Docstoc

Data on Representation

Document Sample
Data on Representation Powered By Docstoc
					SRI International
                                                           May 2004

Exploring Differences in Minority and Majority Teachers’
Decisions about and Preparation for NBPTS Certification


SRI Project – P12209




Prepared for:
David F. Lussier
Advisor to the President
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
1525 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22209


Submitted by:
Andrew Wayne
Christopher Chang-Ross
Melanie Daniels
Kaeli Knowles
Karen Mitchell
Tiffany Price
SRI International
1100 Wilson Blvd., Suite 2800
Arlington, VA 22209
                                                               CONTENTS
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................................... iii

Introduction......................................................................................................................................1
    Statement of the Problem...........................................................................................................1
    Research Questions....................................................................................................................3
    Format of the Report..................................................................................................................4

Research Methods and Measures.....................................................................................................5
   Sampling ....................................................................................................................................5
   Instrument Development............................................................................................................7
   District Data Collection .............................................................................................................8
   Secondary Data Analysis ...........................................................................................................8
   Survey Development..................................................................................................................9

Findings on Teachers’ Decisions to Pursue Certification................................................................9
   Validation.................................................................................................................................12
   Competing Obligations ............................................................................................................12
   Financial Inducements .............................................................................................................13
   Opportunity to Improve Practice .............................................................................................13
   Probability of Success..............................................................................................................14
   Other Factors............................................................................................................................15
   Differences in Decision-making by Racial/Ethnic Group .......................................................16

Findings on Teachers’ Preparation for the Portfolio......................................................................16
   How Teachers Prepare .............................................................................................................17
   Other Things That are Helpful to Portfolio Preparation ..........................................................19
   Barriers to Teachers’ Work on Portfolios................................................................................20
   Differences in Portfolio Preparation by Racial/Ethnic Group .................................................24

Findings on Teachers’ Preparation for the Assessment Center .....................................................25

Findings on Comprehensiveness of the Assessment .....................................................................26

Minority NBCT Representation in High-Poverty and High-Minority Schools in Six States........27

Conclusions....................................................................................................................................29

References......................................................................................................................................31

Exhibits
Exhibit 1:         Demographic Composition of K-12 Students, Teachers, National Board
                   Candidates, and National Board Certified Teachers...................................................2
Exhibit 2:         Demographic Composition of National Board Certified Teachers and Faculty in
                   High-Poverty and High-Minority Schools..................................................................3



SRI International                                                                                                                                 i
                                              CONTENTS (continued)
Exhibit 3:     Number of Interviewees, by Candidacy Status...........................................................7
Exhibit 4:     Main Factors That Play into Decision-making about Candidacy .............................11
Exhibit 5:     Supports for and Barriers to Teachers’ Work on NBPTS Portfolios........................17
Exhibit 6:     Barriers to Teachers’ Work on the Assessment Center ............................................25
Exhibit 7:     Minority NBCT Representation in High-Poverty and High-Minority
               Schools by State........................................................................................................28

Appendices
Appendix A: Additional Information on the Surveys
Appendix B: The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire
Appendix C: The NBC Candidate Questionnaire




SRI International                                                                                                                      ii
                                   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    The authors would like to thank the teachers, candidates, NBCTs and district staff who
participated in the study and shared their experiences with us. We also thank the National Board
for funding the research. In particular Ann Harman, David Lussier, and others formerly and now
at the National Board who were always available to assist us, including Rachel Agarrat, Paula
Szelag, and Kanimozhi Venkatesan.

    Although we take full responsibility for the findings we report, we also would like to thank
our advisory panel members for their input—Toni Clewell, Segun Eubanks, and Vinetta Jones.
Several people at SRI contributed behind the scenes to our work, including Katherine Baisden,
Kristin Bosetti, Stacey Eaton, Heather Hough, Dan Humphrey, and Klaus Krause. We also
benefited from advice and help from many colleagues, including Carol Cohen, Rose Davis,
Maxine Freund, Laura Reasoner Jones, Victoria Kane, Heather Padgette, Misty Sato, Caroline
Wylie, and others who were willing to share lessons from their research or otherwise lend a
helping hand to the study.




SRI International                                                                                  iii
SRI International   iv
    EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                              INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem
     Policy-makers and reformers across the country generally agree that skilled teachers are
crucial to students’ academic success (Wayne & Youngs, 2003; Goldhaber & Anthony, 2004).
Many studies place responsibility for the current inadequate performance of elementary and
secondary students—particularly poor and minority students—on the doorstep of ill-prepared
teachers (Ferguson, 1991; The Teaching Commission, 2004). They point to challenges
stemming from the changing demographics of our student population, declining enrollments in
teacher preparation programs, weaknesses in teacher education programs and teacher licensing
systems, and difficulty keeping good teachers in the classroom as the causes of declining teacher
quality (National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 2003).
     A myriad of federal and state programs and professional and philanthropic initiatives are
aimed at increasing teacher quality. Central among them are the certification programs of the
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (Carnegie Forum on Education and the
Economy, 1986). The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is a
certification program designed to encourage and recognize accomplished teaching. Teachers are
eligible to pursue NBPTS certification if they have a baccalaureate degree from an accredited
institution and have taught for 3 or more years with a valid state license.1 The program operates
in all 50 states and examines the extent to which teachers:

     •    Are committed to students and their learning
     •    Know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students
     •    Are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning
     •    Think systematically about their practice and learn from experience
     •    Are members of learning communities.
The NBPTS assessments examine “what accomplished teachers should know and be able to do.”
Leaders in the policy and research communities are beginning to accumulate data that point to
National Board Certification as a mechanism for improving teaching quality and increasing
student performance (Bond, Jaeger, Smith, & Hattie, 2000; Goldhaber & Anthony, 2004).
1
 A precise description of the eligibility requirements can be found on the NBPTS Web site at
www.nbpts.org/candidates/guide/1_elregmt.html


SRI International                                                                                       1
    EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




     More than 32,000 teachers across the country currently hold NBPTS certification (National
Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2004). However, the racial/ethnic distribution of
certificate holders is uneven. Exhibit 1 provides data that show the demographic composition of
the American K-12 student population, the racial/ethnic composition of their teachers, the
demographics of teachers who have applied for National Board Certification (NBC) candidacy,
and the racial/ethnic backgrounds of those who have succeeded.

                                     Exhibit 1
         Demographic Composition of K-12 Students, Teachers, National Board
                 Candidates, and National Board Certified Teachers
                                                  White                Black             Hispanic              Other
       U.S. students                              61%                  17%                 16%                  6%
       U.S. teachers                              84%                   8%                  6%                  2%
       NBC candidates                             84%                   9%                  5%                  2%
       Board Certified teachers                   89%                   4%                  3%                  4%
       Sources: SRI tabulations using the National Center for Education Statistics’ 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey;
       administrative data from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards; National Board for Professional
       Teaching Standards, 2002a, 2002b.


     These data show that whereas almost 40% of K-12 students are members of racial/ethnic
minority groups, only 16% of the American teaching force are minority. Furthermore, Exhibit 1
shows that although minority teachers enter the NBPTS candidate pool in numbers proportional
to their representation in the teaching population (17%), they make up a substantially smaller
percentage of the National Board Certified pool, only 11%.
     The racial imbalance among certificate holders is important and unfortunate for several
reasons. It is important because it means that the benefits that accrue to National Board Certified
Teachers (NBCTs) are realized by a smaller percentage of minority teachers than of majority
teachers. The benefits differ by state and district but often include salary bonuses, salary
increases, promotions, new professional opportunities, and professional recognition.2 Efforts to
promote equitable distribution of these resources are critically important.
     The disparity is also unfortunate because minority teachers are more likely than majority
teachers to work in the most challenging schools—those that serve poor and minority students.
Exhibit 2 presents the most recent data available from the National Board and from the National
Center for Education Statistics. Whereas only 4% of NBCTs are black, 21% of the teachers in


2
 The National Board maintains data on benefits and incentives awarded to NBCTs by states and by districts on its
Web site at http://www.nbpts.org/about/state.cfm


SRI International                                                                                                      2
     EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




high-poverty schools are black and 24% of teachers in high-minority schools are black. The data
for Hispanic teachers are similar. Three percent of NBCTs are Hispanic, whereas Hispanic
teachers make up over 15% of teachers in high-poverty and high-minority schools (see also
Goldhaber, Perry, & Anthony, 2003; Koppich, Humphrey, & Hough, 2004). These numbers are
disheartening, given the nearly unanimous belief that closing the “achievement gap between
minority and non-minority students and those from rich and poor families” will require
reductions in the “‘teacher gap’: the dearth of well-qualified teachers for those who need them
most” (Education Week, 2003).

                                    Exhibit 2
    Demographic Composition of National Board Certified Teachers and Faculty in
                   High-Poverty and High-Minority Schools
                                                         White               Black            Hispanic              Other
    NBCTs                                                89%                  4%                 3%                  4%
    Faculty in high-poverty schools                      59%                 21%                15%                  5%
    Faculty in high-minority schools                     53%                 24%                16%                  7%
    Sources: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, SRI tabulations using the National Center for Education
    Statistics’ 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey.


       Researchers at the National Board and elsewhere have conducted studies to uncover the
correlates of racial/ethnic differences in Board Certification rates. They have examined test
administration processes, the assessment materials themselves, and scoring procedures for
evidence of racial/ethnic bias and have come up empty-handed (Bond, 1998a, 1998b).3 In 2002,
they issued a call for research to continue their search for possible bias and expand their efforts
to increase the racial/ethnic diversity of the National Board Certified pool.

Research Questions
       This study responds to that call and looks beyond the assessment itself to focus instead on the
processes that bring teachers into the candidate pool and that support teachers’ efforts in the
assessment. Specifically, this research looks for differences in minority and majority teachers’
decisions about and preparation for National Board Certification. The research addresses three
questions:

       •   What factors enter into teachers’ decisions about whether or not to pursue National Board
           Certification? Do these factors differ by racial/ethnic group?



3
    For evaluative information on assessor bias training procedures used by the Board, see Wylie and Szpara (2004).


SRI International                                                                                                      3
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    •   How do teachers prepare for the portfolio requirements of the National Board? What is
        helpful to teachers’ portfolio preparation? What makes portfolio preparation hard? Do
        these differ by racial/ethnic group?
    •   How do teachers prepare for the assessment center? What is helpful to preparation?
        What makes preparation for the assessment center difficult? Do these differ by
        racial/ethnic group?

    Our research examines these questions with two goals in mind. It seeks to explore possible
differences in minority and majority teachers’ experiences with National Board Certification in
order to:

    •   Develop hypotheses about minority teacher underrepresentation among NBCTs.
    •   Design surveys that support (1) large-scale examination of the correlates of
        underrepresentation and (2) exploration of policies for increasing the racial/ethnic
        diversity of the NBC candidate and National Board Certified pools.

    These goals are more modest than those originally proposed for the project. After the grant
award was announced, the project was pared down to accommodate reductions in the National
Board’s research budget. The originally proposed administration of surveys and production of
survey reports is beyond the negotiated scope of work.

Format of the Report

    The next section of this report includes a description of the research and data collection
methods that were used to meet the project goals. It provides detail on the sampling methods,
development of data collection instruments, and collection of data. The four sections that follow
describe the data that were gathered and the inferences they support. The report closes with a
summary and conclusions.
    The report also includes several appendices. The findings discussed in the body of the report
were used to develop two survey instruments. Appendix A explains the purpose of the survey
instruments and provides some notes about survey development, as well as the methods by
which the surveys can be administered. Appendix B and Appendix C contain the two surveys.
The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire was designed to be administered to eligible noncandidates to
understand patterns in the factors that determine whether teachers hear about the National Board
and whether they become candidates. The NBC Candidate Questionnaire builds on an
instrument administered by the National Board in 2001 and focuses on candidate preparation and
resources, as well as factors that led to teachers’ choosing to become candidates. As detailed


SRI International                                                                                     4
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




below, both surveys are designed to support large-scale data collection on factors that affect
minority representation among National Board Certified Teachers.

