsetting not necessary for business* (n=28)
   (Accommodation-14, Tour Operator-11, Attraction-3)

^ „Ongoing carbon offsets through planting trees‟ (accommodation)
# „Not a major priority so will happen when time & resources permit,
Really focusing on reducing our carbon footprint‟ (attraction)
* „Too small with “negligible” footprint‟, „We really haven‟t researched the
options for carbon offsetting our business...It is something that we will
look into in the future‟, ‟will have an audit done, would decide after audit‟
Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
When tourism business started investing in carbon offset
      2000-2005            (n=6)
      2006-2010            (n=15)
      2011-2015*           (n=15)
*plan to be but later than 12 months (attraction)
*not sure when profitability comes back (tour operator)

Business emissions offset through     carbon offset project
  Office electricity                   (n=30)
  Fuel usage (transport)               (n=28)
  Vehicle fuel (staff travel)          (n=26)
  LPG cooking gas                      (n=19)
  Airline travel (staff)               (n=14)
  Other*                               (n=7)
*Other: energy savings; collateral, brochures (tour operator),
      energy consumption from meetings (convention centre)
* „needs to focus on how the balance of carbon use/offset is achieved
i.e. in our environmental audit..number of times per week staff wash
their uniforms were included in our calculations‟ (attraction)
Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Carbon offset project implemented by tourism business
  Own carbon offset/bio-sequestration project         (n=32)
       (Accommodation-17, Tour Operator-9, Attraction-6)
  Partnership carbon offset with other organisations# (n=15)
       (Accommodation-5, Tour Operator-5, Attraction-3,
        Convention Centre-1, Tourism Organisation-1)
  Voluntary carbon offset option for visitors             (n=14)
       (Accommodation-9, Tour Operator-5)
  Purchased Australian carbon credits as offset     (n=13)
  (Tour Operator-8, Accommodation-3, Convention Centre-2)
#Landcare (9), Australian Rainforest Foundation (8), Greening
Australia (7), Greenfleet (5), Conservation Volunteers Australia (5),
Rainforest Rescue (2), Land for Wildlife (2), Ecofund Qld (1), The
Green Corridor-Cairns (1), Wildlife Conservancy of Tropical Qld (1)
  Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Preferred carbon offset method supported by tourism
       Tree planting         (n=41)
       Energy efficiency     (n=41)
       Renewable energy      (n=31)
       Waste diversion       (n=22)
       Landfill gas           (n=3)
       Soil carbon             (n=3)
Why do you prefer this type of offset project?
Convention Centre: It is seen to have the greatest impact on reducing
   long term emissions (RE), Because our team can participate in the
   planting (TP), To offset the number of trees cut down each year (TP)
Attraction: We are already doing this (RE, TP), It is easy to action (TP),
   Lessen environmental impact & contribute personally (EE)
Tourism Organisation:
   One of the easiest ways to begin is to offset our airline travel which
   already has an easy system in place for us to contribute to (TP)
    Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Which carbon offset provider or partner does this tourism
  business invest in or plan to support?
  Other*                                            (n=21)
  Landcare                                          (n=15)
  Australian Rainforest Foundation                  (n=9)
  Greening Australia                                (n=8)
  Conservation Volunteers Australia                 (n=6)
  Greenfleet Australia                              (n=5)
  Climate Friendly                                  (n=3)
*Other: Unsure (4), Land for Wildlife (2), Rainforest Rescue (2), Wildlife
   Conservancy of Tropical Queensland (1), Ecofund Qld (1), Earthcheck/Green
   Globe (1), Origin Green Gas Program (1), Bush Heritage Australia (1), Local
   Council (1), Local Nursery (1), Offset with our own trees (1), Own (1), We
   plan to be a carbon offset provider (1), Daintree Rainforest (1), Virgin Blue
   (1), The Green Corridor-Cairns (1), Another approved Foundation (1)
   Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Main reasons for implementing a carbon offset program
Attract tourists concerned about travel emissions          (n=51)
Market business as ‘climate friendly’ tourism              (n=50)
Personal concern about impacts of climate change           (n=50)
The ‘right thing to do’ for the environment                (n=50)
Financially support tree planting/renewable energy         (n=28)
Other (cost savings, educate guests, children, industry)   (n=7)
Purchase carbon credits before a carbon tax starts         (n=2)

