Earth Science 2nd Semester Review: CH 10-23
1. Glacial ice comes from snow which has been compacted. 23. Terranes are made of rocks moved long distances before
2. Continental glaciers are found in polar regions, ex. joining a continent.
Greenland. 24. Blowouts and desert pavement are a result of wind
3. Glacial origins are indicated by cirques and U shaped erosion.
valleys. 25. The San Andreas Fault is a sliding boundary.
4. Valley glaciers form in mountains and move downward. 26. Accretion adds rock material to continents.
5. The snowline is where snow remains yearround. 27. A block is a hot rock, tephra - solid material, thrown from
6. Plate tectonics studies formation and movement of plates a volcano.
which are 50 to 150 km thick. 28. Molten rock forms within the asthenosphere, at plate
7. The mid ocean ridge is an underwater mountain chain. It boundaries, and under hot spots.
has a deep, narrow rift valley running through its center. It is 29. Trapped gas in molten rock changes its composition at the
above sea level in Iceland. surface.
8. Subduction forces one plate under another and forms 30. Craters are depressions at the top of volcanoes, calderas
trenches. are formed when the top collapses.
9. Plates coming together = convergent boundary = collision 31. Vents connect magma to the volcano's opening.
and subduction 32. Laccoliths are domed shaped masses of igneous rock.
10. Plates separating = divergent boundary 33. Aa is rough/cindery, pahoehoe is smooth/ropelike
11. Pangaea was a single land mass that included all lava.(Extrusive igneous rock)
continents. 34. Quiet eruptions are characteristic of volcanoes developing
12. South America and Africa were once joined at the South on continental plates.
Pole. 35. Sheild cones are made primarily of lava.
13. Ocean plate material is denser than continental. 36. Erupted mafic magma produces black sandy beaches.
14. India became part of Asia when 2 continental plates 37. Granitic material causes explosive eruptions.
collided. 38. Cooled magma inside old volcanoes = plutons.
15. Rising convection currents are the cause of rift valleys. 39. Ring of Fire = Pacific Ocean volcanic/earthquake activity
16. Cool areas in the asthenosphere are contracting/sinking 40. Fumerole = crack or hole in lava field.
17. Continents are less dense than the lithosphere and 41. Hot spot volcanoes prove the moving plate theory.
composed of granite. 42. Wind formed waves' fetch and wind duration affect
18. The deepest trench is the Mariana Trench - 11 km. height.
19. Similar rock formations, fossils, fit of continents support 43. Molten material is held inside a magma chamber.
the theory of continental drift. 44. Basalt composes a dike or sill.
20. Ocean plates are composed mostly of basalt. 45. Olympus Mons, on Mars, is our solar system's largest
21. The Canadian Shield is the visible part of the North volcanic cone.
American craton. 46. Mt. St. Helens is in Washington
22. North America and Africa formed the Southern
47. Magma Compositions and Lava Eruptions
Type Silica Thickness Color Movement Dissolved Nature of Cone
Gases Eruption Shape
felsic higher thick light slow cannot escape explosive steep-sided
mafic lower thin dark more rapid escape easily smoothly broed-based
48. Features of shoreline erosion include cliffs, caves, arches 59. Baymouth bars, spits and lagoons are from shoreline
and stacks. deposition.
49. Earthquakes affect a larger area than volcanoes. 60. The seismic moment scale is more accurate than the Richter.
50. Active volcanoes erupt constantly, intermittent erupt - fairly 61. The most devasatation happens at the quakes epicenter.
regularly, dormant have become inactive, extinct have been 62. Epicenters can be found with 3 seismographic stations.
inactive since recorded time. 63. Deep, ancient faults = quakes at middle of plate.
51. Earthquake movement along the fault occurs at the focus. 64. Active continental margins occur at plate boundaries.
52. Seismic waves are produced by earthquakes. Under H20 = 65. Continental collisions are forming the Himilayas, ocean
tsunami crust subducting under continental crust = mt. on continent.
53. A major quake can be followed by an aftershock. 66. Passive cont. margins = stable areas, shallow waters.
54. P waves are primary, compressional, fastest, and travel 67. Syncline = U shaped fold in rock, an upfold = anticline.
through anything. S waves are secondary, and can't travel 68. Reverse fault = one side of fault plane driven up over the
through liquid or gas." L waves are surface waves travelling other. Normal fault = one side sliding down incline.
outward from the epicenter. 69. 70% seafloor to 30% land = earth proportions.
55. Seismographs record vibrations in the earth. 70. 35 g dissolved salt in 1000 g of seawater or 3.5%.
56. Total energy released by a quake is magnitude. It is 71. Evaporation and freezing cause salinity increase.
measured by the Richter Scale. 72. Mining most minerals is cheaper on land.(exception:
57. Distance to epicenter can be found by 1 seismograph station. magnesium)
58. The Moho is between the crust and the mantle. 73. Electrical conductivity can test for salinity.
74. Sodium and chloride are the most abundant seawater 118. Neutron star = dying star with extremely dense mass.
elements. 119. White dwarf = small star close to end of life.