                            RESEARCH METHODS AND MEASURES
    The research design that guided this work began with a review of the literature on potential
sources of racial/ethnic bias in National Board Certification. As already noted, past research
discounts the assessment materials themselves and NBPTS scoring processes as sources of bias.
Our work looks instead to research on minority teachers’ professional lives and to the policy
debate on inequities in teacher opportunities. For example, an analysis of Schools and Staffing
Survey (SASS) data suggests that teachers in high-poverty and high-minority schools, many of
whom are African-American and Hispanic as already noted, report difficult working
conditions—higher transience and turnover rates among students, teachers, and administrators;
fewer resources; less-well-maintained facilities; a less-collaborative school culture; and more-
difficult community and parent circumstances (Education Week, 2003). These and other data
suggest that teachers in high-poverty and high-minority schools may have less ready access to
high-quality professional development and fewer opportunities to strengthen their practice and
demonstrate accomplished teaching (Public Agenda, 2003).
    The policy debate includes assertions that minority teachers have fewer opportunities to learn
about National Board Certification, that those who learn about certification may be discouraged
by minority teachers’ low passing rates, and that minority teachers have insufficient access to fee
waivers and financial incentives. Furthermore, some contend that many minority teachers lack
support from school administrators and have inadequate access to preparation materials,
coursework, mentors, and support groups. Finally, some researchers assert that teachers in
highly demanding schools may be obligated to use curricular materials and instructional methods
that are inconsistent with practices rewarded by the National Board (Benz, 1997; Bond, 1998a,
1998b; Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2001; Irvine, 1998; Ladson-Billings,
1998; Ladson-Billings & Darling-Hammond, 2000; National Board for Professional Teaching
Standards, 2001b; Goldhaber et al., 2003).

Sampling
    Although our examination of the literature and review of the policy debates was intriguing,
the data on these issues were far from complete. Additional information was needed on these



SRI International                                                                                     5
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




and other potential inequities, on their prevalence, and on their impact on minority and majority
teachers. It made sense, therefore, to use exploratory research methods to build the foundation
for large-scale data collection on these issues. We designed our data collection instruments and
used methods aimed at developing and populating a catalogue of possible disparities in teachers’
decision-making about Board Certification and in their preparation for the assessments.
    We designed the telephone interview to explore the factors teachers consider in deciding
whether or not to pursue Board certification and the supports they access and actions they take as
they prepare their portfolios and study for the assessment. We tailored interview protocols to the
experiences of two types of teachers:

    •   teachers who are or have been National Board Candidates, and
    •   teachers who are eligible for candidacy but not participating in certification.

    We obtained data for the first group of teachers from the NBPTS. The data included records
for candidates who are certified and those who are not. The Board allows candidates to make
multiple attempts on the assessment, so the term tried and did not achieve is used here to refer to
candidates who attempted one or more times and have yet to achieve certification. The
candidates in our sample who tried and achieved certification either passed on their first attempt
or succeeded on a subsequent attempt.
    Data for teachers who have decided against candidacy were considerably more difficult to
locate. Ultimately, a limited number of eligible, nonparticipating teachers were identified
through a combination of referral methods and targeted calling designed to ensure that the
teachers were both familiar with NBPTS and were eligible for Board certification. The term
eligible noncandidates will be used to describe this subgroup of interviewees.
    The sampling criteria for all three groups included teachers’ racial/ethnic group membership.
The sample was constructed to include equal numbers of white, African-American, and Hispanic
teachers among the 86 teachers interviewed. We also attempted to balance teachers by
community type so that teachers from rural, suburban, and urban communities appeared in the
sample. We focused on teachers in three states: California, Florida, and Maryland. We selected
these states because they include a substantial number of NBCTs, have significant numbers of
African-American and Hispanic teachers, and have interesting policy environments. The sample




SRI International                                                                                     6
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




was permitted to vary naturally by teachers’ gender, years of teaching experience (among those
with 3 or more years), school level (elementary, middle, and secondary), and certification area.
    We sent letters to selected teachers explaining the purpose of the study and notifying them
that a member of the study team would contact them by phone to request an interview of
approximately 1 hour at the teachers’ convenience. The letter explained that participants would
receive a $15 Amazon.com gift certificate. Teachers were contacted in batches. To the extent
that we were unable to reach certain types of teachers, we selected those types of teachers
disproportionately in subsequent batches of letters. Exhibit 3 shows the racial/ethnic
backgrounds of the 86 teachers we interviewed. Ultimately, we sent letters to six or seven
teachers for every teacher we successfully contacted and interviewed.

                                      Exhibit 3
           Number of Interviewees, by Candidacy Status and Race/Ethnicity
                                            White                  Black                  Hispanic
    Eligible noncandidates                    5                      5                        4
    Tried and did not achieve                11                      9                       12
    Tried and achieved (NBCTs)               11                     16                       13


Instrument Development
    The literature and policy review guided the development of semistructured interview
protocols. The telephone protocols included sections on familiarity with the National Board
Certification process, the factors considered in candidacy decisions, and candidate experiences
with the National Board, along with a variety of background questions. Again, the protocols
were tailored for eligible noncandidates, candidates who tried and did not earn certification, and
candidates who were certified.
    The development of protocols was a collaborative process, involving multiple rounds of
review and input from a six-member team of research professionals, beginning in October 2002.
The team also received input from an external advisory panel consisting of three experts on
teacher development and teacher quality research, with a particular focus on minority teachers.
    The interviews were conducted by the six members of the research team beginning in
January 2003. The team held regular meetings throughout the study to track progress and
discuss data as they were collected. After interviews were completed, researchers used data
capture forms to summarize the interviews. Formal cross-case analysis began midway through



SRI International                                                                                     7
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




data collection with an interim debriefing held in August 2003. This cross-case analysis led to
enhancements to the interview protocols and to the data capture forms. A final debriefing and
presentation of results to the three expert advisors was held in February 2004 before this report
was drafted.

District Data Collection
    Knowing that districts play an important role in encouraging candidacy and supporting
candidates, the research team also investigated district policies and practices in six school
districts. The team focused on two districts in each of the three focus states:

    •   Oakland Unified School District and Los Angeles Unified School District in California
    •   Miami Dade County Public Schools and Orange County Public Schools in Florida
    •   Prince George’s County Public Schools and Baltimore City Public School System in
        Maryland.
It is important to note that some but not all interviewees teach in these districts.

    In each city, researchers drew information from the district Web site and interviewed a
member of the district staff regarding candidate recruitment and support. The interview
questions also addressed efforts specifically targeted to minority teachers. The resulting
descriptive information about district policy and practice provided additional input to data
analysis. This information is referenced where appropriate throughout this report.

Secondary Data Analysis
    The final step in our study was to conduct secondary data analyses to complement our
qualitative data. Specifically, we used administrative data from the National Board on the
locations of NBCTs to examine the distribution and representation of minority NBCTs. This
analysis is an extension of the work reported in Koppich et al. (2004), focusing on the six states
with the largest numbers of NBCTs (California, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, and
South Carolina). That investigation found that data on the locations of teachers certified by the
National Board before 1998 was often incorrect. Therefore the analyses presented here in focus
on NBCTs who earned certification between 1998 and 2003. The National Board contact
database was updated with more current information on NBCTs who were sampled for the
survey conducted by SRI International for the study The Impact of NBCTs on Low-Performing
Schools. These administrative data were then merged with information on school characteristics
from the Common Core of Data (National Center for Education Statistics, 2002). To examine


SRI International                                                                                     8
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




the distribution of NBCTs by school type, we defined high-poverty schools as those where 75%
or more students were eligible for participation in the National School Lunch Program. High-
minority schools were those where 75% or more students were nonwhite.
    The report also contains some secondary data analyses that use the National Center for
Education Statistics’ 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey. We used the sampling weights
provided with those data so that our results would reflect the population of teachers in traditional
public schools. Our results exclude teachers with less than 3 years of experience since those
teachers are not eligible for National Board Certification.

Survey Development
    Analyses were directed at identification of factors that play into teachers’ decisions about
candidacy and at their preparation for the assessments. The surveys that appear in Appendices B
and C are designed to measure factors that influence the pursuit of and success with National
Board Certification. Because these factors may be different for white, African-American, and
Hispanic teachers, the surveys are designed to uncover influences that encourage and inhibit the
participation and success of minority teachers in National Board Certification.
    Two surveys appear in the appendices:

    •   For eligible Non-candidates, a survey focusing on factors that influence the decision to
        pursue National Board Certification.
    •   For candidates, a survey focusing on variables that influence success or failure on the
        assessment.
    Both surveys were pilot-tested with a small number of teachers. The survey designed for
candidates builds on an instrument used by the National Board in 2001 to survey candidates
(National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2001a).

         FINDINGS ON TEACHERS’ DECISIONS TO PURSUE CERTIFICATION
    This section of the report examines data for the first research question:

    •   What factors enter into teachers’ decisions about whether or not to pursue National Board
        Certification? Do these differ by racial/ethnic group?

We begin our discussion of the data with a description of the assessment. The description
provides context for the data that follow.




SRI International                                                                                     9
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    National Board Certification is a demanding process that requires diligence and a broad
range of knowledge and skills. Candidates must demonstrate subject matter mastery and
knowledge of effective teaching practices. Candidates prepare a professional portfolio requiring
between 200 and 400 hours to assemble. The portfolio includes a videotaped example of
candidates’ teaching with written commentary on instructional choices and students’ work.
Portfolios also include samples of student work, teachers’ analyses of the work, descriptions of
teachers’ remediation attempts, and reviews of students’ progress. The portfolios are structured
to demonstrate multiple dimensions of teaching, including teachers’ disciplinary knowledge,
diagnostic skills, and efforts to meet students’ learning needs.
    The Assessment Center requires candidates to respond to six entries, called “prompts,”
designed to test knowledge of subject matter content. For each prompt, candidates are given 30
minutes for response. Before to 2001, there were four prompts, each allowing 90 minutes. The
new system reduces the total assessment exercise time by half, to 180 minutes.
    We began our conversations with teachers by asking how they initially learned about
National Board Certification. Among the information sources they described were:

    •   Professional journals, newsletters, and flyers
    •   District and union meetings and Web sites
    •   NBCTs and NBC candidates in their schools
    •   Other school administrators and colleagues.

Our interviews with district staff showed wide variation in district efforts made to inform
teachers about the National Board and recruit them into candidacy. For example, both Baltimore
and Miami-Dade sponsor information sessions, which are advertised through -mails sent to all
teachers, flyers sent to schools, and postings on the district Web sites. Baltimore, however,
advertises and completes an information session once per year, whereas Miami-Dade does the
same districtwide three times per year.
    Whether teachers initially learn about National Board Certification from NBCTs, NBC
candidates, and other colleagues also depends greatly on the district. Orange County staff noted
that there are so many NBCTs in that district (335) that advertising is less important. Orange
County still organizes information sessions and has begun targeting schools designated “high
need,” where it hopes to increase the numbers of candidates. In Prince George's County, where




SRI International                                                                                    10
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




there are currently only 14 NBCTs, there are new efforts underway to engage these teachers in
the both the recruitment and support of candidates.
    We found that only 31% of interviewees had information about the content and format of
assessment and the effort involved at the time they made their candidacy decisions. Most of the
time, respondents did understand at least one of these aspects of the assessment, however.
Interviewees generally felt that information was available if they sought it out. Some
noncandidates knew very little about the assessment because they never had sufficient interest to
seek more information. At the same time, some teachers who became candidates reported that
details of the process were not important to them.
    Exhibit 4 presents data about the main factors that enter into teachers’ decisions about
whether or not to pursue certification—factors cited by 10% of the sample or more. The first
column lists issues that interviewees described as influential factors in their thinking about
candidacy. The percentage of teachers citing each factor is shown in the second column; data are
shown for the 86 candidates and eligible noncandidates we interviewed.
    The remaining columns disaggregate the results by the racial/ethnic group of the teacher.
These cells are shaded when a factor is discussed by five or more white, black, or Hispanic
teachers. The purpose of the shading is to suggest factors that may be especially salient for
particular groups of teachers. Before discussing differences in decision-making by racial/ethnic
group, we review the aggregate data on the main factors that enter into decisions about
candidacy.

                                        Exhibit 4
             Main Factors That Enter into Decision-making about Candidacy
                                                      Percent of       Number of Interviewees
                                                     Interviewees     White Black Hispanic
                                                         (n=86)       (n=27) (n=30)     (n=29)
           Wish to validate teaching capabilities
                                                          49%            13        15         14
           or increase professional status
           Competing home and/or school
                                                          36%            10        9          12
           responsibilities were considered
           Availability of salary bonus or
                                                          29%            4         9          12
           increase was a primary motive
           Would not have applied without
                                                          21%            5         4           9
           assessment fee waivers
           Opportunity to improve teaching
                                                          15%            5         5           3
           knowledge and/or skills
           Note: Shaded boxes show factors discussed by five or more teachers in the sampled group




SRI International                                                                                    11
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    The factor most commonly discussed as crucial to the decision-making of potential
candidates was the desire for validation of their knowledge and skills. Many teachers also talked
about the possibility of competing school and personal obligations. Teachers also noted the
availability of fee waivers and salary inducements and the opportunity to improve their teaching.

