New Tomato Varieties for the Mid

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					What’s New in
 Vegetable
  Varieties

         Chuck Marr
         Horticulture
    Kansas State University
Selecting Cultivars or Varieties
          Selecting Cultivars
Once you have decided on specific vegetables
 you need to decide on which cultivars to
 grow
   There are often hundreds of different cultivars
    available for each vegetable species
 Variety and Cultivar are often used
  interchangeably
               Selecting Cultivars

• Cultivars are plants within varieties that breeders
  have developed and that are distinct from each
  other.
   – New cultivars are often bred for commercial growers
• Two major categories of vegetable cultivars are:
   – Open pollinated
   – Hybrids
          Selecting Cultivars

• Open-pollinated vegetables
  – Plants are left to become pollinated on their own
  – Are often older or heirloom cultivars
  – It is important that the cultivar “breed true”
     • Offspring resemble their parents in all important
       characteristics
  – The breeding system of the vegetable will determine
    if an open-pollinated vegetable “breeds true”
     • Self-pollinated vegetables
         – Will produce 90% or more offspring that are true to type
     • Cross-pollinated vegetables
         – To ensure the plants breed true, you must carefully
           control the parents
                Selecting Cultivars
• Hybrid vegetable cultivars
  – Definition: A cultivar resulting from a cross between
    two different true breeding (referred to as inbred)
    parents
  – Most new vegetable cultivars are hybrids
  – Advantages
     • They are vigorous
         – Hybrid vigor: a synergistic increase in vigor of the plant due to
           the combination of widely diverse genetic traits
         – Higher yielding
     • They are apparently uniform
     • Often bred for disease resistance
  – Disadvantages
     • Won’t come ‘true to type’ from seed- can’t save your own
       seed
                Selecting Cultivars

• There are some specialized cultivars within
  either open-pollinated or hybrid categories
  – Heirloom cultivars
     • Definition: A cultivar that has been passed down generation
       to generation
         – “Anasazi” corn: found in a Utah cave and is thought to be more
           than 800 years old
         – Heirloom tomatoes- unique shapes and colors
     • There are a number of nonprofit organizations working with
       people who want to preserve heirloom plants.
         – Seed Savers Exchange- Decorah, IA
         – www.seedsaversexchange.org
Selecting Cultivars
           • All American
             Selections
              – Cultivars that perform
                well in trials conducted
                throughout the country
              – Problems
                  • Not all cultivars
                    included
                  • May not do well in a
                    specific locations
                  • ‘Entered’ by specific
                    companies- not all
                    companies participate
                  • May not have
                    characteristics desired
                    by gardener
      Selecting Cultivars

• ‘Recommended
  Vegetable Varieties
  for Kansas’- K-State
  Research &
  Extension publication
  L-41
  – www.oznet.ksu.edu
• Garden center
  recommendation
• Other gardeners
                                   Asparagus-
                                   first hybridized
                                   in 1970.


                                   Hybrid
                                   varieties from
                                   New Jersey or
                                   California




New Jersey                     California
Jersey Giant     Jersey King   UC 157
Jersey King
Jersey Supreme
New Jersey X
California Crosses

 Atlas
 Apollo
 Grande


Good yields
Won’t ‘fern out’ in heat
Earlier than UC 157
Purple Passion


Bright purple color
(turns green when
cooked)
Sweet, mild flavor
Yields not as high as
other hybrids.
Asparagus crowns- Fresh
crowns with plump roots


Asparagus transplants- 10-
12 weeks to grow a
transplant. Plant about mid
April.
Cabbage
Dynasty ‘Series’
   Royal Dynasty
   Bayou Dynasty
   Blue Dynasty
   Red Dynasty


   Good yields, large
   heads, excellent
   quality, excellent
   flavor
‘Modern’ tomato varieties
 Semi-determinate (‘determinate’) vine
 Uniform ripening genetic trait
 Multiple disease resistance
 Meaty, firm fruit

 Heat tolerant genetic trait
 Long Shelf Life (LSL) genetic trait
    Semi-Determinate or “Determinate”-
          ”Compact” Vine Habit

Standard vine         Determinate/Compact vine
       Advantages of Compact Vine
Adapted to raised bed
culture
Short cages or ‘stake-
weave’
More stable in wind
Use less water and
fertilizer
Closer spacing-more plants
per row
Yields comparable to large
vined types
Variations in vine size:
            Uniform Ripening (UG Gene)




