Earth Science Mid Term Review by panniuniu


									Earth Science Mid Term Review

Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the
sentence or statement true.

____    1. Earth’s core consists of an outer, liquid part and an inner, solid part. _________________________
____    2. Earth’s atmosphere contains about 78 percent carbon dioxide. _________________________
____    3. The biosphere includes all organisms that live within a few meters of Earth’s surface, at the bottom of oceans,
           and on the tops of mountains. _________________________
____    4. Scientific laws and theories cannot change. _________________________
____    5. About 97 percent of Earth’s water is salt water. _________________________
____    6. There are at least 3000 known minerals in Earth’s crust. _________________________
____    7. Minerals can be identified based on their physical and chemical properties. _________________________
____    8. The classification of a mineral as an ore does not change once it has been mined.
____    9. Trace elements in a mineral do not affect the color or the value of mineral. _________________________
____ 10. Different minerals melt and crystallize at different temperatures. _________________________
____ 11. Igneous rocks can be identified by their physical properties of crystal size and texture.
____ 12. Igneous rocks are rarely used as building materials because of their strength, durability, and beauty.
____ 13. Diamonds are sometimes found in igneous intrusions known as kimberlites. _________________________
____ 14. Eroded materials are almost always carried uphill. _________________________
____ 15. When the concentration of minerals dissolved in water reaches saturation, crystals precipitate out of solution.

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 16. What is the latitude of the north pole?
         a. 0° north                                      c. 180° north
         b. 90° north                                     d. 360° north
____ 17. Each degree of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called
         a. meridians.                                    c. seconds.
         b. grids.                                        d. minutes.
____ 18. Which statement about lines of longitude is true?
         a. They converge at the equator.
         b. They converge at the poles.
         c. They are parallel.
         d. They locate positions in north and south directions.
____ 19. Into how many time zones is Earth divided?
         a. 12                                              c. 24
         b. 15                                              d. 360
____ 20. All flat maps distort either the shapes or the areas of landmasses because
         a. the boundaries of landmasses are not known with certainty.
         b. such large structures cannot be drawn accurately.
         c. lines of latitude are not perfectly parallel.
         d. Earth is a curved, three-dimensional object.
____ 21. What is a graphic scale?
         a. a statement that expresses distance, such as one centimeter equals one kilometer
         b. a ratio that expresses distance, such as 1:50 000
         c. a line broken into sections that represent units with each section representing a distance on
             Earth’s surface
         d. a diagram that shows the elevation of the hills and valleys of an area
____ 22. The nucleus of an atom is made up of
         a. electrons and neutrons.
         b. protons, neutrons, and electrons.
         c. protons and electrons.
         d. protons and neutrons.
____ 23. Many elements are mixtures of
         a. solids.                                         c. molecules.
         b. isotopes.                                       d. valence electrons.
____ 24. Chemical behavior is determined by the number of electrons located in the
         a. innermost energy level.                         c. third energy level.
         b. second energy level.                            d. outermost energy level.
____ 25. Solutions containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water are
         a. bases.                                          c. elements.
         b. solids.                                         d. acids.
____ 26. Densely packed arrangements of particles that take the shape of their containers are
         a. solids.                                         c. gases.
         b. liquids.                                        d. plasmas.
____ 27. Which of the following changes of state releases thermal energy?
         a. melting                                         c. condensation
         b. sublimation                                     d. evaporation
____ 28. What type of bonding takes place when Na and Cl–- combine to form NaCl?