Validation
    Many of the teachers with whom we spoke talked about the validation they hoped to get
through certification. Some teachers said that becoming National Board Certified would earn
them validation or respect from others. For example, one teacher saw the National Board
assessment as an opportunity to show that she was “the best of the best.” She explained that it
was her way of compensating for the master’s degree she never had the opportunity to pursue.
Another teacher explained, “I thought I was better educated than most people, with more time in
my subject area. I wanted differentiation from other teachers.” In a very interesting example, a
third teacher said that, as a teacher in a “low-performing” school, she wanted to demonstrate that
she was a good teacher—despite her school’s label.
    Some teachers said they sought validation from themselves rather than or in additition to
validation from others. For example, some teachers said they wanted to be challenged; others
wanted to see if they could do it. These teachers were motivated by validation but distinctive in
being less concerned about “showing off” the accomplishment than some other teachers, such as
one who said she wanted the “feather in her cap,” something important for her CV and,
importantly, to be able to say she did it.

Competing Obligations
    More than one-third of the interviewees said they considered the professional and personal
sacrifices that they might have to make as NBC candidates. One teacher worried about adding
stress to his life and diverting attention from being a good teacher, developing good curricula,
and doing extracurricular activities for his students. Another teacher chose candidacy, noting
that she had fewer competing obligations than most teachers she knew. A third teacher
explained that she had had children before entering teaching and now had time in her life to
pursue certification. She still weighed the costs and benefits of pursuing National Board
Certification against pursuing a master’s degree and chose the former because it would take less
time out of her life.



SRI International                                                                                    12
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Financial Inducements
    Thirty-one states currently encourage teachers to pursue National Board Certification by
offering partial or full support for the $2,300 assessment fee. Thirty-two states provide
incentives in the form of one-time or continuing salary supplements to teachers who earn
certification. Some offer extra salary inducements to NBCTs who assume additional district-
determined responsibilities, like mentoring new teachers, supporting future candidates, or
teaching in low-performing schools. In addition to state incentives, more than 500 school
districts provide fees supports and/or salary increases; these are often added to state incentives.
    Salary increases and assessment fee waivers were also described as influential, although not
always as primary factors, by the vast majority of interviewees. Salary increases were the
primary motive for applying for 29% of the sample. For many more, salary increases were seen
as “nice” or “icing on the cake” but ultimately secondary to some other motive. Similarly, many
candidates discussed the fee waiver in detail, and some 21% asserted that they would not have
applied without the application fee reimbursement. One of the teachers explained that the fact
that succeeding would trigger an additional $4,000 per year salary for her did not offset the
importance of the application fee. Another teacher reported wavering between pursuing
certification and completing her dissertation and said that the fact that the district would pay her
application fee pushed her in favor of certification.

Opportunity to Improve Practice
    Several teachers said that certification offered them the opportunity to improve their practice,
and in some cases this was a powerful motive. One teacher explained that he was interested
because the process would make him “the best teacher I can be for the students I work with” and
that he had heard other colleagues say they had learned more about the practice of teaching and
evaluating themselves through the National Board Certification process than through a master’s
program. “It was something that could potentially help me and my students succeed,” explained
another teacher. Some of these teachers subsequently described their candidacy as a form of
professional development. Overall, 15% of the sample cited the learning experience as a main
reason for pursuing certification.




SRI International                                                                                    13
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Probability of Success
    Because of the demands of the candidacy process, teachers who choose candidacy need to
have some confidence that they will succeed. More than 70% of interviewees estimated their
probability of success at over .50. Several teachers said they felt very sure of their capabilities.
One teacher said she had total confidence in her ability to overcome any obstacle to certification.
She reported that she had 100% confidence that she could succeed if she put in the time.
Another reported that she expected it would take effort, but she knew that she would ensure
success.
    The interviews revealed some information about how teachers gauge their chances of
success. Some teachers used the outcomes of other teachers’ candidacy attempts to estimate
their probability of success. One teacher said she assumed her chances were good because
another teacher in her school who is “not the sharpest tack” had succeeded. Another teacher
reported deciding that the examination was rigorous but “doable” because she saw another
teacher achieve. A younger teacher, meanwhile, chose to wait and build up her skills because
only one of five teachers who attempted National Board Certification at her school the previous
year had passed. She also believed that her chances of success would improve if she waited and
accumulated additional teaching experience, inservice sessions, and graduate coursework. By
contrast, a very experienced teacher chose to pursue certification, explaining that she was very
confident in her ability, given her mastery of the subject, mastery of teaching the subject,
positive feedback from others about her teaching, the breadth of her teaching experience, and
having taught at a variety of levels and experimented with a mixture of teaching methods.
    Teachers said they also considered available resources in estimating their chances of success.
Having support groups available, for instance, was cited as key in the reasoning of some teachers
who chose to become candidates. Teachers also took into account whether fellow teachers
would undertake candidacy with them, enabling them to work together. These factors appeared
to affect the timing of candidacy, since teachers felt that these resources might not be available if
they delayed candidacy. One teacher, for example, reported taking into account the fact that her
colleagues would be doing the assessment with her, reasoning that support from colleagues
would increase her chances of success. Another candidate said she had low confidence in her
abilities but felt that success was within reach because she had a strong support group available




SRI International                                                                                    14
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




to her. Because she thought that the support group might not be available if she waited another
year, she explained that its availability this year influenced the timing of her decision.

Other Factors
    Several other factors that played into decision-making about candidacy for the interviewees
were as follows:

    •   Encouragement of a family member, administrator, or colleague
    •   Portability of the certificate
    •   Use of the certificate for license renewal and/or continuing professional development
        credit
    •   Access to professional networks and opportunities for advancement.

Each of these factors was cited by at least two teachers but no more than 10% of the sample. For
instance, for a few teachers in the sample, one of the potential costs of candidacy was conflict
with their school administrators. One teacher explained that her school had adopted a highly
scripted curriculum. She did not become a candidate, partly because she did not want to risk
being caught by her administrators doing something other than what was expected. Another
teacher voiced the same concern but did become a candidate.
    It is important to note that some teachers talked about encouragement to pursue certification
from administrators, colleagues, family, and friends. One teacher became a candidate because
her principal was encouraging all teachers to do so. Another felt significant, motivating pressure
from her father. A third teacher explained that the urging of a friend was her main reason for
becoming a candidate.
    Though several states provide full or partial license reciprocity for certified teachers and 28
states use NBCT status as a proxy for partial or full license renewal, only a few of the teachers
we interviewed mentioned these as primary motivators.
    In sum, each teacher considered a variety of factors in thinking about candidacy, but some
factors were cited commonly as being among the most influential. The motive that looms largest
is validation—many said they viewed the assessment as a legitimate gateway to higher status in
the profession. At the same time, teachers also considered seriously the time demands of
candidacy and the concomitant sacrifices in their personal and professional lives.




SRI International                                                                                    15
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Differences in Decision-making by Racial/Ethnic Group
    The columns in Exhibit 4 disaggregate results by race/ethnicity and use shading to highlight
cells representing responses from five or more teachers. The exhibit shows that none of the
major factors that play into candidate’s decision-making are unique to a single racial/ethnic
group. More black and Hispanic teachers than white teachers said that salary incentives were
primary motivators for them. Hispanic teachers cited the availability of fee waivers or
reimbursements as more primary motives.
    If such differences were found in a large-scale survey given to teachers who each faced the
same incentive amounts, the results would mean that greater financial incentives could have a
diversifying effect on the candidate pool.

           FINDINGS ON TEACHERS’ PREPARATION FOR THE PORTFOLIO
    This section of the report presents data about the second research question:

    •   How do teachers prepare for the portfolio requirements of the National Board? What’s
        helpful in teachers’ portfolio preparation? What makes portfolio preparation difficult? Do
        these differ by racial/ethnic group?

The data in Exhibit 5 follow the same format as those in Exhibit 4, and the limits on
interpretation of the data are similar. The first column lists resources that teachers access as they
work on portfolios; it also lists other school and home supports for their work and things that
stand in the way of teachers’ best efforts on the portfolio component of the National Board
assessment. Data are shown for the 72 successful and unsuccessful certification candidates with
whom we spoke.




SRI International                                                                                    16
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                       Exhibit 5
           Supports for and Barriers to Teachers’ Work on NBPTS Portfolios

                                                           Percent of              Number of Interviewees
                                                          Interviewees          White     Black      Hispanic
                                                              (n=72)            (n=22)    (n=25)      (n=25)
    How teachers prepare
    Mentoring/coaching from NBCTs,
    including from NBCT at the school               15%                            2           3        6
    Mentoring/coaching from NBCTs, but not
    from NBCT at the school                         40%                            6           11      12
    Work with other candidates in the school        31%                            6            8       8
    Other things that are helpful to portfolio preparation
    Encouragement from school
    administrators, teachers, and/or family         92%                           21           23      22
    Strong initial teacher preparation
    programs                                        15%                            4           3        4
    Cooperation from school administrators,
    teachers                                       <10%
    Barriers to teachers’ work on portfolios
    Competing obligations at school                 58%                           14           13      15
    Competing obligations at home                   50%                           10           12      14
    Late start on the portfolio                     18%                           4             6       3
    Weak writing skills                             15%                           5             3       3
    Lack of cooperation from students              <10%
    Lack of basic cooperation or assistance
    from administrators, fellow teachers           <10%
    Inhibited by prescriptive, non-
    constructivist expectations for instruction    <10%
    Anxiety attributed to portfolio work           <10%
    Note: Shaded boxes show factors discussed by five or more teachers in the sampled group.



How Teachers Prepare

    Our district data show that support groups take a variety of forms, ranging from piecemeal
gatherings to regular meetings with an established structure and curriculum. Within Baltimore,
for instance, volunteers coordinate small support groups that have developed in particular
certification areas. There are also three universities that offer support; candidates wishing to take
advantage of this support can try to become part of a cohort going through a single program or
can attend individual sessions on specific topics. Oakland is also within reach of universities that
provide support, and the district recently began paying coaches to offer a local support
mechanism.




SRI International                                                                                       17
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    In our interviews, we found that experiences with formal support group arrangements were
very mixed, with some teachers deciding not to attend support groups or withdrawing from
formal mentoring relationships. Our analysis focused not on support groups per se but on
interactions with mentors or coaches and interactions with fellow candidates, both of which were
often derived through support groups.
    Mentors/Coaches. A total of 55% of interviewees reported having an NBCT mentor or
coach who helped them at some point during the process. For 40% of the candidates, no mentors
or coaches were based at their school sites. The remaining 15% of candidates did receive
mentoring or coaching from NBCTs based at their school sites. It is interesting to note, however,
that in many cases NBCTs were at the school sites but did not provide mentoring or coaching;
33% of the candidates were at school sites where NBCTs taught.
    These support sources provided primarily feedback on writing tasks and videos; mentors
provided written responses, edited candidates’ drafts, provided general and specific critiques, and
helped with lesson development. For one teacher, her mentor relationship gave her access to a
graded portfolio. Clearly, having these forms of support can help candidates figure out what the
assessment requires and how to keep their efforts focused.
    Working with Other Candidates. In our sample, more than half (58%) of the teachers who
had been candidates reported that there were other teachers going through candidacy at the same
time. Teachers did not always work together, however. One candidate reported that there were
12 other candidates at her school, but none of them worked together. In total, approximately
30% of the interviewed candidates reported that fellow candidates at their school site provided
some kind of support—moral support, assistance with writing, videotaping, and/or critical
feedback on portfolio entries.
    Those who did work with other candidates clearly valued the collaboration. One teacher, for
example, identified the moral support of her friends while they worked together as the most
significant factor in her success. “The camaraderie, the uplift, the motivation—we kept each
other up about that. Don’t think you could go through the process alone.” Another teacher felt
good about her writing because of support from her colleagues. She credited being able to share
the process with her colleagues as the most significant factor in her success. She felt it would
have been “difficult if I didn’t work in the group; support from colleagues is essential.”



SRI International                                                                                    18
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    It is important to note that interviewees’ work with other candidates was not uniformly
positive. At one school, a teacher reported working with a large group of fellow candidates at
her site, but no one in the group had contact with any NBCTs. The group found the portfolio
instructions complicated and redundant. “Once I began, I wasn’t confident at all,” she reported.
    Some candidates did discuss support from fellow candidates not at their schools, often in the
context of formal support groups. A high school mathematics teacher described participating in
a district support network and spending most of the time preparing with other mathematics
teachers. Another teacher joined a support group facilitated by an NBCT; she found going
through the process with others to be the most significant resource for her, providing her and her
colleagues with a forum to share ideas and review each other’s work. The presence of other
candidates also ignited her competitive spirit and motivated her.
    Some candidates described efforts to locate fellow candidates who could help them. For
example, one candidate organized a national network to discuss her certificate area with other
candidates pursuing the same certificate, noting that because the certificate area she had chosen
was new, there were no NBCTs who held that certificate.