Fruit ripens uniformly- top to bottom
and inside-outside. Uniformly ripe.
No ‘green shoulder’ or waste when
using.
                   Meaty Firm Fruit

Fruit holds into slices
Can be chopped or
diced
Does not soften easily
when stacked
Modern consumers
prefer
Not irregular or rough
like a ‘beefsteak’ type
  Multiple Disease Resistance
Fusarium wilt in tomato. No known control. Persists for 8-12
years.
There are 2 strains or races F1 and F2. Need both resistance
(A new strain F3 has been discovered in the deep south)
Leaf blight (Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot) is a
different story. There is some resistance available but
hasn’t proven to be very effective in the field. Both are
foliar fungus diseases-spores develop on leaves and don’t
enter the roots of the plant.
Tomato Spotted Wilt (TSW) Virus
Stunted plants, purplish color.
Mottled, marbled fruit
Spread by western flower thrips-
primarily in greenhouse or
transplants.
         ‘Modern’ Tomato Varieties
Some that we’ve relied on for several years. Still useful to consider
for their reliability and consistency over the years.
Semi-determinate, F1,2 resistance, reliable production


   Daybreak- early
   Merced- sturdy vine, good quality
   Mt. Spring-second early, good quality
   Celebrity- oldest of the semi-determinates
   Carnival- slightly larger than Celebrity
Blossom drop from excessive summer heat.
      Daytime 95 F, Night 75 F
      Excessive N; Hot, dry winds make problem worse



A genetic trait- usually referred
to as the Hot Set or Heat Set
gene allows tomatoes to set
under heat conditions.
Many new varieties now are
being developed with the Hot
Set gene incorporated.
Sun Leaper and Sunmaster have done well. Several newer
varieties coming along with this characteristic.
Long Shelf Life (LSL) Tomato
       When a tomato reaches a full size, green stage, it
starts to produce an internal gas – ethylene- which
‘drives’ the ripening process. Continuous ethylene
production continues after the tomato is fully ripe- then it
becomes soft, squishy, and begins to rot.
LSL tomatoes can be held for a longer time after fully ripe
with little loss of quality or flavor.
Have held tomatoes for up to 1 month after fully ripe
and still edible. May not be useful to all growers but
can improve shelf life of tomatoes if not sold quickly.
     Some modern tomato varieties
•   Merced                • Keepsake (LSL)
•   Mt. Fresh             • Mt. Crest (LSL)
•   Mt. Spring            • Plum Crimson
•   Celebrity               (Roma)
•   Sun Leaper (HotSet)   • Plum Dandy (Roma)
•   Sunmaster (HotSet)    • Carolina Gold (yellow)
•   Fl 91 (HotSet)
•   Fl 47
•   Floralina
                                  Romaine (Cos) or
                                  Buttercrunch (Bibb) lettuce.
                                  Transplants
                                  Cold tolerant.




Medallion- early
Cimmaron-red


                   Ermosa-early
                   Mikola- red
Space (smooth)         Spinach makes an
Spinner (semi-savoy)   excellent spring crop or
Coho (semi-savoy)      can be overwintered
                       from a fall planting.
Melody (semi-savoy}
 Irish Potatoes
                     Cut seed 8-
                     10 seed
                     pieces per
                     lb or 1 ½ to
                     2 oz in size.




Sprout (root and
shoot) develops
from bud or eye in
potato piece.
Russet skinned potatoes have a different starch texture- mealy and
crumbly when baked.




                         Norkotah
                               Red skinned and white
Norchip                        skinned potatoes for
Superior                       fresh use.



                                    Viking
                                    RedDale
           Yukon Gold
                                    LaRouge
           Delta Gold




                        Colored fleshed potatoes-
                        yellow, red, purple, and pink.
                Onion ‘sets’ and onion
                plants used to start
                onions




Sets not well
identified by
variety.
Onions vary in
skin colors- white,
yellow and red.
Onions also vary in
pungency- mild to
‘pungent’
Also vary in shape-
flattened to round.

Intermediate Day Length Onions   Short Day Onions
Candy (sweet)                    Bermuda (flattened bulbs)
Walla Walla (sweet)              Texas Sweet-1015Y (rounded)
Plant early, fertilize well,
grow rapidly before bulbing.
K-State-Research
  & Extension



   “Knowledge for Life”

				
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