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									   England’s Empire

19th Century Debate and Policy
        Second British Empire
• Free Trade and Economic Imperialism
• Territorial Imperialism only to get bases to protect
  trade rather than acquiring territory in order to
  settle it.
• Casual Administration of Empire—no single
  person responsible for it
• Colonial Office was nominally in charge—
  Undersecretaries like James Stevens ―Mr. Mother
  Country‖ did the heavy lifting; Colonial Secretary
  was patronage position
      Members of the Empire
• Canada               •   West Indies
• Australia            •   Trinidad
                       •   Guiana
• New Zealand
                       •   Br. Honduras
• Cape Colony (South   •   Malta
                       •   Ionian Islands
• India                •   Helegoland
                       •   Ceylon
                       •   Singapore
         Debate over Empire
• Free Traders and Little Englanders: James
  Mill, Jeremy Bentham—viewed empire as
  accessory to autocratic government.
• Edward Gibbon Wakefield—empire is
  good, both as a safety valve and because
  English emigrants bring liberal
  governments with them.
Mill, Bentham, Wakefield
             Official Mind
• Empire was not built by design
• People on the scene, seeking not to enlarge
  territory, often did just that to end local
  disputes or to secure coastal bases
    Events, not policy dictated
• Canada following Lord Durham Report
  became self governing under British North
  America Act – ―Good government, self
• Australia—part of empire since 1770 was a
  convict colony and wool producer; self-
  governing in 1850; member of
  commonwealth n 1900.
• British East India Company was initial British
• Joint rule between Crown and BEIC from 1774 to
• ―Doctrine of Lapse‖ extended British control into
• Civil Service staffed by Indians did day-to-day
• 1857 Sepoy Mutiny
• India became Vice-royalty in 1876
• Lord Curzon (1891-1905) governor general,
  sought public education and civilian control over
George, Lord Curzon (1859-1925)
                    India (II)
• 1884—Indian National Congress Formed
• Indian’s given votes in local matters and franchise
  broadened in 1907 under John Minto and Lord
  Morely, but Indians were not satisfied
• Would India support England in WWI?
  Nationalists supported war in exchange for
• Record on India is mixed: English often treated
  Indians poorly, but suttee and thugee were
  abolished; civil service officials were well-trained
  for governance
• Acquired Suez Canal in 1875—great achievement
  by Disraeli—need to control canal tied to need to
  have access to India
• Britain extended control to Sudan in 1880s,
  suppressed native revolt (1885)that killed
  ―Chinese‖ Gordon
• Fear of German activities in Africa made British
  more willing to have territorial control to secure
                South Africa
• Acquired in 1806 during Napoleonic Wars
• Boers go on ―Great Trek‖ in 1833 when British
  end slavery in Empire
• Boer Republics of Transvaal and Orange Free
  State were annexed in 1867 after discover of
• Revolt in Transvaal in 1881 and British defeated
  at Majuba Hill
• Cecil Rhodes, private businessman, expanded
  British interests by mining for Diamonds in
  Zimbabwe and planning a Cairo to Capetown
                  Boer War
• Jameson Raid—organized by Rhodes
• Boer leaders like Paul Krueger look to Kaiser for
  protection—Krueger telegram
• Joseph Chamberlain said that British controlled
  Dutch Republics
• War erupted when Krueger declared war
• Brits sent 300,000 to fight Boer War.
• Concentration camps establsihed
• 1902 War ended—Brits win war but Boers win
  peace—Boers keep slavery through apartheid—
  Jan Christian Smuts and Louis Botha were Boer
Krueger, Botha & Smuts
Rhodes and Chamberlain

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