Other Things That Are Helpful to Portfolio Preparation
    Besides coaching from NBCTs and collaboration with other candidates, teachers identified a
variety of factors that were helpful to portfolio preparation. Virtually all teachers received some
encouragement from school administrators, teachers, and/or family, but the interviews also
identified some more specific supports that helped teachers.
    Administrator Support. Teachers whose principals knew about their candidacy and
supported it were effusive about the benefits they realized. One teacher was encouraged to use
sick leave to work on her portfolio. When she needed items photocopied, the principal had it
done for her, and school staff covered her class when needed. She believed that this support
made a significant difference during her certification process. Another teacher received release
time for preparation and had access to a paraprofessional to do the videotaping. A third was
encouraged to work with a media technology specialist at the school for assistance. Other
administrators helped teachers obtain access to taping and editing equipment, computers, and
Internet materials. Among the interviewees, video support was highly variable. For example,
one teacher reported that her school had a special room with video equipment already set up to



SRI International                                                                                    19
    EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




which she could bring her class. Another teacher reported having to figure out all video
technology and assistance on his own.
     Prior Experience. Strong teacher training programs were another form of support, albeit
one that occurred well before a teacher’s candidacy. Several teachers, especially younger
teachers, reported that knowledge and skills obtained during their teacher training helped them.
A few teachers reported that their preparation programs stressed critical reflection as part of their
training, so it was relatively easy for them to exhibit those skills during the process.
     Assistance from Family and Friends. Candidates also talked about assistance from family
and friends, including proofreading help, videotaping, and even assistance with organizing the
final materials to submit to the National Board. Family and friends also offered a variety of
other supports that were not directly related to the assessment but that created more time for the
candidates to work on their portfolios, such as babysitting or help with housework.

Barriers to Teachers’ Work on Portfolios
     Insufficient Time. As mentioned earlier, certification is a lengthy process, demanding a
significant time commitment. The time window between application and submission of
portfolios ranges from 4 to 10 months, depending on the time of year a candidate applies.4 The
National Board tells candidates to expect to spend 200 to 400 hours preparing for portfolio
submission and the assessment center. Yet many of the candidates in the sample indicated
surprise at the time and effort required to complete their portfolios and the degree to which their
candidacy work conflicted with other obligations.
     Many of the teachers we interviewed are very active at their schools, often having multiple
roles outside of the classroom. These extra activities consume time and made focusing on the
certification process more difficult for 58% of the teachers we interviewed. In one extreme case,
a teacher reported that during her candidacy she was also a union representative, the school’s
standards-based instruction coordinator, facilitator of her school’s academic English mastery
program, leader of her grade-level student achievement team, and, reportedly, a nonpaid mentor
to at least one-third of the staff. Another active teacher said that if she had known how hard it


4
  For more information on the time window for candidacy, see the following URL from the National Board Web
site: http://www.nbpts.org/candidates/guide/4_calendar04.html.




SRI International                                                                                      20
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




would be to fit working on certification into her schedule, she would not have continued all the
work she did in other areas.
    Approximately half of the interviewees described competing obligations in their personal
lives. For example, one teacher was on maternity leave for most of the preparation time and
returned to work 4 weeks before the final deadline. She felt that it was more difficult for her to
select high-quality samples for her portfolio since she was not teaching in the classroom for
much of her candidacy period. Another teacher stated that other obligations began to encroach
on her time, as well, such as her mother’s needing multiple surgeries and the death of a student,
which she believed affected her performance. Several teachers talked about family illnesses and
other important personal obligations that limited their efforts on portfolios.
    Relatedly, 18% of the candidates we interviewed reported getting a late start, either because
materials arrived late or because they did not make the work a top priority at first. We also
encountered some candidates who had gotten a head start on the assessment by downloading the
assessment materials in advance, which is an option not all candidates may know exists. Orange
County recently began offering pre-candidacy workshops to give candidates an early start before
receiving the assessment materials. Candidates in the group actually begin work on a portfolio
entry—specifically the entry that involves professional collaboration efforts and work with their
students’ families and communities, which is not classroom based.
    Weak Writing Skills. Some candidates worried that their writing skills were not sufficient
for a strong showing on the portfolios. They worried about being able to write analytically and
reflectively. District staff were also concerned about writing skills and in some cases required
essays as part of the application process to receive the district’s support for candidacy. Among
all the candidates interviewed for the study, 15% said that they had weak writing skills. Some
teachers struggled to adapt their writing styles to the demands of the process. Indeed, achievers
and nonachievers alike expressed frustration with the writing component, believing that
somehow the National Board was equating being a good writer with being a good teacher. In
addition, some elementary teachers mentioned that because writing essays is not something they
ask of their students, it was difficult for them to demonstrate these skills. By contrast, some
teachers with advanced academic training noted that the analysis and writing skills required in
those degree programs helped them in their work on the National Board assessment.




SRI International                                                                                    21
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    Insufficient School Support. Some of the teachers with whom we spoke had difficulty
getting support from other persons at their schools, including administrators, colleagues, and
students. The cooperation of fellow teachers and administrators was a problem for several of the
candidates we interviewed. Teachers described several ways in which administrators negatively
affected their candidacy. One teacher said that 2 months before she completed her portfolio
entries, her principal assigned her to a new and challenging group of students. This change alone
did not make preparing the entries more difficult, but she had to spend a significant amount of
time orienting her new students, conducting needs assessments, and meeting parents. At her
school, there was general conflict between staff and administration, and she believed that the
reassignment of students was retribution for her continuing the National Board process, which
may have been perceived as a threat to the principal’s leadership. An elementary teacher said
that the administration at her school discourages teachers’ working with each other. She said
that “they are not willing to allow teachers to collaborate with others,” so she had limited
experience with peer-based professional development. She said, “I feel more comfortable with
parents and students than with other peers.” Another teacher described his middle school as an
“every man for himself” environment and could not get help from fellow teachers with the video
requirements.
    A handful of the candidates also talked about how uncooperative students and student
behaviors thwarted their efforts. One teacher shared that completing the video was difficult and
required multiple attempts because her students were so disruptive. Another said that a few of
his students deliberately tried to undermine the videotaping. In his high-poverty urban school, he
explained that students routinely curse at teachers, and it is difficult to accomplish anything
because of frequent and substantial disruptions; he explained, for example, that one student
recently exposed himself in the classroom.
    School, district and/or state instructional policies may also hamper candidates’ work on
portfolios. One teacher explained that the National Board is “geared toward whole-language
environments, and my district has gone away from that.” She said that district policies limited
her in what she could demonstrate on her entries. Another teacher said that her principal had
particular expectations about teaching styles that were inconsistent with those rewarded by the
assessments. A third teacher talked about a lack of alignment between what the state and the
National Board required. She thought that, in Florida, “what the National Board requires did not


SRI International                                                                                    22
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




enhance [the] state assessment requirements” and what she was required to do every day.
Another teacher said that Open Court’s structure contradicts the required lesson types for the
National Board’s portfolio entries and said she had to struggle with her administration to deviate
from the required curriculum for the videotaped lessons that she submitted.
    In sum, some candidates reported difficulty getting cooperation from administrators,
colleagues, and students in their schools. Some instructional policies also constrain candidates’
choices about portfolio content. Top-down district support for National Board Certification may
ameliorate these problems. In some of the districts we investigated, district policy dictated that a
teacher’s completion of the National Board process could substitute for certain aspects of the
teacher’s evaluation or count toward district professional development requirements. In
Oakland, the bottom-up efforts by NBCTs to spread interest in the district are now
complemented by a top-down effort by the district to promote participation in National Board
Certification, including efforts to inform principals about the merits of National Board
participation.
    Anxiety. Another important inhibitor reported by a few candidates was stress and anxiety,
which sometimes interfered with candidates’ thinking during their candidacy. Without
prompting, some teachers reported that the assessment process caused physiological responses.
These responses included, for example, sleeplessness and an inability to concentrate. One
teacher who felt comfortable with the content demands of the portfolio entries nevertheless felt
extreme pressure from the time demands of the portfolio entries. “At the drop of a hat, I would
start bleeding,” she said, noting that for the first time in her life she was experiencing nosebleeds,
which her doctor attributed to elevated blood pressure. A teacher reported that during her
portfolio work she received ongoing pressure and support from others—peers, administrators,
and her parents. Initially apprehensive because of her poor test-taking skills and writing skills,
she became extremely anxious while preparing, exhibiting sleeplessness and hives for the first
time in her life. She began to feel even worse about her writing skills. She continued to try
because she felt committed and was pressured by her colleagues and parents to do so. In
addition, she perceived the test as a bad measure of teaching skills and as too dependent on
writing skills and presentation skills.




SRI International                                                                                    23
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Differences in Portfolio Preparation by Racial/Ethnic Group
    Exhibit 5 disaggregates the data on portfolio preparation for white, black, and Hispanic
teachers. The data show that more black and Hispanic teachers than white teachers work with
mentors and teachers in and outside their schools in preparation for the portfolio.
    The data on cooperation from students are not sufficient to examine group differences, but
tabulations we ran using the National Center for Education Statistics’ 1999-2000 Schools and
Staffing Survey (SASS) show differences between the student difficulties faced by white, black,
and Hispanic faculty; the SASS data show that 12% of white teachers, 21% of black teachers,
and 15% of Hispanic teachers reported student misbehavior that interfered with teaching.
Fourteen percent of white SASS respondents reported that student discipline and behavior
problems were a top priority for their professional development; more than 19% of Hispanic
teachers and 25% of African-American teachers said the same. SASS respondents also provided
data on student threats and student attacks. Forty-four percent of white teachers, 58% of black
teachers, and 48% of Hispanic teachers reported being threatened by students. Thirty-seven
percent of white teachers reported student attacks against them, as did 49% of black faculty and
41% of Hispanic teachers. In all of these instances, nationally representative data indicate that
black teachers are most likely to have to contend with student behavior problems.
    Although few minority teachers said that anxiety about the portfolio inhibited their work on
it, 8 of the 25 black candidates and 3 of the 25 Hispanic candidates were aware of low pass rates
among minority teachers. Finally, some minority teachers expressed a desire to have more
diverse support groups. One teacher said she was “looking for someone who looked like me to
help me out.” Another suggested that the National Board should gather minority teachers who
passed the assessments to work with other minority teachers to prepare them and expose them to
the benefits of being certified. Oakland organizes its support program this way to some extent,
trying to match the racial/ethnic backgrounds of candidates and coaches.




SRI International                                                                                    24
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




   FINDINGS ON TEACHERS’ PREPARATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT CENTER

    The final set of findings treats the third research question:

    •   How do teachers prepare for the assessment center? What is helpful to preparation? What
        makes preparation for the assessment center difficult? Do these differ by racial/ethnic
        group?

Not surprisingly, many of the resources that teachers tapped to prepare their portfolios also were
used in preparation for the assessment center. These resources included courses, workshops,
mentors, other candidates, Web resources, and print materials. Similarly, teachers talked about
the things that helped them in their work at the assessment center in the same way they did about
supports for portfolio preparation. In fact, portfolio preparation itself was described as beneficial
to assessment center performance by some interviewees.
    However, teachers described a few unique impediments to preparation for and performance
on the assessment center. These are shown in Exhibit 6.

                                          Exhibit 6
                    Barriers to Teachers’ Work on the Assessment Center
                                                    Percent of            Number of Interviewees
                                                   Interviewees        White     Black       Hispanic
                                                       (n=72)          (n=22)    (n=25)       (n=25)
    Weak test-taking skills                              10%             3          2           2
    Test anxiety                                        <10%
    Subject matter demands                              <10%

    For some teachers who noted struggling with the assessment center exercises, the main
impediment to their performance, in their words, was “test-taking skills.” Beyond the general
anxiety about taking timed assessments, 10% of candidates reported being bad at tests generally.
These teachers were often vague in their description of exactly what challenged them. One
mentioned he had difficulty following directions, for instance.
    In some of our interviews, teachers reported that they were expected to demonstrate mastery
of a broad range of content. Generalist candidates, for example, were asked to master a wide
range of content appropriate for either elementary or middle school students. Bilingual/ESL
teachers and special education teachers needed to demonstrate knowledge of content taught from
kindergarten through grade 12. Teachers felt that it was difficult to prepare for questions
requiring such a broad scope of content knowledge. One remarked that it was the type of
knowledge that you learn in college and then forget.


SRI International                                                                                    25
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




    As may have been expected, the timing requirements of assessment center exercises proved
to provoke anxiety for some candidates. One teacher said she found it “nerve wracking” to have
a timer counting down on the computer screen. She added that the format of the assessment
center exercises generally unnerved her and said she had trouble concentrating on parts of the
exercise as a result. Another teacher said that, during the assessment center exercises, she found
herself thinking about how little time she had. In a third case, an interviewee suffered blurred
vision during her assessment center exercises, which she attributed to stress.
    As shown in Exhibit 6, interviewees did not discuss problems with assessment center
preparation frequently enough to enable comparisons by racial/ethnic group in the sample of
interviewed teachers. As noted earlier, minority teachers may experience race-specific forms of
test anxiety—stereotype threat—although interviewees did not offer responses that confirmed or
denied that they had such experiences during their assessment center exercises.

