Cancer by xiaoyounan


 Sabrina Domingues
   Jessica Luna
Andy Koopengsakorn
  Elliot Moskowitz
• Liver Cancer
• Kidney Cancer
• Stomach Cancer
                  Liver Cancer
• Functions: Processes and stores many of the nutrients
  absorbed from the intestine. Clots blood to stop a cut or
  injury. Secretes bile into the intestine

• Benign Tumors:
  Hemangioma (he-man-ge-O-muh)
  Hepatic adenomas (huh-pat-ic ad-uh-noh-muhs)
  Focal nodular hyperplasia (hy-per-play-zuh

• Malignant Tumors:
  hepatocellular carcinoma
                  Liver Cancer
• Liver cancer in adults
  3 out of 10 are diagnosed in the early stages
  7 out of 100 people diagnosed with liver cancer will be
  alive 5 years later
  8 out of 10 Liver cases are found in liver cancer
  developing countries.

• For those who have surgery to remove the cancer
  "About 3 out of 4 (75%) live for at least 1 year
  "About 1 in 2 (50%) live for at least 3 years
  "About 3 out of 10 (30%) live for at least 5 years
                Liver Cancer
• Patients with hepatitis B virus who are at
  greatest risk for liver cancer are men with
  hepatitis B virus cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
  and a family history of liver cancer
  How does chronic hepatitis B virus cause liver

• Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is also
  associated with the development of liver cancer.
             Liver Cancer
• Risk factor for developing Liver cancer
  presence of cirrhosis,
  older age
  male gender
  alcohol use
  and co-infection with hepatitis B virus
             Liver Cancer
• Alcohol
    Cirrhosis caused by chronic alcohol
 consumption is the most common
 association of liver cancer in the
 developed world.

     Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis who die
 of liver cancer are about 10 years older
 than patients who die of non-cancer
               Liver Cancer
• Symptons of Liver cancer
  weight loss
  poor appetite
  right upper abdominal pain or discomfort
  jaundice (yellow skin and eyes and mucus

  Cancer may either start in the liver or spread
  from other organs to the liver
            Liver Cancer
• Treatment for Liver Cancer:
  Surgical Resection,Radiofrequency
  Ablation as Liver Cancer
  Liver transplanting
             Kidney Cancer
• Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys.
  Kidney cancer includes renal cell carcinoma
  (cancer that forms in the lining of very small
  tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and
  remove waste products) and renal pelvis
  carcinoma (cancer that forms in the center of the
  kidney where urine collects). It also includes
  Wilms’ tumor, which is a type of kidney cancer
  that usually develops in children under the age
  of 5.
  Kidney Cancer: Prevention and
          Reduced Risk
• Preliminary research suggests that higher
  consumption of fatty fish in women is
  linked with a lower risk of renal cell
  carcinoma, a common form of kidney
  cancer, according to a study in the
  September 20 issue of JAMA. Renal cell
  carcinoma (RCC) involving the renal
  parenchyma (the functional tissue of the
  kidney) accounts for more than 80 percent
  of all kidney cancers.
   Kidney Cancer: Prevention and
           Reduced Risk
• The evidence that fish consumption, especially fatty fish,
  may be associated with lower risk of several cancers has
  not been consistent, according to background
  information in the article.
• Previous studies have analyzed total fish consumption
  and have not taken into account that there are large
  differences between fatty fish and lean fish in the content
  of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D. Marine omega-3
  polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and
  docosahexaneoic acid, which are present in significant
  amounts in fatty cold-water fish (up to 20-30 times higher
  content than in lean fish), have been reported to slow the
  development of cancer. Fatty fish has 3 to 5 times higher
  content of vitamin D than lean fish, and lower serum
  vitamin D levels have been associated with development
  and progression of RCC.
                Kidney Cancer
• They found that those who consumed five or more
  servings of fruit and vegetables daily reduced their
  relative risk of developing renal cell carcinoma - the most
  common form of kidney cancer – although these results
  were not statistically significant.
• Eating salads more than once a day decreased the risk
  by 40 per cent in comparison to no consumption, while
  women who ate bananas four to six times a week had
  about half the risk of kidney cancer as those who did not
  eat the fruit.
• Regular consumption of root vegetables like carrots was
  linked to a 50- 65 per cent decrease in risk.
• There is some previous evidence to show that regularly
  eating fruit and vegetables may protect against kidney
  cancer but the data has not been consistent.
    Foods That Increase Risk of
          Kidney Cancer
• Study show eats lots of bread pasta
  increases kidney cancer risk. Researchers
  found that diets high in bread, pasta and
  rice, which cause a rise in insulin-like
  growth factors might play a role in the
  increase in cancer. Diets high in poultry,
  processed meat, and all vegetables, both
  raw and cooked appear to decrease the
            Stomach Cancer
• Stomach cancer, which is also called gastric
  cancer, is a cancer that starts in the stomach.
             Stomach Cancer
• Most stomach cancers start in the mucosa. Stomach
  cancers are believed to develop slowly over many years.
  Before a true cancer develops, there are usually pre-
  cancerous changes that occur in the lining of the
  stomach. These early changes rarely produce symptoms
  and therefore often go undetected.
  Stomach cancers can spread, or metastasize, in several
  different ways. They can grow through the wall of the
  stomach and eventually grow into nearby organs. They
  can also spread to the lymph system, including lymph
  vessels and lymph nodes. When the stomach cancer
  becomes more advanced, it will travel through the
  bloodstream and form deposits (called metastases) in
  organs such as the liver, lungs, and bones.
            Stomach Cancer
• Dietary causes: An increased risk of stomach
  cancer is associated with diets containing large
  amounts of smoked foods, salted fish and meat,
  and pickled vegetables. Nitrates and nitrites are
  substances commonly found in cured meats,
  some drinking water, and certain vegetables.
  They can be converted by certain bacteria, such
  as H pylori, into compounds that have been
  found to cause stomach cancer in animals. On
  the other hand, eating whole grain products and
  fresh fruits and vegetables that contain vitamins
  A and C appears to lower the risk of stomach
            Stomach Cancer
• Obesity: Being very overweight or obese has
  emerged as a major cause of many cancers and
  especially cancers of the cardia (part nearest the
  esophagus) of the stomach. Nearly half of the
  cancers in this region can be related to smoking
  and obesity.
• Approximately 90% to 95% of cancerous
  (malignant) tumors of the stomach are
              Stomach Cancer
Symptoms Include:
• unintended weight loss and lack of appetite
• abdominal pain
• vague discomfort in the abdomen, usually above the
• a sense of fullness in the upper abdomen, just below the
  chest bone after eating a small meal.
• heartburn, indigestion, or ulcer-type symptoms
• nausea
• vomiting, with or without blood
• swelling of the abdomen due to accumulation of fluid and
  cancer cells.
          Stomach Cancer
• The main treatments for stomach cancer
  are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation

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