Ranked 1: Personal concern about the impacts of climate change
Ranked 2: The „right thing to do‟ for the environment
Ranked 3: Attract tourists concerned about travel emissions, &
         Market business as „climate friendly‟ tourism
Ranked 4: Financially support tree planting/renewable energy
 Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Accommodation – Reasons for NOT carbon offsetting
 ‘We really haven‟t researched the options for carbon offsetting our
„I don‟t know what is offered and what is the benefit to participate in such a
    program. I am not sure what a carbon offset program is about‟
„No-not enough money‟, „Do not have the time‟
„As I operate a management rights business I have no control over my
    product i.e. the individual apartments that I rent out‟
„Corporate policy & direction not completed‟
„Emissions now very low with dependence on solar array for power‟
„Too small with “negligible” footprint‟
„Design of operation-maintain minimal level of emissions‟
„By not clearing our land‟, „Conservation agreement to protect existing tree
    canopy (90% density) over approx. 16ha‟
„Poor information and suspicious about offset money actually being used for
    realistic carbon sequestration projects not going to administration/
     regulation/government coffers/dodgy tax offset schemes‟
Carbon Offsetting Survey Results
Tour Operator – Reasons for NOT carbon offsetting
„Financial expense‟, „Cost-yet to be convinced‟, „When required by law‟,
„Would like to but struggling to run business & pay of bank loan on
    new boat that is more enviro friendly‟
„We are a sail boat & use the wind power wherever possible‟
„Our footprint is virtual 0 because of what we do and how we do it
„Offset ourselves as 1. have 2000ha nature refuge that (is) under a
    perpetual Conservation Agreement... – do not register the offsets
    2. The tourism product is low impact walking‟

Tourist Attraction - Reasons for NOT carbon offsetting
„Wildlife park won‟t need it‟
„We already use hydropower & have enough trees planted to offset
   most of the emissions from our activities‟
What eco-certified operators are
doing to reduce carbon emissions
  Calculating and reducing their carbon
   emissions (i.e. energy, water, waste)
  Using renewable power (solar/hydro)
  Having an EarthCheck audit, or
   investing in energy efficiency products
  Participating in Sustainable Regions
   Program, ecoBiz, or Low Carbon Diet
  Offsetting the emissions created by their
   business by planting/retaining trees or
   by purchasing carbon credits
    Carbon Reduction by Eco-operators
   Environmentally certified Qld tourism operators are more
    proactive in carbon reduction measures.
   Over half (54%) are nature tourism owner/operators.
   88% consider climate change an important tourism issue.
   88% strongly agree/agree that it is important to reduce the
    carbon footprint (emissions) of their tourism business.
   41% (n=34) are auditing their carbon emissions, while
    34% (n=28) will do a future carbon audit of their business.
   Av. no. of emission reduction actions adopted is 9 (50%).
   Key motives for emissions reduction actions are to:
    Attract environmentally aware tourists, Differentiate
    business as „climate friendly‟, & Cost savings.
    Carbon Offsetting by Eco-operators
   24 tourism enterprises employ carbon offsetting, 31 intend to.
   Emissions offset include electricity, fuel, gas, & staff air travel.
    Most enterprises adopt their own carbon offset/sequestration
     project (i.e. tree planting) or partner with conservation groups.
   A few operators offer offset options to visitors (n=14) or buy
    carbon credits from Australian offset providers (n=13) such as
    Greenfleet & Climate Friendly (e.g. larger tourism enterprises).
   Most tourism operators prefer carbon offsets based on Tree
    Planting, Energy Efficiency or Renewable Energy.
   The main motives for having a carbon offset program were to:
    Attract tourists concerned about travel emissions, & Market a
    business as „climate friendly‟ tourism. Personal concern & the
    „right thing to do‟ for nature also ranked highly as motives.
    Carbon Mitigation - What’s next?
 Carbon Tax from 1 July 2012 (0.7-1.2% loss in
 sales revenue & reduce net profits 10% - TTF, 2011)
 6c/litre increase in off-road diesel or manage offsets
 Use biofuels in new vehicles & purchase GreenPower
 Carbon Credits Act 2011 – opportunities for Carbon
  Credits from carbon sequestration on private land
 Offer ‘Green Choices’ to visitors (optional offset fee;
  tree planting; Reverse the Effect: vehicle emissions;
  donate to CVA ‘Action for Climate Change’ $25/tCO2)
 Market Green Actions at tourism destinations e.g.
  Scenic Rim Escapes; Planet Safe Partnership-TTNQ

                   Photo courtesy of Tourism Queensland
Carbon Mitigation Project Reports
Zeppel, H. & Beaumont, N. (2011). Climate Change and Australian
  Tourism: A Research Bibliography. ACSBD Working Paper No. 1.
  Springfield: Australian Centre for Sustainable Business and
  Development, USQ.
Zeppel, H. & Beaumont, N. (2011). Green Tourism Futures:
  Climate Change Responses by Australian Government Tourism
  Agencies. ACSBD Working Paper No. 2. Springfield:
  Australian Centre for Sustainable Business Development, USQ.

This research was funded with a Building Research Momentum
  Grant from the University of Southern Queensland
Research Assistant: Andreas Eder
Research Support: Debbie Maunder, Michelle de Baugy
           Questions or Comments

Heather Zeppel  

Narelle Beaumont

Project webpage:

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