              FINDINGS ON COMPREHENSIVENESS OF THE ASSESSMENT
    In connection with both the portfolio and assessment center experiences, interviewees also
often addressed the scope of tested knowledge in response to an open-ended question about the
fairness of the National Board assessment system. Although only one teacher would say that the
test was biased against minorities, 62% of the candidates we interviewed said the assessments
ignored important teaching knowledge and skills. For instance, one teacher said the assessment
did not allow her to show her ability to relate to students on a personal level. Another said it
failed to assess his command of classroom management. He said that he teaches in a high school
in a rough neighborhood, with “tough guys, ruffians,” and he manages his classroom very well.
    The perception that the assessment missed some important domains of teacher knowledge
and skill was held by 11 white teachers, 15 black teachers, and 16 Hispanic teachers. These
results suggest the possibility of group differences. That is, it is possible that black and Hispanic
teachers are more likely to see themselves as having qualities relevant to their effectiveness that
are not measured on the test. If so, the selection of the domains tested on the assessment may
contribute to underrepresentation of black and Hispanic teachers among NBCTs.




SRI International                                                                                    26
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




  MINORITY NBCT REPRESENTATION IN HIGH-POVERTY AND HIGH-MINORITY
                      SCHOOLS IN SIX STATES

        Most of the data we have reported come from interviews with NBC candidates and
noncandidates. These data describe the inducements and supports that teachers rely on in their
decisions about and preparation for the National Board assessment; they also suggest possible
differences in the incentives and resources used by minority and majority teachers.
        We have also discussed the inducements and supports offered by several large districts.
These data and other data on the support structures and incentive systems that states and districts
put in place reveal wide variation across jurisdictions. For example, some jurisdictions waive or
subsidize teachers’ assessment fees, and others do not. Some districts and states give teachers
bonuses for passing the National Board assessment, and others do not. Some jurisdictions give
NBCTs salary increases. Other states and districts increase the salaries of NBCTs who mentor
new teachers, and still others increase the salaries of NBCTs who teach in high-need schools.
Some states and districts devote substantial resources to recruiting NBC candidates and to
providing instructional materials, preparation courses, and coaches for candidates, and others do
not.

        While we do not have data that clearly describe the benefits of these various supports, we
do have suggestive information. Earlier in the report, we described a dataset that was created by
Koppich et al. (2004) for the six states with the largest numbers of NBCTs. The dataset includes
information about the certified teachers and schools in each state. With the help of the original
analysts, we examined these data to look for differences in the possible impact of inducements
and supports on minority teachers in the six states.
        Exhibit 7 provides data for California, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, and
South Carolina. The first two rows of the table show the percentages of teachers who are
racial/ethnic minorities in each state and the percentages of NBCTs who are minorities in the six
states. The third and fourth rows show the percentages of minority NBCTs in each state who
teach in high-poverty and high-minority schools.




SRI International                                                                                    27
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                    Exhibit 7
     Minority NBCT Representation in High-Poverty and High-Minority Schools,
                                    by State
                                                                   North                           South
                    California      Florida       Mississippi     Carolina          Ohio          Carolina
                    (total NBCTs   (total NBCTs   (total NBCTs   (total NBCTs    (total NBCTs    (total NBCTs
                       =2,255)        =4,475)        =1,541)        =5,862)         =1,709)         =3,044)
  Minority
  teachers             28%            23%            66%             17%             8%             17%
  statewide
  Minority
                       27%            14%             8%              8%             4%              8%
  NBCTs
  Minority
  NBCTs
  working in           51%            26%            52%             11%             21%            21%
  high-poverty
  schools
  Minority
  NBCTs
  working in           77%            53%            52%             21%             31%            24%
  high-minority
  schools


    The data in Exhibit 7 reveal notable differences in minority representation in the NBCT pools
in these states. In California, for example, minorities are represented in the NBCT pool in equal
proportion to their representation in the statewide teaching force. In the other five states,
minority teachers are underrepresented in the NBCT pool. In three of the states, the percentage
of NBCTs who are minority is less than half of their representation in the state pool.
    The data in Exhibit 7 also point up differences in the numbers of minority NBCTs who work
in high-poverty and high-minority schools across states. In California and Mississippi, for
example, more than half of the minority NBCTs work in high-poverty schools. In the other four
states, fewer than 30% do. Similarly, California leads the states in the percentage of minority
NBCTs who work in high-minority schools. The other states are substantially lower.
    These data are insufficient to explain which inducements and supports hold the greatest sway
in bringing minority teachers into the NBCT pool and in attracting them to the neediest schools.
Undoubtedly, many factors are at work in all of these states. For example, until recently,
teachers in California received a one-time bonus of $10,000 for passing the National Board
assessment. Additionally, the state continues to provide a one-time bonus of $20,000 to NBCTs
working in schools performing below the 50th percentile on the state’s accountability index. At
the local level, some California districts with large minority teacher populations, most notably


SRI International                                                                                    28
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Los Angeles, have mounted aggressive recruitment and support programs for prospective
NBCTs.
    Though our data do not allow us to identify which practices are most effective in increasing
minority inclusion in the NBCT pool and among the faculty of high-need schools, the differences
between the states undoubtedly relate in part to differences in available inducements and
supports. These differences bear further examination.

                                             CONCLUSIONS
    The data that are shown in Exhibits 1 and 2 suggest that although African-American and
Hispanic teachers come into the NBC candidacy pool in numbers proportional to their
representation in the U.S. teaching force, they earn certification at much lower rates. This mal-
distribution is important because it means that the rewards that follow certification are realized at
lower rates by minority than majority teachers. It is also unfortunate because minority teachers
are more heavily represented in high-poverty and high-minority schools, where students are most
in need of, but have less frequent access to, accomplished teachers. These disparities need to be
redressed. The data in Exhibit 7 suggest that some states are beginning to tackle these
disparities.
    Though African-American and Hispanic teachers are well represented in the candidate pool,
it is still important to develop better programs for increasing their numbers. Programs that
identify and then target minority teachers who are apt to succeed in the certification process are
needed. Researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles who are conducting one of
the research projects recently funded by the National Board have designed a support program
tailored to African-American candidates.
    The data in Exhibit 4 suggest possible inequities in the circumstances that lead teachers to
NBC candidacy. They also suggest differences between minority and majority teachers in the
importance of fee waivers and salary inducements in decision-making.
    Programs that provide important resources and supports to minority NBC candidates also are
needed. The data in Exhibits 5 and 6 point to possible inequities in the resources, aids, and
impediments to teachers’ efforts on the portfolios and the assessment center. Additionally, our
tabulations from the Schools and Staffing Survey reviewed earlier point to differences between
the behaviors and discipline of students in minority and majority teachers’ classrooms. Our data


SRI International                                                                                    29
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




also suggest resources and conditions that have potential for promoting the success of African-
American and Hispanic candidates. For example, minority teachers in the sample relied on
mentors to a greater extent than majority teachers. The encouragement of district staff, school
administrators, and colleagues also work to support minority teachers, as they do for majority
teachers.
    The data in Exhibits 4 through 6 were used to create surveys to help reveal potentially
remediable disparities in the supports and resources that are available to minority and majority
teachers as they consider and prepare for certification. The surveys are tailored for eligible
noncandidates and NBC candidates. As described in the appendices, the surveys are intended for
administration to large samples of minority and majority teachers. They are designed to suggest
options for bringing more minority teachers into the pool and then increasing their probability of
success. Careful survey data collection, data analysis, and policy analysis may lead to policies
and practices that heighten the racial/ethnic diversity of the NBCT pool.




SRI International                                                                                    30
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




REFERENCES
  Benz, J. (1997). Measuring up: A personal journey through National Board Certification in art.
     Art Education. 50(5), 20-24, 49-50.
  Bond, L. (1998a). Culturally responsive pedagogy and the assessment of accomplished
     teaching. Journal of Negro Education, 67(3), 242-253.
  Bond, L. (1998b). Disparate impact and teacher certification. Journal of Personnel Evaluation
     in Education, 12(2), 211-220.
  Bond, L., Jaeger, R. M., Smith, T., & Hattie, J. (2000). Validation study: A distinction that
     matters. Arlington, VA: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.
  Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy (1986, May). A nation prepared: Teachers for
     the 21st century. The Report on the Task Force of Teaching as a Profession. New York:
     Author.
  Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning. (2001). In the teacher’s voice: A survey of
     California teachers seeking and earning certification by the National Board for
     Professional Teaching Standards. Santa Cruz, CA: Author.
  Education Week (2003). Quality Counts 2003:“If I can’t learn from you…” Bethesda, MD:
     Author.
  Ferguson, R. F. (1991). Paying for public education: New evidence on how and why money
     matters. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 28(Summer), 465-498.
  Goldhaber, D., & Anthony, E. (2004). Can teacher quality be effectively assessed?
     Unpublished manuscript. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.
  Goldhaber, D., Perry, D., & Anthony, E. (2003, March). National Board Certification: Who
     applies and what factors are associated with success? Unpublished manuscript. Seattle,
     WA: University of Washington.
  Irvine, J. J. (1998, May 13). Warm demanders. Education Week. Bethesda, MD: Education
      Week.
  Koppich, J. E., Humphrey, D. C., & Hough, H. J. (2004). The distribution of National Board
     Certified Teachers (NBCTs): Incentives for NBCTs to work in low-performing schools.
     Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
     San Diego, CA.
  Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Teaching in dangerous times: Culturally relevant approaches to
     teacher assessment. Journal of Negro Education, 67 (3) 255-267.
  Ladson-Billings, G., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). The validity of National Board for
     Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)/Interstate New Teacher Assessment and
     Support Consortium (INTASC) assessments for effective urban teachers: Findings and
     implications for assessments. Washington, DC: National Partnership for Excellence and
     Accountability in Teaching.
  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2004). Quick facts. Arlington, VA:
     Author. Retrieved May 2004 from http://www.nbpts.org/pdf/quickfacts.pdf


SRI International                                                                                    31
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2002a, December 10). America’s
     classrooms gain more than 250 Hispanic National Board Certified Teachers in 2002.
     Arlington, VA: Author. Retrieved May 2004 from http://www.nbpts.org/news/archive.cfm
  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2002b, December 10). America’s
     classrooms gain more than 350 African-American National Board Certified Teachers in
     2002. Arlington, VA: Author. Retrieved May 2004 from
     http://www.nbpts.org/news/archive.cfm
  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2001a). Current Candidate Survey,
     September 2001. Arlington, VA: Author. Retrieved May 2004 from
     http://www.nbpts.org/pdf/cert_allcand_survey.pdf
  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2001b). “I am a better teacher”: What
     candidates for National Board Certification say about the assessment process. Arlington,
     VA: Author.
  National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Public elementary/secondary school universe
     data: 2001-2002. Retrieved 2004 from http://nces.ed.gov/ccd
  National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. (2003). No dream denied: A pledge
     to America’s children. Washington, DC: Author.
  Public Agenda. (2003). Stand by me. New York: Author.
  Steele, C. M. (1999 August). Thin Ice: “Stereotype threat” and black college students. The
     Atlantic, 284(2). 44-54. Retrieved March 2004 from
     http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99aug/9908stereotype.htm
  Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1998). Stereotype threat and the test performance of
     academically successful African-Americans. In C. Jencks and M. Phillips (Eds.), The
     black-white test score gap. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
  The Teaching Commission. (2004). Teaching at risk: A call to action. New York: Author.
  Wayne, A. J., & Youngs, P. A. (2003). Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains:
    A review. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), 89-122.
  Wylie, E. C., & Szpara, M. (2004). National Board for Professional Teaching Standards bias-
    reduction training: Impact on assessors’ awareness. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing
    Service.




SRI International                                                                                    32
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                            Appendix A
                       Additional Information on the Surveys




 SRI International
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




 SRI International
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




      One objective of the study was to inform the creation of the questionnaires that
 appear in Appendices B and C. These questionnaires were designed to measure the
 presence of factors that—according to the analysis presented in the body of the report—
 influence pursuit of and success with National Board Certification. The presence of these
 factors may be different for African-American, Hispanic, and white teachers. Thus,
 questionnaire responses from large samples of teachers could identify influences that
 deter or inhibit the participation of minority teachers in National Board Certification.
      Two separate questionnaires were developed.

      •   The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire is designed for eligible noncandidates,
          focusing on factors that influence the decision to pursue National Board
          Certification.
      •   The NBC Candidate Questionnaire is designed for teachers who have pursued
          National Board Certification, focusing on variables that influence success or
          failure on the assessment.

