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					         Spains Powerful Empire

•What was Philip II’s motivation for attacking/invading
England, the Netherlands, and other surrounding
countries?
•What were the causes of economic problems in
Spain during the later 1500’s and early 1600’s?
•What was a symbol of Philip II’s power and
authority?
•What were some factors that led to the Netherlands
becoming the leaders of banking and trade in
Europe?
Absolute Monarchs in Europe,
         1500-1800
          Chapter 21
Spain's Empire and European Absolutism
               Chapter 21 - Section 1




   "The Syndics" by Rembrandt           Philip II of Spain
                                          1527- 1598
Spains Powerful Empire
         Charles I - a.k.a. Charles V
• Became Ruler of Spain in
  1516 & Holy Roman Emperor
  in 1519
• Ruled Spain, Austria,
  Netherlands, parts of Italy,
  and much of Germany
• Agreed to the Peace of
  Augsburg in 1555
   o allowed German princes to
     choose the religion of their
     territory.
• Left Austria & Holy Roman
  Empire to his brother
  Ferdinand
• Left Spain to his son Philip II
Philip II
of Spain    • Inherited Spain, the Spanish
              Netherlands, and the American
              colonies.
            • Seized the Portuguese kingdom
              in 1580 after the death of his
              Uncle - the Portuguse King -
              including its holdings in:
               o Africa, India, and the East
                 Indies
            • He claimed 1/4 - 1/5 of all
              treasure unloaded from Spanish
              galleons
            • By 1600 American Mines had
              supplied Spain with:
               o 339,000 lbs. of Gold
               o 16,000 tons of Silver
Defender of Catholicism
              • The Reconquista
                 o the campaign to drive
                   Muslims from Spain
              • The Inquisition
                 o the campaign to
                   investigate and
                   persicute suspected
                   heretics
              • The Battle of Lepanto -
                1571
                 o answering the Pope's
                   call, Philip sends 250
                   ships to defeat the
                   Ottoman fleet.
              • Defeat of the Spanish
                Armada - 1588
El Escorial – Philip II’s Palace
          Golden Age of Spanish Art




• El Greco
  o distorted human figure to   • Diego Velazquez
     express emotion              o known for portraits,
     symbolically                   especially of royal life
                                    and family
 The Birth of the Modern Eurpean Novel
• Don Quixote, by Miguel de
  Cervantes
  o a story about a poor Spanish
    nobleman
  o went crazy after reading too
    many books about heroic knights
  o attempts to "Right Every Manner
    of Wrong"
  o rode forth in a rusty suit of armor
    on a feeble nag
  o mistook windmills for giants
Problems Weaken the Spanish Empire

Gold and Silver from the
Americas made Spain
temporarily wealthy, but
it ultimately caused
economic problems.

• Inflation & Taxes

• Making Spain's
  Enemies Rich

• The Dutch Revolt
Inflation and Taxes
            • Silver flooded the market
              and its value dropped.
            • Population growth and
              demand for goods rose
              prices.
            • Spain raised taxes
               o Spains nobles did not
                 have to pay taxes
               o The tax burden fell on
                 the lower class
               o Neither small business
                 or a middle class
                 developed
        Making Spain's Enemies Rich
             The Dutch Revolt
• Spainish guilds set prices too high
   o Spaniards bought products
     from France, England, and the
     Netherlands
• Spain borrowed money from
  German and Italian bankers to
  finance wars.
• Philip II Raised taxes in the
  Spanish Netherlands.
• Dutch protestants revolt
• William of Orange leads Dutch to
  victory by flooding the Low
  Countries.
The Independent Dutch Prosper
                   • 7 Northern Provinces
                     become the United
                     Provinces of the
                     Netherlands
                      o Mostly Protestant
                   • 10 Southern Provinces
                     ramianed Spanish
                      o Present-day Belgium
                      o Mostly Catholic
                   • The Netherlands was a
                     Republic
                   • Religious tolerance was
                     practiced
                   • The Dutch buy low and sell
                     high
                      o Grain & Lumber
                   • Dutch become the bankers
                     of Eurpope
                Absolutism in Europe

•   Absolute Monarchs
•   Divine Right
•   Decline of Feudalism
•   Growth of Cities and
    Nationalism
•   Centralized
    Authority/Kingdoms
•   Growth of Middle Class
•   Wealth from Colonies
•   Decline of Church Authority
•   Continual Religious and
    Territorial Conflicts

				
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