         a. ionic                                           c. covalent
         b. hydrogen                                        d. metallic
____ 29. Soil is an example of a
         a. homogeneous mixture.                            c. solution.
         b. solid solution.                                 d. heterogeneous mixture.
____ 30. An atom in which the outermost energy level is more than half full tends to form which of the following ions?
         a. positive ions
         b. negative ions
         c. both positive and negative ions
         d. neither positive nor negative ions
____ 31. Tomatoes have a pH of 4. They are considered to be
         a. acidic.                                         c. neutral.
         b. basic.                                          d. both acidic and basic.
____ 32. Igneous rocks are formed when magma
         a. erodes.                                       c. crystallizes.
         b. undergoes radioactive decay.                  d. weathers.
____ 33. Igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s crust are
         a. extrusive.                                    c. sedimentary.
         b. intrusive.                                    d. always magnetic.
____ 34. Igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface are
         a. extrusive.                                    c. metamorphic.
         b. intrusive.                                    d. always magnetic.
____ 35. Extrusive rocks, which cool more rapidly than intrusive rocks, are generally more
         a. coarsely grained.                             c. radioactive.
         b. finely grained.                               d. magnetic.
____ 36. Factors that affect a rock’s melting point include
         a. pressure and water content.                   c. rarity.
         b. value as a gem.                               d. usefulness as a building material.
____ 37. Valuable ore deposits and gem crystals are often associated with
         a. oceans.                                       c. thin crustal areas.
         b. oil deposits.                                 d. igneous intrusions.
____ 38. Which of the following characteristics of water can be responsible for mechanical weathering?
         a. Water flows downstream under gravity.
         b. Water expands when it freezes.
         c. Water combines with atmospheric gases to form acid precipitation.
         d. Water reacts with and can dissolve many kinds of minerals.
____ 39. In which of the following areas is wind a major erosional agent?
         a. grasslands                                    c. deserts
         b. temperate forests                             d. tropical rain forests
____ 40. Which of the following statements is NOT true of soil?
         a. It is a loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter.
         b. There is one kind of soil in the United States.
         c. Living organisms add nutrients to it.
         d. It takes a long time to form.
____ 41. Which of the following could increase the rate of chemical weathering of a rock?
         a. moving it to a location with few plants and animals
         b. moving it to a drier climate
         c. increasing its total surface area
         d. moving it to a colder climate
____ 42. Which of the following happens when a river enters a large body of water?
         a. The river water slows down and deposits large amounts of sediments.
         b. The river water increases its speed and carries out gully erosion.
         c. The river water flows over the delta, causing exfoliation.
         d. The river water erodes the shoreline and deposits barrier islands.
____ 43. The color of a soil
         a. is a reliable indicator of its fertility.
         b. is always dark brown or black.
         c. is not dependent on the amount of humus.
         d. is determined by its composition and climate.
____ 44. Which of the following statements is NOT true of soils in sloped areas?
         a. Smaller particles remain on the slopes, while coarser particles move downslope.
         b. Soils on slopes tend to be infertile.
         c. Valley soils are usually thick.
         d. South-facing slopes have somewhat thicker soils than slopes facing other directions.
____ 45. There can be no stream erosion or glacial erosion without
         a. gravity.                                     c. wind.
         b. hydrolysis.                                  d. deposition.


           Match the measurement to its matching unit of measurement.
           a. area                                       e. temperature
           b. density                                    f. time
           c. length                                     g. liquid volume
           d. mass                                       h. weight
____ 46. Kelvin
____ 47. liter

           Match the term with the correct definition..
           a. crystal                                     d. mineral
           b. gem                                         e. ore
           c. magma                                       f. silicate
____ 48. Solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns
____ 49. Mineral that contains silicon and oxygen
____ 50. Mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
Earth Science Mid Term
Answer Section


     1.   ANS:   T
     2.   ANS:   F, nitrogen
     3.   ANS:   T
     4.   ANS:   F, can
     5.   ANS:   T
     6.   ANS:   T
     7.   ANS:   T
     8.   ANS:   F, can change
     9.   ANS:   F, can affect
    10.   ANS:   T
    11.   ANS:   T
    12.   ANS:   F, often
    13.   ANS:   T
    14.   ANS:   F, downhill
    15.   ANS:   T


    16.   ANS:   B
    17.   ANS:   D
    18.   ANS:   B
    19.   ANS:   C
    20.   ANS:   D
    21.   ANS:   C
    22.   ANS:   D
    23.   ANS:   B
    24.   ANS:   D
    25.   ANS:   D
    26.   ANS:   B
    27.   ANS:   C
    28.   ANS:   A
    29.   ANS:   D
    30.   ANS:   B
    31.   ANS:   A
    32.   ANS:   C
    33.   ANS:   B
    34.   ANS:   A
    35.   ANS:   B
    36.   ANS:   A
    37.   ANS:   D
    38.   ANS:   B
   39.   ANS:   C
   40.   ANS:   B
   41.   ANS:   C
   42.   ANS:   A
   43.   ANS:   D
   44.   ANS:   A
   45.   ANS:   A


   46. ANS: E
   47. ANS: G

   48. ANS: A
   49. ANS: F
   50. ANS: E

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