      Although the content of these questionnaires was driven by the interview findings, the
 development process involved the use and adaptation of some items from other
 questionnaires, including the following:

      •   The Current Candidate Survey, dated September 2001, from the National Board
          for Professional Teaching Standards.
      •   The 2003 Candidate Demographic Survey and the Mentor Demographic Survey
          from the Mentoring and National Board Certification Research Project being
          conducted by the George Washington University, Washington, DC.
      •   The Scholar/Fellow Survey from the Urban Institute used for its study of the
          DeWitt Wallace-Reader’s Digest Fund Pathways to Teaching Careers Program.
      •   The 1999-2000 Public School Teacher Questionnaire from the National Center for
          Education Statistics’ Schools and Staffing Survey.
      •   The 1994 teacher interview protocol from the National Center for Education
          Statistics’ Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Survey.
      •   The Belden Russonello & Stewart survey of NBCTs used in the report California
          Teachers’ Perceptions of National Board Certification.
      •   The survey developed for The Impact of National Board Certified Teachers on
          Low Performing Schools, another study performed for NBPTS by SRI
          International in partnership with WestEd, J. Koppich & Associates, and the
          Southeast Center for Teaching Quality.
      •   The November 2003 NBPTS Candidate Support Questionnaire by Harman and
          Associates, Inc., for Supporting NBPTS Candidates: A National Education
          Association Study of Effective Candidate Support Practices.


 SRI International                                                                                    A-1
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




      The discussions below provides brief descriptions of the methods by which each
 questionnaire could be administered.

 The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire
      The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire was designed to be administered to a sample that
 is representative of teachers generally but excludes teachers who are not eligible to
 become candidates for National Board Certification.
      The approach usually taken to creating a sampling frame of teachers—if not given
 access to teacher databases—is to use NCES’s Common Core of Data, which contains
 basic data (e.g., enrollments, numbers of teachers) on the universe of all schools in the
 United States. The first step is to contact a sample of those schools and ask each for a
 roster of all teachers at the school. The next step is to select samples of teachers from
 each school’s roster.
      In using this method to identify teachers for the Schools and Staffing Survey, NCES
 has found that some names on the rosters supplied by schools are teachers’ aides, short-
 term substitute teachers, and others who are not typically intended respondents to teacher
 surveys. The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire therefore begins with screening questions
 borrowed from NCES surveys to exclude unintended respondents. The survey also
 includes an additional question about years of teaching experience to exclude teachers
 who do not yet have the requisite 3 years of teaching experience. Finally, some screening
 questions were added to exclude NBC candidates, former candidates, and NBCTs, who
 are not among the intended respondents for the survey.
      Achieving sufficient response rates on the Eligible Teacher Questionnaire will require
 larger than normal incentives. We learned from our experiences in trying to gain
 cooperation from eligible noncandidates for our telephone interviews that they are far less
 willing to participate in interviews than candidates and NBCTs when offered the same
 $15 incentive. We believe that this difference in response occurred because candidates
 and NBCTs have a connection to the National Board and therefore value the opportunity
 to contribute to a study. Therefore we expect that getting noncandidates to complete the
 Eligible Teacher Questionnaire will require use of substantially larger incentives.




 SRI International                                                                                    A-2
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




      To analyze results by race/ethnic group of the teachers, one needs to draw a sample
 that contains sufficient numbers of respondents from each racial/ethnic group of interest.
 When the schools are preparing the teacher rosters, they could be asked to indicate the
 racial/ethnic group of each teacher, which would enable use of oversampling to achieve
 sufficient numbers from a given racial/ethnic group. It seems risky, however, to assume
 that school personnel would offer that information freely. If a state or school district
 were the focus of the study, it is possible that teacher databases may exist that would
 address this problem. Assuming such data were not available, the survey would have to
 either be administered to a fairly large sample or be restricted to a geographic area in
 which representation of particular racial/ethnic groups among teachers is relatively high.

 The Candidate Questionnaire
      In 2001, the National Board administered a three-page questionnaire to all candidates,
 expecting to hear their results by the end of that year. The 2001 data collection had the
 problem that only about 50% of candidates responded. The data are thus suggestive but
 of limited generalizability, since the half of candidates who did not respond may have
 had experiences that differ from the experiences of those who did respond.
      Given that response rate, we believe that the best approach to administering the
 Candidate Questionnaire would be to sample from among the universe of candidates and
 use incentives to get a sufficient percentage of the sampled teachers to respond. The
 sampling frame for the Candidate Questionnaire would be developed by using the
 National Board’s database of candidates. The fact that those data include candidates’
 responses to a race/ethnicity question enables oversampling of teachers from smaller
 racial/ethnic groups.
      In constructing the Candidate Questionnaire, we decided that we should restrict it to
 first-time candidates and target the time period before they have received their results.
 Our reasoning was that knowing your results would be likely to affect how you think
 about your own strengths and weaknesses, the effectiveness of candidacy supports, and
 other issues discussed in the questionnaire. At the same time, survey administration must
 wait until after all work related to the candidates’ first assessment has been completed.
 Candidates are generally notified near the end of the calendar year, so this approach
 suggests a fall survey administration.


 SRI International                                                                                    A-3
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




 SRI International                                                                                    A-4
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                            Appendix B
                         The Eligible Teacher Questionnaire




 SRI International
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




 SRI International
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                              The Eligible Teacher
                                                    Questionnaire
                                                                  SRI International




Thank you for taking the time to fill out this survey. This survey will ask you about your
career intentions and circumstances in your school. We estimate that it will take you
10-20 minutes.

We appreciate your answers to all of the questions that apply to you. Your answers will
help policy-makers develop incentives and support programs for teacher certification.
Please answer all the questions to the best of your ability.

Many questions pertain specifically to advanced certification and the National Board for
Professional Teaching Standards. Your responses will be valuable to us even if you
have not heard of the National Board.

The information you provide is being collected for research purposes only and will be
kept strictly confidential.




SRI International                                                                                  B-1
     EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Your Career


1.       How do you classify your main assignment at your current school, that is, the
         activity at which you spend most of your time during this school year? (Circle one
         letter)

          a. Short-term substitute
          b. Student teacher
           c. Teacher aide
          d. Administrator (e.g., principal,                                           If you selected any of
             assistant principal, director, school                                       options a through g,
             head)                                                                    please stop, mark this
          e. Library media specialist or librarian                                circle ( ), and return this
                                                                                          questionnaire in the
           f. Other professional staff (e.g.,                                    envelope provided. Thank
              counselor, curriculum coordinator,                                            you for your help.
              social worker)
          g. Support staff (e.g., secretary)

          h. Regular full-time teacher
           i. Regular part-time teacher
           j. Itinerant teacher (i.e., your
              assignment requires you to provide
              instruction at more than one
              school)
           k. Long-term substitute (i.e., your
              assignment requires that you fill
              the role of a regular teacher on a
              long-term basis, but you are still
              considered a substitute)


2.       Please circle a or b below to indicate whether or not you have three school years
         of teaching experience. Be sure to count time spent teaching at both public and
         private schools. If some of your teaching experience was part-time work, count
         that as a fraction of a year when computing your total years of experience.
           a. I have not yet taught for three school years. (Please stop here and return
              your survey in the envelope provided.)
           b. I have taught for three or more school years.




SRI International                                                                                     B-2
     EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




3.       Are you a National Board Certified Teacher?
           a. Yes (Please stop here and return your survey in the envelope provided.)
           b. No


4.       Are you a candidate for National Board Certification?
           a. Yes (Please stop here and return your survey in the envelope provided.)
           b. No


5.       Has teaching been your only career since earning your bachelor’s degree?
           a. Yes
           b. No


6.       What do you expect your occupation to be five years from now?
           a. Teaching in grades K-12
           b. Education-related but nonteaching job
           c. Job unrelated to K-12 education


7.       What do you expect your occupation to be beyond five years?
           a. Teaching in grades K-12
           b. Education-related but nonteaching job
           c. Job unrelated to K-12 education


8.       During your most recent full week of teaching, how much scheduled school time
         did you have for planning?
         Please report the total in whole hours, not fractions or minutes.
          ____ hours in the most recent full week




SRI International                                                                                     B-3
     EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




9.       During your most recent full week of teaching, how many hours did you spend after
         school, before school, and on the weekend on each of the following types of
         activities?
         Please report answer in whole hours, not fractions or minutes. If you do not spend
         time outside of school hours on these activities, write ‘0’.

           a. School-related activities involving student interaction, such as coaching, field
              trips, tutoring, transporting students.

               ____ hours in the most recent full week


           b. Other school-related activities, such as preparation, grading papers, parent
              conferences, attending meetings.

               ____ hours in the most recent full week


10. During your most recent full week of teaching, how many hours did you spend
    earning additional compensation from working in a part-time job outside your
    school system?
         If you do not have a part-time job, write ‘0’.

         _____ hours in the most recent full week




SRI International                                                                                     B-4
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




11. During the most recent summer, how many total hours did you work for pay, either
    in your school system or independent of the school system?
      For example, if you worked twenty hours per week for six weeks, enter 120 total
      hours. Please use the table below to help you compute total hours.


                    Job                      (Number of weeks) x (Hours/week)                 Hours
       Job 1.                                _______________ x ____________             ____________

       Job 2.                                _______________ x ____________             ____________

       Job 3.                                _______________ x ____________             ____________

       Job 4.                                _______________ x ____________             ____________

       Job 5.                                _______________ x ____________             ____________

                                                                       Total hours:     ____________



12. During the current school year, do you occupy any of the following roles?
                                                                          No            Yes
       a.    Providing professional development, mentoring
                                                                           1             2
             other teachers, or evaluating other teachers
       b.    Serving on a teacher hiring committee, serving on
             other school or district committees, developing               1             2
             and/or selecting curriculum materials for a team
       c.    Serving as a part-time administrator, serving as a
             team leader (e.g., grade level, subject area, or
                                                                           1             2
             program), developing parent and/or community
             participation programs


      If you occupied any other role not listed above, please describe:
      _____________________________________________________________
      _____________________________________________________________
      _____________________________________________________________




SRI International                                                                                  B-5
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




13. How satisfied are you with the following aspects of your job:
                                             Very          Somewhat        Somewhat              Very
                                          dissatisfied     dissatisfied     satisfied          satisfied
        a.    Salary                           1                2                 3                  4
              Ability to maintain
        b.                                     1                2                 3                  4
              occupation if I move
              Opportunity to help
        c.    people/be useful to              1                2                 3                  4
              society
        d.    Prestige and status              1                2                 3                  4
              Ability to grow as a
        e.                                     1                2                 3                  4
              professional
              Time available for non-
        f.                                     1                2                 3                  4
              work-related activities
        g.    Conditions at my school          1                2                 3                  4



Knowledge about National Board Certification

14. Have you ever heard of the advanced certification called National Board
    Certification, offered by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
    (NBPTS)?
      a. Yes (Please skip to question 18.)
      b. No


                                                           More than      Three       More
                                                           a year ago,      to        than
                                                 Within      but less      five        five
                                                the last   than three     years       years   Not
                                                  year      years ago      ago         ago    sure
15. How long ago did you first hear
    about National Board                           1            2          3           4       5
    Certification? (Circle one )


16. Which of the following actions did you take after hearing about National Board
    Certification? (Circle all that apply)
        a. Requested more information from National Board
        b. Visited the National Board Web site
        c. Spoke with a National Board Certified teacher or candidate
        d. Sought information from other district, state, or union organization
        e. Discussed information with other colleagues


SRI International                                                                                        B-6
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




        f. Did not seek out any further information
        g. Other – please specify: ___________________________________________


17. From which of the following sources have you received the most information about
    National Board Certification to date? (Circle one only)
        a. Teacher colleague who has not pursued National Board Certification
        b. Teacher colleague who is/was pursuing National Board Certification
        c. National Board Certified Teacher in your school
        d. Administrator in your school
        e. District personnel
        f. Union representative
        g. Web site
        h. Listserv
        i. Newsletter/magazine
        j.   District or union flyer
        k. Professional development activity
        l.   Other source


18. How would you characterize your current thoughts about the possibility of pursuing
    National Board Certification? (Circle one)

        a. I plan to apply for National Board
           Certification within the next 12
           months
        b. I plan to apply for National Board                                           If you selected
           Certification someday, but not                                              option a, b, or c,
           within the next 12 months                                                     please skip to
        c. I have not decided whether or not I                                             question 20.
           will pursue National Board
           Certification

        d. I have decided that I will never
           pursue National Board Certification




SRI International                                                                                  B-7
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