75. Precision depth recorder measures ocean depth. 120. Black hole = very dense star with huge gravitational field.
76. Alvin, Jason Jr., Argo, JOIDES resolution are used for 121. Cool bright star = red giant.
oceanographic research. H.M.S. Challenger was used 1872. 122. 90% of all stars = main sequence. 2 most abundant
77. Submarine canyons are ancient riverbeds below sea level. elements: Helium/Hydrogen.
78. Continental rivers provide material for abyssal plain which 123. Galaxy = star system of millions or billions
is located between mid ocean ridge & continental rise. 124. Big Bang Theory = best explanation for forming galaxies.
79. Identify abyssal plain, seamount, m.o.ridge, cont. shelf & 125. Galaxies = irregular, spiral, elliptical.
slope from sketch of ocean floor. 126. Photosphere = bright yellow sun surface we see.
80. Recently discovered buried under sediments, abyssal hills 127. Core = where fusion in sun takes place.
are thought to be ancient parts of m.o. ridge. 128. Einstein developed math relationship between matter and
81. Ooze = sediments on ocean floor from organic material energy.(E=mc )
(plant/animal remains). 129. Solar wind = Steady stream of electrically charged
82. Sargasso Sea = quiet water in center of N. Atlantic Ocean. particles given off by the sun.
83. Wind sets ocean currents in motion. It is named after the 130. Asteroids can be seen only with a telescope.
direction it is coming from. 131. Copernicus proposed heliocentric theory of solar system.
84. The Gulf Stream current travels along eastern U.S. coast. 132. Gravitational pull increases as mass increases.
85. Surface currents clockwise in N. Hemisphere, 133. Kepler developed 3 laws of planetary motion.
counterclockwise in S. Hemisphere. 134. Water & sediment is moved along beaches by swash,
86. Optical telescopes shouldn't be in large cities because city backwash, longshore & rip currents.
lights overpower starlight. 135. Orbit = path of planet around sun.
87. Telescopes work better than the human eye because of 136. Planets and asteroids are part of our solar system.
larger lens size. They need to move to stay pointed at the same 137. Comet = ice, gas & dust chunk moving around sun.
star. 138. Meteorite = rock object from space that struck earth.
88. Refracting telescopes use lenses, reflecting use mirrors to 139. Running water as an agent of erosion does not include
gather starlight. water vapor carried by winds.
89. Binoculars work like refracting telescopes. 140. Suspended material makes water look muddy.
90. Spin-casting is used when making telescope mirrors. 141. Material in solution relies on the least amount of
91. Hubble Space Telescope's major advantage is that it is turbulence.
outside earth's atmosphere. 142. Increasing steepness of riverbed won’t increase water
92. Radio telescopes are larger than optical ones because radio volume.
waves are much longer than optical waves. 143. Elevation above sea level has the least affect on time
93. Radio telescope arrays locate and find distances to objects in needed for a river to form a canyon.
space. 144. Youthful streams in mountian regions won’t have oxbow
94. Radio astronomers can collect data anytime. lakes.
95. Optical telescopes observe visible light. 145. Deltas and alluvial fans have the same shape on the top
96. Electromagnetic energy forms all have the same speed. surface.
97. The spectroscope is a star's fingerprint. It separates light into 146. Floodplains make fertile agricultural areas.
color bands. 147. Flash floods can be caused by rapid snowmelt.
98. Some astronomical objects can only be detected by radio 148. Soft bedrock and dry climate = small steep sided gully
waves. forming quickly and remaining unchanged for long time.
99. Electromagnetic waves = energy travelling from stars. 149. Niagra Falls is a famous example of recession by
100. Blue spectrum shift indicates distance between earth and undermining.
star is decreasing. 150. Waterfall receded 1 m every 100 yrs. Will take 100,000
101. Continuous spectrum = rainbow yrs. to recede 1 km.
102. Violet is refracted most by a prism. 151. River will deposit all its sediment if flows into lake.
103. Constellation Cassiopela contains pointer stars for Polaris. 152. Particles rolling and sliding along the stream bed =
104. An AU (astronomical unit) measures distance from the sun bedload.
to Earth (about 150 million kilometers). 153. Velocity is how fast the water is traveling in the stream.
105. 10 LY = distance light travels in 10 years. 154. Meanders and oxbow lakes characterize an old age stream.
106. Constellations = groups of stars in night sky. 155. A gully is a small V-shaped valley formed by heavy rain.
107. Apparent magnitude = how bright star appears to be. 156. Water shed is all the land drained by a stream & tributaries.
108. Absolute magnitude = how bright star truly is. (if all stars 157. Alluvial fans at base of Rockies & Sierras.
were 32 LY from sun)
109. Higher # on magnitude scale = dimmer star.
110. Stars we see in our night sky vary during the year.
111. H-R diagram = relationship between hotness and
brightness of star.
112. The sun = yellow star
113. White dwarf = faint, dim, hot star.
114. Blue star = very hot surface temp.
115. Sand dune types = barchan, parabolic, transverse,
116. Protostar stage = begin life fusion, glowing.
117. Red giant = fuel almost gone, star begins expanding.