19. Why have you decided against National Board Certification? (Circle all that apply)
        a. I plan to retire from teaching soon
        b. I plan to leave the teaching profession
        c. I plan to become an administrator
        d. I do not see any benefits for me personally
        e. I believe that National Board Certification requires too much work
        f. I believe that National Board Certification is too expensive
        g. I would not have enough cooperation from my students
        h. I would have to violate the curriculum/teaching policies of my school
        i.   I would not have the support of my principal and/or my fellow teachers
        j. I believe that National Board Certification is biased against racial/ethnic
           minorities
        k. I do not believe that I would be successful in attaining certification


      If there are other reasons you have decided against National Board Certification,
      please describe them:
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________


20. If you decide to pursue certification, which of the following financial incentives
    would be available from your state or district? If you know the amount of the
    incentive, please write it in.
                                                                                              Do not
                                                      No          Yes      Amount             know
        a.   Test fee waiver or
                                                       1           2        _________           3
             reimbursement
        b.   One-time bonus if you pass                1           2        _________           3
        c.   Salary increase if you pass               1           2        _________           3
        d.   Fees from other professional
             opportunities outside of your
             normal teaching duties if you
                                                       1           2        _________           3
             pass (for example, mentoring
             other teachers, providing
             professional development)




SRI International                                                                                   B-8
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




21. If you decide to pursue certification and you pass, which of the following licensing
    and professional development benefits would be available to you?
                                                                                             Do not
                                                                    No           Yes         know
        a.    I would receive credit toward
                                                                     1            2             3
              maintaining/upgrading my state certification
        b.    I would receive credit toward my district’s
                                                                     1            2             3
              professional development requirements
        c.    I would be able to teach in other states without
                                                                     1            2             3
              fulfilling additional licensing requirements

      If other licensing professional development benefits would be available to you,
      please describe them:
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________


22. If you decide to pursue certification and you pass, would any of the following
    people hold you in higher regard?
                                                                                             Do not
                                                                     No          Yes         know
        a.    You, yourself                                          1            2             3
        b.    Your spouse                                            1            2             3
        c.    Your parents                                           1            2             3
        d.    Teachers at your school                                1            2             3
        e.    Principal at your school                               1            2             3
        f.    Other teachers in your district                        1            2             3
        g.    Other administrators in your district                  1            2             3
        h.    Officials in your teacher union                        1            2             3
        i.    Parents of students at your school                     1            2             3
        j.    Faculty in your teacher education program              1            2             3




SRI International                                                                                   B-9
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




23. If you decide to pursue certification and you pass, would you have a greater role in
    any of the following? (Circle all that apply)
                                                                    No          Yes       Do not know
        a.   Training of other teachers                              1           2              3
        b.   Mentoring of other teachers                             1           2              3
        c.   Committees at your school                               1           2              3
        d.   Committees in your district                             1           2              3



Your View of the Disadvantages of Pursuing Board Certification

24. Do you see any of the following as disadvantages of pursuing Board Certification in
    the future?
                                                                                              Do not
                                                                     No          Yes          know
              I would have less time for my teaching duties
        a.    (i.e., planning instruction, grading, interacting       1           2             3
              with parents, etc.)

              I would have less time to spend with my
        b.                                                            1           2             3
              family/friends.

              I would have less time to pursue other
        c.                                                            1           2             3
              professional opportunities

              I would have to teach in ways that would
        d.                                                            1           2             3
              cause conflict with my administrators

              I would be embarrassed if I tried and did not
        e.                                                            1           2             3
              pass




SRI International                                                                                   B-10
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




25. What do you see as the areas you need to improve in before pursuing National
    Board Certification?
                                                                    No          Yes        Do not know
        a.    Writing skills                                         1           2                3

        b.    Knowledge of subject matter                            1           2                3

              Knowledge of instructional techniques,
        c.                                                           1           2                3
              pedagogy

        d.    Technology skills                                      1           2                3

        e.    Test-taking skills                                     1           2                3

        f.    Time management skills                                 1           2                3


       If there is an area/skill that you would need to improve in that is not listed above,
       please describe:
       ________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________


Your Likelihood of Passing


                                                  Less                           Greater
                                                  than    25-     51-     76-     than      Not
                                                  25%     50%     75%     90%     90%       sure
26.   If you decide to pursue
      certification, what would be your
                                                    1       2       3      4          5       6
      likelihood of passing? (Circle
      one)




SRI International                                                                                     B-11
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




27. In considering whether to pursue certification or when to pursue certification,
    would the availability of the supports listed below influence your thinking?
                                                                  No        Yes
       a.   One-on-one mentoring from a National Board
                                                                   1         2
            Certified Teacher

       b.   Formal support group/class that meets
                                                                   1         2
            regularly

       c.   Collaboration with teachers at your school
                                                                   1         2
            who are also attempting certification

       d.   Collaboration with teachers NOT at your
                                                                   1         2
            school who are also attempting certification

       e.   Release time from your regular teaching
                                                                   1         2
            duties



28. Would the supports listed below be available to you if you became a candidate
    today?
                                                                                 Don’t
                                                  No             Yes             know
       a.   One-on-one mentoring from a
            National Board Certified               1               2              3
            Teacher

       b.   Formal support group/class
                                                   1               2              3
            that meets regularly

       c.   Collaboration with teachers at
            your school who are also               1               2              3
            attempting certification

       d.   Collaboration with teachers
            NOT at your school who are             1               2              3
            also attempting certification

       e.   Release time from your
                                                   1               2              3
            regular teaching duties




SRI International                                                                                 B-12
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




29. If there is a support that you consider necessary for candidacy that is not listed
    above, please describe and discuss the availability of that support:
      ________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________


Your Background


30. How long have you been teaching?
      ______ years


31. In what state do you currently teach?
      ____________________________________


32. In what district/county do you currently teach?
      ____________________________________


33. What level is (are) the school(s) at which you work? (Circle all that apply)
      a. Elementary school
      b. Middle school
      c. High school
      d. Other
      e. Does not apply. I do not work at a school site.


34. Do you hold a license other than an emergency license or waiver to teach in all of
    the content or specialty areas to which you are assigned?
      a. Yes
      b. No


35. What degree(s) do you hold? (Circle all that apply)
      a. Associate’s degree
      b. Bachelor’s degree
      c. Master’s degree


SRI International                                                                                 B-13
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




      d. Educational specialist or professional diploma (at least one year beyond the
         master’s level)
      e. Certificate of advanced graduate studies
      f. Doctorate or first professional degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., M.D., L.L.B., J.D., D.D.S.)
      g. Other – please specify: ________________________________________
      h. I do not hold a degree.


36. What is your gender?
      a. Male
      b. Female


37. What is your racial/ethnic identification?
      a. Asian/Pacific Islander
      b. Black or African American, Non-Hispanic
      c. Hispanic
      d. Native American/Alaska Native
      e. White or European American, Non-Hispanic
      f. Other - please specify: ____________________


38. What is your age range?
      a. Under 25 years
      b. 25-35 years
      c. 36-45 years
      d. Over 45 years




SRI International                                                                                 B-14
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                                            Appendix C
                          The NBC Candidate Questionnaire




 SRI International
EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




 SRI International
  EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR NBPTS CERTIFICATION




                NBC Candidate Questionnaire
                                                                  SRI International




Thank you for taking the time to fill out this survey. This survey will ask you about your
decision to become a candidate for National Board Certification, your preparation of the
portfolio, and your preparation for the assessment center. This survey also asks some
questions that relate to racial/ethnic bias and testing. We estimate that it will take you
30 minutes.
We appreciate your answers to all of our questions. Your answers will help the National
Board and state and district policy-makers develop incentives for certification, as well as
support programs for National Board candidates.
If you are not a first-time National Board Certification candidate waiting to receive
your results at the end of 2004, please stop, mark this circle ( ), and return this
questionnaire in the envelope provided. Otherwise, please continue and answer all
of the questions to the best of your ability.
The information you provide is being collected for research purposes only and will be
kept strictly confidential.




SRI International                                                                                        C-1
                                                                                                            l
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION



Your Decision to Become a National Board Certification Candidate


1. To what extent did each of the following factors contribute to your decision to pursue
   National Board Certification?
                                                                              Was a       Was a
                                                                Did not    secondary     primary
                                                               influence    influence   influence
                                                                   my         on my       on my
                                                                decision     decision    decision
        a.     Possibility of a salary bonus or salary
                                                                  1            2           3
               increase
        b.     Availability of reimbursements or subsidies
                                                                  1            2           3
               for assessment fees
        c.     Opportunity to improve my teaching
                                                                  1            2           3
               knowledge and/or skills
        d.     Opportunity to prove to others that I am a
                                                                  1            2           3
               good teacher
        e.     Opportunity to prove to myself that I am a
                                                                  1            2           3
               good teacher
        f.     Administration at my school encouraged me
                                                                  1            2           3
               to apply
        g.     Other person(s) encouraged me to apply             1            2           3
        h.     Opportunity to have greater influence in my
                                                                  1            2           3
               school
        i.     Portability of the certification                   1            2           3
        j.     Credit toward maintaining/upgrading my
               state licensure and/or toward my district’s        1            2           3
               professional development requirements
        k.     Opportunity to satisfy some of my master’s
                                                                  1            2           3
               degree program requirements
        l.     Availability of National Board preparation
                                                                  1            2           3
               courses or workshops
        m.     Availability of a coach or mentor to guide
                                                                  1            2           3
               me through the certification process
        n.     Opportunity to go through the process with
                                                                  1            2           3
               a peer-group
        o.     Relatively high probability that I would pass      1            2           3
        p.     Relatively few obligations at school or at
                                                                  1            2           3
               home




SRI International l                                                                                 C-2
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


2. Thinking back on your own decision-making about whether to pursue certification
   and based on conversations with teachers who have decided not to become
   candidates, how important do you think each of the following factors is in explaining
   why some teachers do not become candidates for National Board Certification?

                                                                             Is a
                                                           Does not      secondary        Is a primary
                                                           influence   influence on      influence on
                                                           teachers’      teachers’         teachers’
                                                           decisions   decisions not    decisions not to
                                                             not to      to pursue           pursue
                                                             apply      certification     certification
        a.     Concern that they may not succeed              1              2                 3
        b.     Lack of support from school
                                                              1              2                 3
               administrators and colleagues
        c.     Lack of support from family and
                                                              1              2                 3
               friends
        d.     The uncooperativeness of their
                                                              1              2                 3
               students
        e.     A misalignment between school-
               prescribed teaching and the approach
                                                              1              2                 3
               required by the National Board
               assessment
        f.     High cost of the assessment                    1              2                 3
        g.     Low passing rates of other teachers
                                                              1              2                 3
               generally
        h.     Low passing rates of other teachers
                                                              1              2                 3
               of their same racial/ethnic group
        i.     The availability of better options for
                                                              1              2                 3
               professional development
        j.     The availability of better options for
                                                              1              2                 3
               professional advancement
        k.     The time burden and complexity
                                                              1              2                 3
               involved
        l.     Teacher already knows he or she is a
                                                              1              2                 3
               good teacher
        m.     Lack of opportunity to have coaching
               and guidance during the certification          1              2                 3
               process
        n.     Feeling that they are weak on specific
                                                              1              2                 3
               testing areas (writing, reflection, etc.)
        o.     Lack of opportunity to take courses
               with, be mentored by, or prepare with
                                                              1              2                 3
               teachers from their own racial/ethnic
               group
        p.     Relatively few obligations at school or
                                                              1              2                 3
               at home



SRI International l                                                                                        C-3
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


3. If you had chosen not to pursue certification, what career path would you most likely
   have taken in the next five years?
         a. Remained in K-12 teaching
         b. Quit teaching to pursue nonteaching job in K-12 education
         c. Quit teaching to pursue job outside K-12 education


4. If you had chosen not to pursue certification, what career path would you most likely
   have taken beyond the next five years?
         e. Remained in K-12 teaching
         f. Quit teaching to pursue nonteaching job in K-12 education
         g. Quit teaching to pursue job outside K-12 education


Your Home and School Obligations

5. Did you have heavy family responsibilities during your candidacy?
                                                                 No          Yes
        a.   Childrearing                                         1           2
        b.   Elderly care                                         1           2
        c.   Caring for ill/disabled family members               1           2
        d.   Care for your own or spouse’s pregnancy              1           2
        e.   Other heavy family responsibilities                  1           2



6. Did any of the following unexpected events occur during your candidacy?
                                                                 No          Yes
        a.   Death of family member                               1           2
        b.   Separation or divorce                                1           2
        c.   Other family crisis                                  1           2




SRI International l                                                                             C-4
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


                                                                      Employed
                                                                     half-time or
                                                       Employed       more, but
                                                       less than    less than full-   Employed
                                                       half-time         time          full-time
7. During the school year that overlapped
   with your candidacy, how would you                     1               2               3
   describe your employment level?


8. During your candidacy, did you occupy any of these school or district roles?
                                                                           No           Yes
        a.   Mentoring new teachers                                         1            2
        b.   Providing professional development                             1             2
        c.   Evaluating other teachers                                      1             2
        d.   Developing parent and/or community participation
                                                                            1             2
             programs
        e.   Developing and/or selecting curriculum materials for
                                                                            1             2
             your school
        f.   Teaching a course(s) for the first time                        1             2
        g.   Serving as a part-time administrator                           1             2
        h.   Serving as a team leader (e.g., grade level, subject
                                                                            1             2
             area, or program)
        i.   Serving on a teacher hiring committee                          1             2
        j.   Serving on other school or district committees                 1             2

      If you occupied any other professional role not listed above, please describe it:
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________


9. During your candidacy, about how many hours per week did you work for pay
   OUTSIDE the school system? (If you did not have a job other than your teaching job,
   write ‘0’)
      _____ hours per week




SRI International l                                                                                C-5
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


10. For each month, please estimate the approximate average number of hours per
    week you worked on all candidacy-related activities (e.g., portfolio work,
    preparation for assessment center, support sessions, etc.).
      (If you did not work on National Board tasks during a particular month, write ‘0’)

               Month                                        Hours
        a.     January 2003                                _____
        b.     February 2003                               _____
        c.     March 2003                                  _____
        d.     April 2003                                  _____
        e.     May 2003                                    _____
        f.     June 2003                                   _____
        g.     July 2003                                   _____
        h.     August 2003                                 _____
        i.     September 2003                              _____
        j.     October 2003                                _____
        k.     November 2003                               _____
        l.     December 2003                               _____
        m.     January 2004                                _____
        n.     February 2004                               _____
        o.     March 2004                                  _____
        p.     April 2004                                  _____
        q.     May 2004                                    _____
        r.     June 2004                                   _____




SRI International l                                                                             C-6
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION



Your Prior Experience

11. Prior to your candidacy, had you participated in any of the following activities:
                                                                    No       Yes
        a.   Worked on senior thesis                                 1        2
        b.   Worked on master’s thesis                              1         2
        c.   Worked on doctoral dissertation                        1         2
        d.   Took college/university course that prepared you for
             the knowledge and skills examined by the National      1         2
             Board
        e.   Took college/university course that included tasks
                                                                    1         2
             like those given by the National Board
        f.   Participated in a professional development activity
             that required you to chronicle and reflect on your     1         2
             teaching

      If you participated in any other activity that required the same skills (e.g., writing,
      analysis, time management) that you found necessary for the National Board
      Certification process, please describe it:
      ______________________________________________________________
      ______________________________________________________________
      ______________________________________________________________


12. During your candidacy, which of the following skill and knowledge areas did you
    feel you needed to improve?
                                                                    No       Yes
        a.   Writing skills                                         1         2
        b.   Knowledge of the subject(s) you teach                  1         2
        c.   Knowledge of instructional techniques, pedagogy        1         2
        d.   Technology skills                                      1         2
        e.   Time management skills                                 1         2
        f.   Videotaping and/or video editing skills                1         2
        g.   Test-taking skills                                     1         2




SRI International l                                                                             C-7
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


13. How did you first obtain your candidacy materials for your certificate area?
         a. I obtained all materials in advance (for example, you downloaded them).
         b. I first received my materials from the National Board, which came on time.
         c. I first received my materials from the National Board, which came late.


                                      Very      Generally   Generally        Very       No
                                    unhelpful   unhelpful    helpful        helpful   opinion
14.   How helpful were the
      portfolio instructions – in
      terms of both content and
                                       1           2           3              4         5
      format – in assisting you
      to prepare your portfolio
      entries?

                                                                    No                Yes
15.   Prior to your National Board experience, had you
                                                                        1              2
      ever videotaped your teaching before?


                                                                    No                Yes
16.   When you took the assessment center
      exercises, was that the first time you had seen                   1              2
      the format of the assessment center exercises?


                                                                    No                Yes
17.   Do you feel that you chose the appropriate
                                                                        1              2
      certificate area in which to seek certification?
      If not, why not?
      ______________________________________________________________
      ______________________________________________________________
      ______________________________________________________________




SRI International l                                                                             C-8
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION



Support That You Received

18. Before your candidacy period began, had you done any of the following?

                                                                  No         Yes
        a.   Attended information session(s) for teachers who
                                                                      1       2
             had not yet decided to pursue certification
        b.   Attended information session(s) for teachers who
                                                                      1       2
             had decided to pursue certification
        c.   Took college or university courses designed to
                                                                      1       2
             prepare you for the National Board assessment
        d.   Took college or university courses involving tasks
                                                                      1       2
             similar to the National Board assessment
        e.   Served as an assessor for the National Board             1       2



19. During your candidacy, did you receive any of the following forms of help?

                                                                  No         Yes

        a.   Videotaping help                                         1       2

        b.   Video editing help                                       1       2

        c.   Clerical help (copies, formatting)                       1       2



20. During your candidacy, how many days off were you given to do candidacy-related
    activities? (If you were not given days off for these activities, please write ‘0’)
      ________ days


21. During your candidacy, did any of the following apply?
                                                                  No        Yes
        a.   Other teachers in your school knew you were
                                                                  1          2
             seeking National Board Certification
        b.   Your principal knew you were seeking National
                                                                  1          2
             Board Certification
        c.   At least one district administrator knew you were
                                                                  1          2
             seeking National Board Certification




SRI International l                                                                             C-9
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


22. During your candidacy, did you use the following types of supports? (If yes, please
    indicate whether the supports were helpful to you)
                                                                         Yes, but    Yes, and
                                                                         was not       was
                                                                    No   helpful      helpful
        a.    Preparation course organized by my district            1      2            3
        b.    Preparation course organized by my union              1        2           3
        c.    Preparation course organized by a
                                                                    1        2           3
              college/university
        d.    Sustained mentoring from NBCT(s)                      1        2           3
        e.    Work with other candidates                            1        2           3
        f.    Print and/or electronic support materials             1        2           3
        g.    Moral support from teachers at my school              1        2           3



23. During your candidacy, did you do any of the following, as part of courses,
    workshops, or other organized support activities? (If yes, please indicate the
    degree to which you found the activity helpful)
                                                                         Yes, but    Yes, and
                                                                         was not       was
                                                                    No   helpful      helpful
        a.    Received instruction on portfolio development          1      2            3
        b.    Reviewed and discussed scoring rubrics                1        2           3
        c.    Discussed and reflected videos                        1        2           3
        d.    Received instruction on videotaping                   1        2           3
        e.    Received feedback on draft portfolio entries          1        2           3
        f.    Reviewed other teachers’ portfolio entries            1        2           3
        g.    Practiced assessment center exercises                 1        2           3
        h.    Received instruction on writing or writing practice   1        2           3
        i.    Discussed and reflected on professional readings
                                                                    1        2           3
              (e.g., articles)
        j.    Observed and discussed other classrooms               1        2           3
        k.    Discussed time management                             1        2           3
        l.    Discussed and received instruction on instructional
                                                                    1        2           3
              techniques/pedagogy
        m.    Received instruction in content-area knowledge        1        2           3


      If you were involved in any support activity not listed above, please describe it:
      ______________________________________________________________
      ______________________________________________________________



SRI International l                                                                             C-10
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION


24. During your candidacy about how many hours in total did you spend on courses,
    workshops, or other organized support activities?
      ______ hours


25. During your candidacy, were you acquainted with any of the following people? (If
    yes, please indicate if any were of your racial/ethnic group)
                                                                                          If yes…
                                                                                      Were any of your
                                                                                            same
                                                                        Knew/           racial/ethnic
                                                                    acquainted with    group as you?
                                                                     No       Yes         No     Yes
       a.    National Board Certified Teachers in your school         1        2           1      2
       b.    National Board Certified Teachers in your district       1        2          1       2
       c.    National Board candidates in your school                 1        2          1       2
       d.    Other National Board candidates in your district         1        2          1       2



26. During your candidacy, did the following persons give you guidance? (If yes,
    please indicate the degree to which you found the guidance helpful)
                                                                                                Yes, and
                                                                               Yes, but was       was
                                                                       No       not helpful      helpful
        a.    National Board Certification in my certificate area       1            2              3
        b.    National Board Certification not in my certificate
                                                                       1              2               3
              area
        c.    Candidates in my certificate area                        1              2               3
        d.    Candidates not in my certificate area                    1              2               3
        e.    Other teachers at my school (excluding those
                                                                       1              2               3
              above)
        f.    Administrators in my school                              1              2               3


      If you received any guidance from a person not listed above, please describe:
      ________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________
      ________________________________________________________________




SRI International l                                                                                       C-11
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION




Difficulties That You Encountered


27. Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following
    statements.
                                                           Strongly                      Strongly
                                                           disagree   Disagree   Agree    agree
        a.   I would have benefited from having more
                                                              1          2        3         4
             time to complete the portfolio
        b.   I would have benefited from having more
             time to prepare for the assessment               1          2        3         4
             center
        c.   I would have benefited from more
             frequent Internet access or higher-speed         1          2        3         4
             Internet access during my candidacy
        d.   I had trouble concentrating when working
                                                              1          2        3         4
             on my portfolio entries
        e.   I had trouble concentrating during the
                                                              1          2        3         4
             assessment center exercises
        f.   My other school obligations made it hard
             for me to complete the National Board            1          2        3         4
             Certification process
        g.   My home obligations made it hard for me
             to complete the National Board                   1          2        3         4
             Certification process
        h.   I had trouble writing the way the portfolio
                                                              1          2        3         4
             instructions required me to write
        i.   The assessment center didn’t allow me
             to demonstrate the depth of my subject           1          2        3         4
             matter knowledge and my teaching skills
        j.   The portfolio entries didn’t allow me to
             demonstrate the depth of subject matter          1          2        3         4
             knowledge and my teaching skills
        k.   The National Board assessment ignored
                                                              1          2        3         4
             some of my strengths as a teacher




SRI International l                                                                                 C-12
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION




28. Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following
    statements.
                                                            Strongly                      Strongly
                                                            disagree   Disagree   Agree    agree
        a.   My school requires a particular
             curriculum that made it difficult for me to
                                                               1          2        3         4
             address the National Board’s
             requirements
        b.   The negative climate in my school made
             it difficult for me to complete the National      1          2        3         4
             Board Certification process
        c.   Lack of support from my principal made
             it difficult for me to complete the National      1          2        3         4
             Board Certification process
        d.   Lack of support from other teachers at
             my school made it difficult for me to
                                                               1          2        3         4
             complete the National Board Certification
             process
        e    I would have benefited from having
             instructors and/or mentors of my own              1          2        3         4
             race/ethnicity
        f.   I would have benefited from working with
             other candidates who were of my own               1          2        3         4
             race/ethnicity
        g    I would have benefited from having
                                                               1          2        3         4
             students who were more cooperative
        h.   I would have benefited from having
             students who had higher academic                  1          2        3         4
             performance
        i.   The assessment process is biased
                                                               1          2        3         4
             against minority teachers




SRI International l                                                                                  C-13
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION



Teacher Background

29. How long have you been teaching?
      ______ years


30. In what state do you currently teach?
      ____________________________________


31. In what district/county do you currently teach?
      ____________________________________


32. What level is (are) the school(s) at which you work? (Circle all that apply)
         h. Elementary school
         i. Middle school
         j. High school
         k. Other
         l.   Does not apply. I do not work at a school site.


33. Do you hold a license other than an emergency license or waiver to teach in all of
   the content or specialty areas to which you are assigned?
         m. Yes
         n. No


34. What degree(s) do you hold? (Circle all that apply)
      a. Associate’s degree
      b. Bachelor’s degree
      c. Master’s degree
      d. Educational specialist or professional diploma (at least one year beyond the
         master’s level)
      e. Certificate of advanced graduate studies
      f. Doctorate or first professional degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., M.D., L.L.B., J.D., D.D.S.)
      g. Other – please specify: ________________________________________
      h. I do not hold a degree.


SRI International l                                                                             C-14
 EXPLORING DIFFERENCES IN MINORITY AND MAJORITY TEACHERS’ DECISIONS ABOUT AND PREPARATION FOR
                                      NBPTS CERTIFICATION




35. What is your gender?
         a. Male
         b. Female


36. What is your racial/ethnic identification?
         a. Asian/Pacific Islander
         b. Black or African American, Non-Hispanic
         c. Hispanic
         d. Native American/Alaska Native
         e. White or European American, Non-Hispanic
         f. Other - please specify: ____________________


37. What is your age range?
         a. Under 25 years
         b. 25-35 years
         c. 36-45 years
         d. Over 45 years




SRI International l                                                                             C-15

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:12/19/2011
language:
pages:77